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1.
J Adv Res ; 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609050

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is estimated that 90% of hyperuricemia cases are attributed to the inability to excrete uric acid (UA). The two main organs in charge of excreting UA are the kidney (70%) and intestine (30%). Previous studies have reported that punicalagin (PU) could protect against kidney and intestinal damages, which makes it a potential candidate for alleviating hyperuricemia. However, the effects and deeper action mechanisms of PU for managing hyperuricemia are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and action mechanisms of PU for ameliorating hyperuricemia. METHODS: The effects and action mechanisms of PU on hyperuricemia were assessed using a hyperuricemia mice model. Phenotypic parameters, metabolomics analysis, and 16S rRNA sequencing were applied to explore the effect and fundamental action mechanisms inside the kidney and intestine of PU for improving hyperuricemia. RESULTS: PU administration significantly decreased elevated serum uric acid (SUA) levels in hyperuricemia mice, and effectively alleviated the kidney and intestinal damage caused by hyperuricemia. In the kidney, PU down-regulated the expression of UA resorption protein URAT1 and GLUT9, while up-regulating the expression of UA excretion protein ABCG2 and OAT1 as mediated via the activation of MAKP/NF-κB in hyperuricemia mice. Additionally, PU attenuated renal glycometabolism disorder, which contributed to improving kidney dysfunction and inflammation. Similarly, PU increased UA excretion protein expression via inhibiting MAKP/NF-κB activation in the intestine of hyperuricemia mice. Furthermore, PU restored gut microbiota dysbiosis in hyperuricemia mice. CONCLUSION: This research revealed the ameliorating impacts of PU on hyperuricemia by restoring kidney and intestine damage in hyperuricemia mice, and to be considered for the development of nutraceuticals used as UA-lowering agent.

2.
RSC Adv ; 14(15): 10799-10813, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572341

RESUMO

Piper nigrum L. (black and white peppercorn) is one of the most common culinary spices used worldwide. The current study aims to dissect pepper metabolome using 1H-NMR targeting of its major primary and secondary metabolites. Eighteen metabolites were identified with piperine detected in black and white pepper at 20.2 and 23.9 µg mg-1, respectively. Aroma profiling using HS-SPME coupled to GC-MS analysis and in the context of autoclave treatment led to the detection of a total of 52 volatiles with an abundance of ß-caryophyllene at 82% and 59% in black and white pepper, respectively. Autoclaving of black and white pepper revealed improvement of pepper aroma as manifested by an increase in oxygenated compounds' level. In vitro remote antimicrobial activity against food-borne Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria revealed the highest activity against P. aeruginosa (VP-MIC 16.4 and 12.9 mg mL-1) and a direct effect against Enterobacter cloacae at ca. 11.6 mg mL-1 for both white and black pepper.

3.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 23(3): e13339, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578165

RESUMO

The importance of food quality and safety lies in ensuring the best product quality to meet consumer demands and public health. Advanced technologies play a crucial role in minimizing the risk of foodborne illnesses, contamination, drug residue, and other potential hazards in food. Significant materials and technological advancements have been made throughout the food supply chain. Among them, quantum dots (QDs), as a class of advanced nanomaterials with unique physicochemical properties, are progressively demonstrating their value in the field of food quality and safety. This review aims to explore cutting-edge research on the different applications of QDs in food quality and safety, including encapsulation of bioactive compounds, detection of food analytes, food preservation and packaging, and intelligent food freshness indicators. Moreover, the modification strategies and potential toxicities of diverse QDs are outlined, which can affect performance and hinder applications in the food industry. The findings suggested that QDs are mainly used in analyte detection and active/intelligent food packaging. Various food analytes can be detected using QD-based sensors, including heavy metal ions, pesticides, antibiotics, microorganisms, additives, and functional components. Moreover, QD incorporation aided in improving the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of film/coatings, resulting in extended shelf life for packaged food. Finally, the perspectives and critical challenges for the productivity, toxicity, and practical application of QDs are also summarized. By consolidating these essential aspects into this review, the way for developing high-performance QD-based nanomaterials is presented for researchers and food technologists to better capitalize upon this technology in food applications.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5752, 2024 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459176

RESUMO

Herbal spices are widely consumed as food additives owing to their distinct aroma and taste as well as a myriad of economic and health value. The aroma profile of four major spices including bay leaf, black pepper, capsicum, and fennel was tested using HS-SPME/GC-MS and in response to the most widely used spices´ processing methods including autoclaving and γ-radiation at low and high doses. Additionally, the impact of processing on microbial contamination of spices was tested using total aerobic count. GC-MS analysis led to the identification of 22 volatiles in bay leaf, 34 in black pepper, 23 in capsicum, and 24 in fennel. All the identified volatiles belonged to oxides/phenols/ethers, esters, ketones, alcohols, sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons. Oxides/phenol/ethers were detected at high levels in all tested spices at ca. 44, 28.2, 48.8, 61.1%, in bay leaves, black pepper, capsicum, and fennel, respectively of the total blend and signifying their typical use as spices. Total oxides/phenol/ethers showed an increase in bay leaf upon exposure to γ-radiation from 44 to 47.5%, while monoterpene hydrocarbons were enriched in black pepper upon autoclaving from 11.4 in control to reach 65.9 and 82.6% for high dose and low dose of autoclaving, respectively. Cineole was detected in bay leaf at 17.9% and upon exposure to autoclaving at high dose and γ-radiation (both doses) its level increased by 29-31%. Both autoclaving and γ-radiation distinctly affected aroma profiles in examined spices. Further, volatile variations in response to processing were assessed using multivariate data analysis (MVA) revealing distinct separation between autoclaved and γ-radiated samples compared to control. Both autoclaving at 115 °C for 15 min and radiation at 10 kGy eliminated detected bioburden in all tested spices i.e., reduced the microbial counts below the detection limit (< 10 cfu/g).


Assuntos
Foeniculum , Piper nigrum , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Fenol/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Quimiometria , Especiarias , Monoterpenos/análise , Éteres , Óxidos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2809, 2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307932

RESUMO

Microalgae species are of economic importance regarded as "green gold" being rich in bioactive compounds. Spirulina and Chlorella are the most popular microalgal species and are marketed as healthy food supplements. At the same time, Amphora holds potential as a source of healthy lipids and essential fatty acids. Yet, there are considerable variations in their reported chemical composition, and less is known about their compositional differences. A multiplexed metabolomic approach was adopted for the quality control (QC) of Spirulina supplements and to compare its constitutive metabolome to Chlorella and Amphora. The adopted protocol comprised gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS/MS), and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis) for mapping their primary and secondary metabolome. Interestingly, UPLC-HRMS/MS analysis delineated the abundance of fatty acids in Amphora versus glycolipids enrichment in Spirulina, and porphyrins were the main pigments identified in Spirulina, with scarce occurrence in Chlorella. Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) analysis of GC-MS data set revealed palmitic acid, 3-mannobiose, and glyceryl-glycoside as being most enriched in Spirulina, versus sucrose and leucine in Chlorella and Amphora, respectively. Despite being of low discriminatory potential, UV/Vis OPLS-DA modeling showed that Spirulina was distinguished with the UV absorbances of carotenoids and chlorophyll pigments, as indicated by its OPLS-DA derived S-plot. Our study provides a QC approach for the analysis of the microalgal species and poses alternative spectral and compositional markers for their discrimination.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microalgas , Spirulina , Chlorella/química , Spirulina/química , Quimiometria , Suplementos Nutricionais
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2886, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311611

RESUMO

Increasing attention has been given to mango (Mangifera indica) fruits owing to their characteristic taste, and rich nutritional value. Mango kernels are typically discarded as a major waste product in mango industry, though of potential economic value. The present study aims to outline the first comparison of different mango kernel cvs. originated from different localities alongside Egypt, e.g., Sharqia, Suez, Ismailia, and Giza. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) post silylation analysis revealed that sugars were the major class being detected at 3.5-290.9 µg/mg, with some kernels originating from Sharqia province being the richest amongst other cvs. In consistency with sugar results, sugar alcohols predominated in Sharqia cvs. at 1.3-38.1 µg/mg represented by ribitol, iditol, pinitol, and myo-inositol. No major variation was observed in the fatty acids profile either based on cv. type or localities, with butyl caprylate as a major component in most cvs. identified for the first time in mango. Regarding phenolics, Sedeeq cv. represented the highest level at 18.3 µg/mg and showing distinct variation among cvs. posing phenolics as better classification markers than sugars. Multivariate data analyses (MVA) confirmed that the premium cvs "Aweis and Fons" were less enriched in sugars, i.e., fructose, talose, and glucose compared to the other cvs. Moreover, MVA of Zabdeya cv. collected from three localities revealed clear segregation to be chemically distinct. Sharqia originated mango kernels were rich in sugars (e.g., glucose and fructose), whilst sarcosine esters predominated in other origins.


Assuntos
Mangifera , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mangifera/química , Egito , Resíduos/análise , Frutas/química , Açúcares/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 446: 138739, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412807

RESUMO

Nowadays, due to the rise of fast-food consumption, the metabolic diseases are increasing as a result of high-sugar and high-fat diets. Therefore, there is an urgent need for natural, healthy and side-effect-free diets in daily life. Whole grain supplementation can enhance satiety and regulate energy metabolism, effects that have been attributed to polyphenol content. Dietary polyphenols interact with gut microbiota to produce intermediate metabolites that can regulate appetite while also enhancing prebiotic effects. This review considers how interactions between gut metabolites and dietary polyphenols might regulate appetite by acting on the gut-brain axis. In addition, further advances in the study of dietary polyphenols and gut microbial metabolites on energy metabolism and gut homeostasis are summarized. This review contributes to a better understanding of how dietary polyphenols regulate appetite via the gut-brain axis, thereby providing nutritional references for citizens' dietary preferences.


Assuntos
Apetite , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Homeostase
9.
Inflammopharmacology ; 32(2): 1091-1112, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38294617

RESUMO

Erigeron bonariensis is widely distributed throughout the world's tropics and subtropics. In folk medicine, E. bonariensis has historically been used to treat head and brain diseases. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most widespread form of dementia initiated via disturbances in brain function. Herein, the neuroprotective effect of the chemically characterized E. bonariensis ethanolic extract is reported for the first time in an AD animal model. Chemical profiling was conducted using UPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Female rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX) followed by 42 days of D-galactose (D-Gal) administration (150 mg/kg/day, i.p) to induce AD. The OVX/D-Gal-subjected rats received either donepezil (5 mg/kg/day) or E. bonariensis at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, given 1 h prior to D-Gal. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis identified 42 chemicals, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, terpenes, and nitrogenous constituents. Several metabolites, such as isoschaftoside, casticin, velutin, pantothenic acid, xanthurenic acid, C18-sphingosine, linoleamide, and erucamide, were reported herein for the first time in Erigeron genus. Treatment with E. bonariensis extract mitigated the cognitive decline in the Morris Water Maze test and the histopathological alterations in cortical and hippocampal tissues of OVX/D-Gal-subjected rats. Moreover, E. bonariensis extract mitigated OVX/D-Gal-induced Aß aggregation, Tau hyperphosphorylation, AChE activity, neuroinflammation (NF-κBp65, TNF-α, IL-1ß), and apoptosis (Cytc, BAX). Additionally, E. bonariensis extract ameliorated AD by increasing α7-nAChRs expression, down-regulating GSK-3ß and FOXO3a expression, and modulating Jak2/STAT3/NF-ĸB p65 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades. These findings demonstrate the neuroprotective and memory-enhancing effects of E. bonariensis extract in the OVX/D-Gal rat model, highlighting its potential as a promising candidate for AD management.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Erigeron , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Ratos , Feminino , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico
10.
Phytomedicine ; 124: 155296, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes belongs to the most prevalent metabolic diseases worldwide, which is featured with insulin resistance, closely associated with obesity and urgently needs to be treated. Baicalin, belonging to natural flavonoids, has been reported to inhibit oxidative stress or inflammatoin. PURPOSE: This study investigated the properties of baicalin on modulating abnormal glucolipid metabolism, as well as the underlying in-vitro and in-vivo mechanisms. METHODS: Insulin-resistant (IR)-HepG2 cells were stimulated by dexamethasone (20 µM) and high glucose (50 mM) for 48 h and incubated with or without baicalin or metformin for another 16 h. Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 60 % kcal% fat) during the total 14 weeks. Obese mice were then administered with baicalin (50 and 100 mg/kg) or vehicle solution everyday through oral gavage during the last 4-week period. Moreover, baicalin metabolisms in vitro and in vivo were determined using UPLC/MS/MS to study its metabolism situation. RESULTS: Exposure to dexamethasone and high glucose damaged the abilities of glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake with elevated oxidative stress and increased generation levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in HepG2 cells. These impairments were basically reversed by baicalin treatment. Four-week oral administration with baicalin ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in HFD-induced obese and pre-diabetic mice. Downregulation of IRS/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway accomplished with reduced GLUT4 expression and enhanced GSK-3ß activity was observed in insulin resistant HepG2 cells as well as liver tissues from pre-diabetic mice; and such effect was prevented by baicalin. Moreover, baicalin and its matabolites were detected in IR-HepG2 cells and mouse plasma. CONCLUSION: The study illustrated that baicalin alleviated insulin resistance by activating insulin signaling pathways and inhibiting oxidative stress and AGEs production, revealing the potential of baicalin to be a therapeutic natural flavonoid against hepatic insulin and glucose-lipid metabolic disturbance in pre-diabetes accompanied with obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Resistência à Insulina , Estado Pré-Diabético , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos Obesos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais , Fígado , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 321: 117519, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38043752

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ficus benghalensis, commonly known as Banyan Fig, is the national tree of India and its aerial roots are used traditionally to treat female reproductive disorders. However, despite this traditional use, no pharmacological evidence could be traced supporting this use. Additionally, no comprehensive metabolite profiling was reported for F. benghalensis aerial roots. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study attempts to justify biochemically the traditional use of F. benghalensis aerial roots in treatment of female reproductive disorders and in relation to its secondary metabolite profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total ethanol extract (TEE) and subfractions [petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and n-butanol (BUF] were prepared from air-dried powdered aerial roots of F. benghalensis. Detailed in-vivo investigation of the hormonal activity and action mechanism of the total ethanol extract and subfractions was carried out through evaluation of estrogenic and gonadotropic activities. The estrogenic activity was evaluated on ovariectomized immature female rats through estimating uterine weight, vaginal cornification and serum estradiol level along with histological examination of uteri. The gonadotropic activity was measured by assay of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) like activities. Total follicular and corpora lutea counts in immature female rats were used to determine FSH and LH like activities, respectively in addition to histological picture of the genitalia. Comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling was carried out for the TEE and subfractions using UPLC-HRMS in negative and positive ionization modes. UPLC-MS fingerprint was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares analyses to correlate the bioactivities to specific chemical constituents in F. benghalensis different subfractions. GC-MS was further used for non-polar silylated fractions. RESULTS: Results revealed that only the non-polar PEF and CHF displayed moderate estrogenic and FSH-like activities but with no LH-like activity. Metabolites profiling via (UPLC-HRMS) and multivariate PCA analysis enabled identification and comparison of various chemical classes in F. benghalensis extract and fractions. The active non-polar fractions revealed nearly similar metabolites profile being composed of isoflavonoids, triterpenes, sterols, fatty acids and cyclic peptides. In contrast, polar fractions were more abundant in apocarotenoids, fatty acyl amides, hydroxybenzoates and hydroxycinnamates in addition to two lignans. PLS analysis revealed strong correlation between hydroxylated fatty acids and pyranoisoflavones with estrogenic and FSH-like activities. GC-MS analysis was further employed for non-polar fractions profiling revealing for their enrichment in fatty acids/esters, terpenes, organic acids and phenolics. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to rationalize the use of F. benghalensis aerial root traditionally in treatment of gynecological disorders, revealing that the petroleum ether and chloroform non-polar subfractions of F. benghalensis showed estrogenic and FSH-like activity with absence of LH-like activity. This biological activity could possibly be attributed to its metabolites profile of isoflavonoids, fatty acids, triterpenes, sterols and cyclic peptides identified via UPLC-MS and GC-MS techniques. Consequently, F. benghalensis aerial roots should be used with caution in traditional treatment of female infertility or other reproductive disorders.


Assuntos
Ficus , Triterpenos , Feminino , Ratos , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Clorofórmio , Ratos Endogâmicos BUF , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Etanol , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Peptídeos Cíclicos , Esteróis
12.
Phytother Res ; 38(2): 662-693, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37966040

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a globally metabolic endocrine syndrome marked by a deficiency of insulin secretion (type-1 DM) or glucose intolerance arising from insulin response impairment (type-2 DM) leading to abnormal glucose metabolism. With an increasing interest in natural dietary components for diabetes management, the identification of novel agents witnessed major discoveries. Plant-derived mucilage, pectin, and inulin are important non-starch polysaccharides that exhibit effective antidiabetic properties often termed soluble dietary fiber (SDF). SDF affects sugar metabolism through multiple mechanisms affecting glucose absorption and diffusion, modulation of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), ameliorating ß-pancreatic cell dysfunction, and improving insulin release or sensitivity. Certain SDFs inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and influence the expression levels of genes related to glucose metabolism. This review is designed to discuss holistically and critically the antidiabetic effects of major SDF and their underlying mechanisms of action. This review should aid drug discovery approaches in developing novel natural antidiabetic drugs from SDF.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipoglicemiantes , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Inulina , Pectinas/farmacologia , Pectinas/uso terapêutico , Frutanos , Polissacarídeos , Insulina , Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Food Chem ; 438: 137994, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37984001

RESUMO

Foods rich in carbohydrates or fats undergo the Maillard reaction during frying, which promotes the color, flavor and sensory characteristics formation. In the meanwhile, Maillard reaction intermediates and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have a negative impact on food sensory quality and gut homeostasis. This negative effect can be influenced by food composition and other processing factors. Whole grain products are rich in polyphenols, which can capture carbonyl compounds in Maillard reaction, and reduce the production of AGEs during frying. This review summarizes the Maillard reaction production intermediates and AGEs formation mechanism in fried food and analyzes the factors affecting the sensory formation of food. In the meanwhile, the effects of Maillard reaction intermediates and AGEs on gut homeostasis were summarized. Overall, the innovative processing methods about the Maillard reaction are summarized to optimize the sensory properties of fried foods while minimizing the formation of AGEs.


Assuntos
Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Reação de Maillard , Alimentos , Polifenóis , Homeostase
14.
J Adv Res ; 57: 59-76, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The processing of the three major crustaceans (shrimp, lobster, and crab) is associated with inevitable by-products, high waste disposal costs, environmental and human health issues, loss of multiple biomaterials (chitin, protein hydrolysates, lipids, astaxanthin and minerals). Nowadays, these bioresources are underutilized owing to the lack of effective and standardized technologies to convert these materials into valued industrial forms. AIM OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide a holistic overview of the various bioactive ingredients and applications within major crustaceans by-products. This review aims to compare various extraction methods in crustaceans by-products, which will aid identify a more workable platform to minimize waste disposal and maximize its value for best valorization practices. KEY SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS OF REVIEW: The fully integrated applications (agriculture, food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paper industries, etc.) of multiple biomaterials from crustaceans by-products are presented. The pros and cons of the various extraction methods, including chemical (acid and alkali), bioprocesses (enzymatic or fermentation), physical (microwave, ultrasound, hot water and carbonic acid process), solvent (ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents, EDTA) and electrochemistry are detailed. The rapid development of corresponding biotechnological attempts present a simple, fast, effective, clean, and controllable bioprocess for the comprehensive utilization of crustacean waste that has yet to be applied at an industrial level. One feasible way for best valorization practices is to combine innovative extraction techniques with industrially applicable technologies to efficiently recover these valuable components.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Decápodes , Humanos , Animais , Nephropidae , Alimentos Marinhos , Materiais Biocompatíveis
15.
Food Res Int ; 175: 113726, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128987

RESUMO

Ovalbumin (OVA) has been considered as a nutrient carrier for bioactive, which has high nutrition value and multiple properties. Recently, proteins-phenolic acids composite delivery systems have received widespread attention. Therefore, this research aimed to investigate the interaction between OVA and cereal phenolic acids (CPA) to establish delivery systems for bioactive. Spectroscopy results have found that CPA generated complexes with OVA, causing the microenvironment changes of OVA. Ferulic acid (FA), p-coumaric acid (CA), vanillic acid (VA), syringic acid (SY), sinapic acid (SI), and protocatechuic acid (PA) not only quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of OVA, but also altered protein microenvironment. Further investigation showed these complexes were formed by static quenching mode, while hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction were dominant binding forces. Meanwhile, the interaction decreased α-helix contents and increased ß-sheet contents, leading to conformational changes in OVA. Besides, OVA/CPA complexes displayed an increase in hydrophobicity with a reduce in free-SH. After combination with FA, SY, CA, VA, SI, PA, it was found that all formed complexes had superior solubility, emulsifying and antioxidant activities than native OVA. Among them, OVA-PA exhibited the highest emulsifying activity index and emulsion stability index values (36.4 ± 0.39 m2/g and 60.4 ± 0.94 min) and stronger antioxidant activities. Finally, the combination with phenolic acids further improved the digestion efficiency in vitro of OVA. The OVA-CPA complexes showed improved properties for excellent delivery systems. Overall, OVA-CPA complexes could be a good carrier for bioactive, which provided valuable avenues in target delivery system application.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Grão Comestível , Ovalbumina/química , Antioxidantes/química , Digestão
16.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-23, 2023 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38063335

RESUMO

For years, researchers have been tirelessly searching for efficient postharvest preservatives to ensure a sustainable and healthy supply chain of fresh fruits and vegetables. However, the effectiveness of preservatives is significantly influenced by delivery methods employed for preservatives. This work centers on delivery methods of diverse preservatives. It delves into the mechanisms of penetration and internalization that facilitate preservatives diffusion into fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, the study comprehensively reviews various delivery methods and their impact on postharvest quality of these fresh food. Methods include liquid surface impregnation (soaking, vacuum infiltration, spraying) and gaseous fumigation. Additionally, unconventional delivery measures, such as fruit stem delivery, microbubble, and edible coating, are discussed in detail for the first time. It is expected that our work will provide inspiration for future development in academia, industry, and supervision.Through a comprehensive review on preservative delivery methods in fruits and vegetables preservation, it becomes evident that majority of existing studies concentrate on the development and mechanisms of preservatives. However, a notable gap lies in comparative analysis of different delivery methods, despite the direct impact of delivery methods on preservation outcomes. Additionally, emerging delivery techniques have displayed promising potential in enhancing delivery efficiency and likewise preservation effectiveness.


Preservative delivery methods (soaking, vacuum infiltration, spraying, fumigation) directly impact their effectiveness.Delivery efficiency is linked to fruit epidermis, including cuticle, intercellular spaces, and stomata.Research uses varied delivery methods, concentrations, and times for preserving different fruits.Promising preservative delivery methods: microbubble, fruit stem delivery, and edible coating.

17.
Phytochem Anal ; 2023 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38069552

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The genus Clusia L. is mostly recognised for the production of prenylated benzophenones and tocotrienol derivatives. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to map metabolome variation within Clusia minor organs at different developmental stages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total 15 organs/stages (leaf, flower, fruit, and seed) were analysed by UPLC-MS and 1 H- and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC)-NMR-based metabolomics. RESULTS: This work led to the assignment of 46 metabolites, belonging to organic acids(1), sugars(2) phenolic acids(1), flavonoids(3) prenylated xanthones(1) benzophenones(4) and tocotrienols(2). Multivariate data analyses explained the variability and classification of samples, highlighting chemical markers that discriminate each organ/stage. Leaves were found to be rich in 5-hydroxy-8-methyltocotrienol (8.5 µg/mg f.w.), while flowers were abundant in the polyprenylated benzophenone nemorosone with maximum level detected in the fully mature flower bud (43 µg/mg f.w.). Nemorosone and 5-hydroxy tocotrienoloic acid were isolated from FL6 for full structural characterisation. This is the first report of the NMR assignments of 5-hydroxy tocotrienoloic acid, and its maximum level was detected in the mature fruit at 50 µg/mg f.w. Seeds as typical storage organ were rich in sugars and omega-6 fatty acids. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a comparative 1D-/2D-NMR approach to assess compositional differences in ontogeny studies compared with LC-MS exemplified by Clusia organs. Results derived from this study provide better understanding of the stages at which maximal production of natural compounds occur and elucidate in which developmental stages the enzymes responsible for the production of such metabolites are preferentially expressed.

18.
Food Chem X ; 20: 100947, 2023 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38144766

RESUMO

Gingerols represent the main bioactive compounds in ginger drugs mostly Zinigiber officinale (F. Zingebraceae) and account for the biological activities and the strong/pungent flavor in ginger. Ginger (Z. officinale) rhizome is one of the most valued herbal drugs for ailments' treatment in many ayurvedic medicine asides from its culinary applications as a spice. Gingerols and their dehydrated products shogaols are phenolic phytochemicals found in members of the Zingiberaceae family and account for most of their effects including anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. This review entails most of the novel trends related to the extraction, optimization, and formulations of gingerols and shogaols to insure best recoveries and efficacies from their natural resources. Further, it presents a comprehensive overview of the different analytical approaches for the determination of gingerols/shogaols' levels in nutraceuticals to ensure highest quality and for their detection in body fluids for proof of efficacy.

19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 21023, 2023 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38030710

RESUMO

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is among the most important commercial horticultural crops worldwide. The crop quality and production is largely hampered due to the fungal pathogen Alternaria solani causing necrotrophic foliage early blight disease. Crop plants usually respond to the biotic challenges with altered metabolic composition and physiological perturbations. We have deciphered altered metabolite composition, modulated metabolic pathways and identified metabolite biomarkers in A. solani-challenged susceptible tomato variety Kashi Aman using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolomics. Alteration in the metabolite feature composition of pathogen-challenged (m/z 9405) and non-challenged (m/z 9667) plant leaves including 8487 infection-exclusive and 8742 non-infection exclusive features was observed. Functional annotation revealed putatively annotated metabolites and pathway mapping indicated their enrichment in metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, ubiquinone and terpenoid-quinones, brassinosteroids, steroids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, carotenoids, oxy/sphingolipids and metabolism of biotin and porphyrin. PCA, multivariate PLS-DA and OPLS-DA analysis showed sample discrimination. Significantly up regulated 481 and down regulated 548 metabolite features were identified based on the fold change (threshold ≥ 2.0). OPLS-DA model based on variable importance in projection (VIP scores) and FC threshold (> 2.0) revealed 41 up regulated discriminant metabolite features annotated as sphingosine, fecosterol, melatonin, serotonin, glucose 6-phosphate, zeatin, dihydrozeatin and zeatin-ß-D-glucoside. Similarly, 23 down regulated discriminant metabolites included histidinol, 4-aminobutyraldehyde, propanoate, tyramine and linalool. Melatonin and serotonin in the leaves were the two indoleamines being reported for the first time in tomato in response to the early blight pathogen. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-based biomarker analysis identified apigenin-7-glucoside, uridine, adenosyl-homocysteine, cGMP, tyrosine, pantothenic acid, riboflavin (as up regulated) and adenosine, homocyctine and azmaline (as down regulated) biomarkers. These results could aid in the development of metabolite-quantitative trait loci (mQTL). Furthermore, stress-induced biosynthetic pathways may be the potential targets for modifications through breeding programs or genetic engineering for improving crop performance in the fields.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Solanum lycopersicum , Zeatina , Serotonina/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Metabolômica/métodos , Alternaria/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Biomarcadores/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 18420, 2023 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37891358

RESUMO

Guava tree (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) is an economic grown worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Guavas encompass numerous cultivars (cvs.) that were discriminated in previous studies based on leaf morphological features and profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nevertheless, fruit VOCs have also shown outstanding potential for discrimination of other plant taxa, which has not been utilized in guava. Hence, the current study investigates the various guava cvs. harvested from India and Egypt. A total of 5 samples were analyzed by solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results led to the detection of 42 VOCs belonging to aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, in addition to monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Butylated hydroxytoluene and ß-caryophyllene were predominant reaching 77% and 41% in Egyptian and Indian guava, respectively. The impact of probiotic fermentation, i.e., Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. plantarum on aroma profile was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Multivariate data analyses were further applied for samples classification and markers determination, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). PCA score plot showed clear segregation of Egyptian from Indian specimens, whereas OPLS-DA revealed that ß-caryophyllene was associated with white fruit versus 3-butenyl isothiocyanate and muurolol in red fruit type in the case of Indian guava. The richness of Egyptian guava in butylated hydroxytoluene in addition to the presence of vitamin C may potentiate its antioxidant activity, to be followed in subsequent studies regarding its health effects.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Psidium , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Psidium/química , Odorantes/análise , Frutas/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Egito , Hidroxitolueno Butilado , Quimiometria , Probióticos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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