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2.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442015

RESUMO

A magnetic field modifies optical properties and provides valley splitting in a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer. Here we demonstrate a scalable approach to the epitaxial synthesis of MoS2 monolayer on a magnetic graphene/Co system. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we observe a magnetic proximity effect that causes a 20 meV spin-splitting at the Γ̅ point and canting of spins at the K̅ point in the valence band toward the in-plane direction of cobalt magnetization. Our density functional theory calculations reveal that the in-plane spin component at K̅ is localized on Co atoms in the valence band, while in the conduction band it is localized on the MoS2 layer. The calculations also predict a 16 meV spin-splitting at the Γ̅ point and 8 meV K̅-K'¯ valley asymmetry for an out-of-plane magnetization. These findings suggest control over optical transitions in MoS2 via Co magnetization. Our estimations show that the magnetic proximity effect is equivalent to the action of the magnetic field as large as 100 T.

3.
Nature ; 603(7902): 610-615, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322253

RESUMO

The Fermi surface plays an important role in controlling the electronic, transport and thermodynamic properties of materials. As the Fermi surface consists of closed contours in the momentum space for well-defined energy bands, disconnected sections known as Fermi arcs can be signatures of unusual electronic states, such as a pseudogap1. Another way to obtain Fermi arcs is to break either the time-reversal symmetry2 or the inversion symmetry3 of a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal, which results in formation of pairs of Weyl nodes that have opposite chirality4, and their projections are connected by Fermi arcs at the bulk boundary3,5-12. Here, we present experimental evidence that pairs of hole- and electron-like Fermi arcs emerge below the Neel temperature (TN) in the antiferromagnetic state of cubic NdBi due to a new magnetic splitting effect. The observed magnetic splitting is unusual, as it creates bands of opposing curvature, which change with temperature and follow the antiferromagnetic order parameter. This is different from previous theoretically considered13,14 and experimentally reported cases15,16 of magnetic splitting, such as traditional Zeeman and Rashba, in which the curvature of the bands is preserved. Therefore, our findings demonstrate a type of magnetic band splitting in the presence of a long-range antiferromagnetic order that is not readily explained by existing theoretical ideas.

4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(12): e2200217, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35187847

RESUMO

Following the game-changing high-pressure CO (HiPco) process that established the first facile route toward large-scale production of single-walled carbon nanotubes, CO synthesis of cm-sized graphene crystals of ultra-high purity grown during tens of minutes is proposed. The Boudouard reaction serves for the first time to produce individual monolayer structures on the surface of a metal catalyst, thereby providing a chemical vapor deposition technique free from molecular and atomic hydrogen as well as vacuum conditions. This approach facilitates inhibition of the graphene nucleation from the CO/CO2 mixture and maintains a high growth rate of graphene seeds reaching large-scale monocrystals. Unique features of the Boudouard reaction coupled with CO-driven catalyst engineering ensure not only suppression of the second layer growth but also provide a simple and reliable technique for surface cleaning. Aside from being a novel carbon source, carbon monoxide ensures peculiar modification of catalyst and in general opens avenues for breakthrough graphene-catalyst composite production.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(3): 036402, 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35119899

RESUMO

The entanglement of charge density wave (CDW), superconductivity, and topologically nontrivial electronic structure has recently been discovered in the kagome metal AV_{3}Sb_{5} (A=K, Rb, Cs) family. With high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we study the electronic properties of CDW and superconductivity in CsV_{3}Sb_{5}. The spectra around K[over ¯] is found to exhibit a peak-dip-hump structure associated with two separate branches of dispersion, demonstrating the isotropic CDW gap opening below E_{F}. The peak-dip-hump line shape is contributed by linearly dispersive Dirac bands in the lower branch and a dispersionless flat band close to E_{F} in the upper branch. The electronic instability via Fermi surface nesting could play a role in determining these CDW-related features. The superconducting gap of ∼0.4 meV is observed on both the electron band around Γ[over ¯] and the flat band around K[over ¯], implying the multiband superconductivity. The finite density of states at E_{F} in the CDW phase is most likely in favor of the emergence of multiband superconductivity, particularly the enhanced density of states associated with the flat band. Our results not only shed light on the controversial origin of the CDW, but also offer insights into the relationship between CDW and superconductivity.

6.
ACS Omega ; 7(3): 3016-3023, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35097294

RESUMO

Apatite ores are the most important phosphate materials used for the agricultural and livestock chemical production. With the global demand for phosphorous compounds, apatite and other phosphorus-bearing ores are being depleted. The main method of apatite ore enrichment at the moment is the flotation process, the efficiency of which depends on complex heterogeneous processes occurring at the boundary of three phases ("liquid-gas", "solid-liquid", and "solid-gas"). Significant influence on the process have the flotation modes and composition of the reagent mixture, which provide a synergistic effect. The purpose of this work was to investigate the reasons for the synergism of surfactants used in apatite ore flotation with fatty acid-based collectors. The object of the study is a monomineral fraction of apatite, separated from the apatite-nepheline ore of Khibiny deposits. In the course of the work, it was found that the mixture of sodium oleate and phospholane PE65 has a synergistic effect on the mineral surface of apatite during foam flotation. The ratio of reagents was determined at which the maximum synergistic effect was observed.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(18)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577225

RESUMO

In this paper, we used an EEG system to monitor and analyze the cortical activity of children and adults at a sensor level during cognitive tasks in the form of a Schulte table. This complex cognitive task simultaneously involves several cognitive processes and systems: visual search, working memory, and mental arithmetic. We revealed that adults found numbers on average two times faster than children in the beginning. However, this difference diminished at the end of table completion to 1.8 times. In children, the EEG analysis revealed high parietal alpha-band power at the end of the task. This indicates the shift from procedural strategy to less demanding fact-retrieval. In adults, the frontal beta-band power increased at the end of the task. It reflects enhanced reliance on the top-down mechanisms, cognitive control, or attentional modulation rather than a change in arithmetic strategy. Finally, the alpha-band power of adults exceeded one of the children in the left hemisphere, providing potential evidence for the fact-retrieval strategy. Since the completion of the Schulte table involves a whole set of elementary cognitive functions, the obtained results were essential for developing passive brain-computer interfaces for monitoring and adjusting a human state in the process of learning and solving cognitive tasks of various types.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia , Adulto , Atenção , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo
8.
Langmuir ; 37(33): 9952-9963, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374545

RESUMO

Lipid hydroperoxides are key mediators of diseases and cell death. In this work, the structural and dynamic perturbations induced by the hydroperoxidized POPC lipid (POPC-OOH) in fluid POPC membranes, at both 23 and 37 °C, were addressed using advanced small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and fluorescence methodologies. Notably, SAXS reveals that the hydroperoxide group decreases the lipid bilayer bending rigidity. This alteration disfavors the bilayer stacking and increases the swelling in-between stacked bilayers. We further investigated the changes in the apolar/polar interface of hydroperoxide-containing membranes through time-resolved fluorescence/anisotropy experiments of the probe TMA-DPH and time-dependent fluorescence shifts of Laurdan. A shorter mean fluorescence lifetime for TMA-DPH was obtained in enriched POPC-OOH membranes, revealing a higher degree of hydration near the membrane interface. Moreover, a higher microviscosity near TMA-DPH and lower order are predicted for these oxidized membranes, at variance with the usual trend of variation of these two parameters. Finally, the complex relaxation process of Laurdan in pure POPC-OOH membranes also indicates a higher membrane hydration and viscosity in the close vicinity of the -OOH moiety. Altogether, our combined approach reveals that the hydroperoxide group promotes alterations in the membrane structure organization, namely, at the level of membrane order, viscosity, and bending rigidity.


Assuntos
Peróxidos Lipídicos , Fosfatidilcolinas , Polarização de Fluorescência , Bicamadas Lipídicas , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148358, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139490

RESUMO

Surface air temperature is an important factor for the permafrost thermal state in the Northern Hemisphere. It is therefore necessary to understand the variations and regional differences in air temperature to determine the interactions between permafrost degradation and climate change. In this study, we used observational data from the National Centers for Environmental Information, the China Meteorological Administration, and the World Data Centre for Meteorology to quantitatively analyze the variations and regional differences in air temperature from 1980 to 2018. The results demonstrated that the annual mean air temperatures were low in continuous permafrost regions and high in sporadic and isolated permafrost regions, with a significant warming rate of 0.371 ± 0.086 °C/decade. Air temperatures warmed the slowest during the winter and fastest during the spring, and no "warming hiatus" was observed in the permafrost regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The spatial patterns of freezing degree-days (FDDs) and thawing degree-days (TDDs) had different spatial characteristics. The decreasing rate of FDDs was -6.97 °C·days/year, while the increasing rate of TDDs was 6.4 °C·days/year. The air temperatures and warming trends had largely regional differences with respect to high latitude, transitional, and high altitude permafrost regions. Air temperature and its warming trend was the highest in high altitude regions. In addition, air temperature warming trends gradually decreased from the continuous permafrost zone to the island permafrost zone. The FDDs had a significant decreasing trend from the continuous permafrost zone to the island permafrost zone, whereas TDDs exhibited the opposite trend. The results indicate that the air temperature warming rate in the permafrost regions was approximately 2.0 times that of the global warming rate, and 1.3 times the global land warming rate from 1980 to 2018. These findings offer a perspective on the differences in permafrost and its thermal state across different regions under climate change.


Assuntos
Pergelissolo , Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147020, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088165

RESUMO

The Lena, a large river that drains the northern coldest region of the Northern Hemisphere, is deeply influenced by the continuous permafrost and degradation of the frozen ground has been shown to be the main cause of the marked increase in water discharge. The first objective of this study conducted on the middle Lena was to analyze the island dynamics for the last 50 years (1967 to 2017). Several morphological parameters were surveyed using a GIS on seven series of aerial photographs and satellite images of a 100 km-long reach: island size, eroded and deposited areas, position and morphology of the islands. This approach enabled the identification of evolutionary models. Our second objective was to evaluate the potential impact of ongoing climate change. We analyzed morphological parameters with respect to two main factors: efficient discharge (bar-full, bankfull and flood discharges) and water temperature. A potential erosion index (PEI) was calculated by coupling the duration of discharge exceeding the bar-full level and water temperature. The results identified several morphological changes that occurred at the end of the 20th century: an increase in the number of islands, greater eroded surfaces and accelerated migration of islands. Comparing the dynamics of islands with and without permafrost is a good indicator of their sensitivity to climate change. A major change was observed concerning the erosion and migration of islands with and without permafrost. This evolution seems to be linked both with the duration of the discharge that exceeds the bar-full level and with the number of flood peaks. The water temperature in May and August have a major influence on permafrost islands that become increasingly destabilized. Thus, as large rivers are assumed to slowly react to climate change, the recent changes in the Lena River prove that the global change deeply impacts periglacial rivers.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2542, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953174

RESUMO

Lateral heterojunctions of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold promise for applications in nanotechnology, yet their charge transport and most of the spectroscopic properties have not been investigated. Here, we synthesize a monolayer of multiple aligned heterojunctions consisting of quasi-metallic and wide-bandgap GNRs, and report characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, Raman spectroscopy, and charge transport. Comprehensive transport measurements as a function of bias and gate voltages, channel length, and temperature reveal that charge transport is dictated by tunneling through the potential barriers formed by wide-bandgap GNR segments. The current-voltage characteristics are in agreement with calculations of tunneling conductance through asymmetric barriers. We fabricate a GNR heterojunctions based sensor and demonstrate greatly improved sensitivity to adsorbates compared to graphene based sensors. This is achieved via modulation of the GNR heterojunction tunneling barriers by adsorbates.

12.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(12): 2822-2839, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774862

RESUMO

Permafrost thaw leads to thermokarst lake formation and talik growth tens of meters deep, enabling microbial decomposition of formerly frozen organic matter (OM). We analyzed two 17-m-long thermokarst lake sediment cores taken in Central Yakutia, Russia. One core was from an Alas lake in a Holocene thermokarst basin that underwent multiple lake generations, and the second core from a young Yedoma upland lake (formed ~70 years ago) whose sediments have thawed for the first time since deposition. This comparison provides a glance into OM fate in thawing Yedoma deposits. We analyzed total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, n-alkane concentrations, and bacterial and archaeal membrane markers. Furthermore, we conducted 1-year-long incubations (4°C, dark) and measured anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) production. The sediments from both cores contained little TOC (0.7 ± 0.4 wt%), but DOC values were relatively high, with the highest values in the frozen Yedoma lake sediments (1620 mg L-1 ). Cumulative greenhouse gas (GHG) production after 1 year was highest in the Yedoma lake sediments (226 ± 212 µg CO2 -C g-1  dw, 28 ± 36 µg CH4 -C g-1  dw) and 3 and 1.5 times lower in the Alas lake sediments, respectively (75 ± 76 µg CO2 -C g-1  dw, 19 ± 29 µg CH4 -C g-1  dw). The highest CO2 production in the frozen Yedoma lake sediments likely results from decomposition of readily bioavailable OM, while highest CH4 production in the non-frozen top sediments of this core suggests that methanogenic communities established upon thaw. The lower GHG production in the non-frozen Alas lake sediments resulted from advanced OM decomposition during Holocene talik development. Furthermore, we found that drivers of CO2 and CH4 production differ following thaw. Our results suggest that GHG production from TOC-poor mineral deposits, which are widespread throughout the Arctic, can be substantial. Therefore, our novel data are relevant for vast ice-rich permafrost deposits vulnerable to thermokarst formation.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Lagos , Regiões Árticas , Biomarcadores , Lipídeos , Metano/análise , Federação Russa , Sibéria
13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(5): 2000777, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717832

RESUMO

Tremendous progress in the development of single molecule magnets (SMMs) raises the question of their device integration. On this route, understanding the properties of low-dimensional assemblies of SMMs, in particular in contact with electrodes, is a necessary but difficult step. Here, it is shown that fullerene SMM self-assembled on metal substrate from solution retains magnetic hysteresis up to 10 K. Fullerene-SMM DySc2N@C80 and Dy2ScN@C80 are derivatized to introduce a thioacetate group, which is used to graft SMMs on gold. Magnetic properties of grafted SMMs are studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and compared to the films of nonderivatized fullerenes prepared by sublimation. In self-assembled films, the magnetic moments of the Dy ions are preferentially aligned parallel to the surface, which is different from the disordered orientation of endohedral clusters in nonfunctionalized fullerenes. Whereas chemical derivatization reduces the blocking temperature of magnetization and narrows the hysteresis of Dy2ScN@C80, for DySc2N@C80 equally broad hysteresis is observed as in the fullerene multilayer. Magnetic bistability in the DySc2N@C80 grafted on gold is sustained up to 10 K. This study demonstrates that self-assembly of fullerene-SMM derivatives offers a facile solution-based procedure for the preparation of functional magnetic sub-monolayers with excellent SMM performance.

14.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136362

RESUMO

Renewed interest in the ferroelectric semiconductor germanium telluride was recently triggered by the direct observation of a giant Rashba effect and a 30-year-old dream about a functional spin field-effect transistor. In this respect, all-electrical control of the spin texture in this material in combination with ferroelectric properties at the nanoscale would create advanced functionalities in spintronics and data information processing. Here, we investigate the atomic and electronic properties of GeTe bulk single crystals and their (111) surfaces. We succeeded in growing crystals possessing solely inversion domains of ∼10 nm thickness parallel to each other. Using HAADF-TEM we observe two types of domain boundaries, one of them being similar in structure to the van der Waals gap in layered materials. This structure is responsible for the formation of surface domains with preferential Te-termination (∼68%) as we determined using photoelectron diffraction and XPS. The lateral dimensions of the surface domains are in the range of ∼10-100 nm, and both Ge- and Te-terminations reveal no reconstruction. Using spin-ARPES we establish an intrinsic quantitative relationship between the spin polarization of pure bulk states and the relative contribution of different terminations, a result that is consistent with a reversal of the spin texture of the bulk Rashba bands for opposite configurations of the ferroelectric polarization within individual nanodomains. Our findings are important for potential applications of ferroelectric Rashba semiconductors in nonvolatile spintronic devices with advanced memory and computing capabilities at the nanoscale.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2033, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341390

RESUMO

Non-symmorphic chiral topological crystals host exotic multifold fermions, and their associated Fermi arcs helically wrap around and expand throughout the Brillouin zone between the high-symmetry center and surface-corner momenta. However, Fermi-arc splitting and realization of the theoretically proposed maximal Chern number rely heavily on the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength. In the present work, we investigate the topological states of a new chiral crystal, PtGa, which has the strongest SOC among all chiral crystals reported to date. With a comprehensive investigation using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, quantum-oscillation measurements, and state-of-the-art ab initio calculations, we report a giant SOC-induced splitting of both Fermi arcs and bulk states. Consequently, this study experimentally confirms the realization of a maximal Chern number equal to ±4 in multifold fermionic systems, thereby providing a platform to observe large-quantized photogalvanic currents in optical experiments.

16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3424, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366883

RESUMO

Spectroscopic detection of Dirac and Weyl fermions in real materials is vital for both, promising applications and fundamental bridge between high-energy and condensed-matter physics. While the presence of Dirac and noncentrosymmetric Weyl fermions is well established in many materials, the magnetic Weyl semimetals still escape direct experimental detection. In order to find a time-reversal symmetry breaking Weyl state we design two materials and present here experimental and theoretical evidence of realization of such a state in one of them, YbMnBi2. We model the time-reversal symmetry breaking observed by magnetization and magneto-optical microscopy measurements by canted antiferromagnetism and find a number of Weyl points. Using angle-resolved photoemission, we directly observe two pairs of Weyl points connected by the Fermi arcs. Our results not only provide a fundamental link between the two areas of physics, but also demonstrate the practical way to design novel materials with exotic properties.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(32): 15907-15913, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320588

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the etiological agent of tuberculosis. One-fourth of the global population is estimated to be infected with Mtb, accounting for ∼1.3 million deaths in 2017. As part of the immune response to Mtb infection, macrophages produce metabolites with the purpose of inhibiting or killing the bacterial cell. Itaconate is an abundant host metabolite thought to be both an antimicrobial agent and a modulator of the host inflammatory response. However, the exact mode of action of itaconate remains unclear. Here, we show that Mtb has an itaconate dissimilation pathway and that the last enzyme in this pathway, Rv2498c, also participates in l-leucine catabolism. Our results from phylogenetic analysis, in vitro enzymatic assays, X-ray crystallography, and in vivo Mtb experiments, identified Mtb Rv2498c as a bifunctional ß-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase and that deletion of the rv2498c gene from the Mtb genome resulted in attenuation in a mouse infection model. Altogether, this report describes an itaconate resistance mechanism in Mtb and an l-leucine catabolic pathway that proceeds via an unprecedented (R)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) stereospecific route in nature.


Assuntos
Leucina/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Succinatos/metabolismo , Aerossóis , Animais , Biocatálise , Ligantes , Liases/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Filogenia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/patologia
18.
Inorg Chem ; 58(8): 4842-4850, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946575

RESUMO

The reduction of Fe-based nanocomposite catalysts doped with Al and Cu has been studied using in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), in situ X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) techniques. The catalysts have been synthesized by melting of iron, aluminum, and copper salts. According to XRD, the catalysts consist mainly of Fe2O3 and Al2O3 phases. Alumina is in an amorphous state, whereas iron oxide forms nanoparticles with the protohematite structure. The Al3+ cations are partially dissolved in the Fe2O3 lattice. Due to strong alumina-iron oxide interaction, the specific surface area of the catalysts increases significantly. TPR and XANES data indicate that copper forms highly dispersed surface CuO nanoparticles and partially dissolves in iron oxide. It has been shown that the reduction of iron(III) oxide by CO proceeds via two routes: a direct two-stage reduction of iron(III) oxide to metal (Fe2O3 → Fe3O4 → Fe) or an indirect three-stage reduction with the formation of FeO intermediate phases (Fe2O3 → Fe3O4 → FeO → Fe). The introduction of Al into Fe2O3 leads to a decrease in the rate for all reduction steps. In addition, the introduction of Al stabilizes small Fe3O4 particles and prevents further sintering of the iron oxide. The mechanism of stabilization is associated with the formation of Fe3- xAl xO4 solid solution. The addition of copper to the Fe-Al catalyst leads to the formation of highly dispersed CuO particles on the catalyst surface and a mixed oxide with a spinel-type crystalline structure similar to that of CuFe2O4. The low-temperature reduction of Cu2+ to Cu0 accelerates the Fe2O3 → Fe3O4 and FeO → Fe transformations but does not affect the Fe3O4 → FeO/Fe stages. These changes in the reduction properties significantly affect the catalytic performance of the Fe-based nanocomposite catalysts in the low-temperature oxidation of CO.

19.
Opt Express ; 27(4): 4612-4628, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876076

RESUMO

The feasibility of in situ quantitative multielemental analysis and production failures detection by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been demonstrated during direct energy deposition process in additive manufacturing. Compact LIBS probe was developed and equipped with the laser cladding head installed at industrial robot for real-time chemical quantitative analysis of key components (Ni, W) during the synthesis of high wear resistant coatings of nickel alloy reinforced with tungsten carbide particles. Owing to non-uniform distribution of tungsten carbide grains in the upper surface layer the only acceptable choice for LIBS sampling was made to the melt pool at growing clad. Laser ablation at powder particles above melt pool was insignificant for LIBS plasma properties due to low intensity and low probability of plasma breakdown at powder particles. No impact of LIBS sampling on cladding process and clad properties was observed according to optical and scanning electron microscopies. The feasibility of in situ LIBS quantitative elemental analysis of key components (tungsten and nickel) has been demonstrated during the cladding process. LIBS analysis results were in good agreement with offline measurements by electron energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Finally, LIBS technique was demonstrated to be a good tool for real-time detection of cladding process failures (poor laser beam quality, undesirable variation of components concentrations).

20.
Nanoscale ; 10(48): 22810-22817, 2018 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488051

RESUMO

Embedding foreign atoms in graphene and interchanging the underlying substrate are proved to be efficient methods for manipulating the properties of graphene. Combining ARPES experiments with DFT calculations we show that boron-doped graphene (B-graphene) grown on a Co(0001) substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) becomes hole doped and its Fermi surface near the K-point reveals strongly spin-polarized states. The latter stems from the spin-polarized mini Dirac cone that is an intrinsic two-dimensional feature of the graphene/Co(0001) interface and is formed by a mixture of C 2pz and Co 3d states. Since the CVD method allows the achievement of up to 20 at% of incorporated B atoms, this provides a certain flexibility for handling the spin-polarized properties of the system. We also show that the bonding of the B-graphene layer to the Co(0001) substrate can be released by intercalation of Li into the interface. This allows the exploration of the doping effect in detail. Finally, our ARPES data indicate a gap opening in the Dirac cone as a result of the highly unbalanced boron concentrations in the two graphene sublattices.

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