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1.
Arch Pharm Res ; 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592582

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is a multifactorial condition characterized by loss of muscle mass. It poses significant health risks in older adults worldwide. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches are reported to address this disease. Certain dietary patterns, such as adequate energy intake and essential amino acids, have shown positive outcomes in preserving muscle function. Various medications, including myostatin inhibitors, growth hormones, and activin type II receptor inhibitors, have been evaluated for their effectiveness in managing sarcopenia. However, it is important to consider the variable efficacy and potential side effects associated with these treatments. There are currently no drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for sarcopenia. The ongoing research aims to develop more effective strategies in the future. Our review of research on disease mechanisms and drug development will be a valuable contribution to future research endeavors.

3.
J Med Virol ; 96(3): e29512, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483056

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have continuously posed a threat to human and animal health. However, existing antiviral drugs are still insufficient in overcoming the challenges caused by multiple strains of CoVs. And methods for developing multi-target drugs are limited in terms of exploring drug targets with similar functions or structures. In this study, four rounds of structural design and modification on salinomycin were performed for novel antiviral compounds. It was based on the strategy of similar topological structure binding properties of protein targets (STSBPT), resulting in the high-efficient synthesis of the optimal compound M1, which could bind to aminopeptidase N and 3C-like protease from hosts and viruses, respectively, and exhibit a broad-spectrum antiviral effect against severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 pseudovirus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, feline infectious peritonitis virus and mouse hepatitis virus. Furthermore, the drug-binding domains of these proteins were found to be structurally similar based on the STSBPT strategy. The compounds screened and designed based on this region were expected to have broad-spectrum and strong antiviral activities. The STSBPT strategy is expected to be a fundamental tool in accelerating the discovery of multiple targets with similar effects and drugs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Animais , Gatos , Camundongos , Suínos , Humanos , Antivirais/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química
4.
Mater Horiz ; 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465992

RESUMO

As a promising candidate for the inkless coloring method, white structural color has undergone widespread investigation because of its fascinating properties. Recently, various methods have been developed to prepare disordered micro/nanostructures to produce white structural color. However, complex and high-cost processing procedures severely restrict the efficient and large-scale preparation of disordered micro/nanostructures for achieving white structural color. Herein, we report an ingenious way to realize white structural color by laser-inducing craze-like microstructures in core-shell microfiber-based polymers. A microfiber with copper nanowires (CuNWs) as the core surrounded by a polyformaldehyde (POM) shell is prepared by a simple in situ fibrillation method. The craze-like microstructures with micro/nanofibrils and micropores are locally constructed in polymers by a facile, efficient, inexpensive, controllable, and environmentally friendly laser direct writing (LDW) technique. Ascribed to the broadband visible light reflection caused by disordered microstructures, the laser-induced craze-like microstructures in polymers based on CuNWs@POM core-shell microfibers exhibit a distinct white structural color. This work paves a way for achieving white structural color and provides a novel insight for utilizing the previously considered useless crazing phenomenon.

5.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 712024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440897

RESUMO

Although parasitic copepods of the genus Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 are globally distributed parasites of fish, their phylogenetic relationships with other Copepoda are not clear, and the characteristics of their mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are not thoroughly understood. The objective of this study was to address these knowledge gaps by sequencing the complete mitogenome of Ergasilus tumidus Markevich, 1940. The complete mitogenome (GenBank Acc. No. OQ596537) was 14,431 bp long and it comprised 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, two tRNAs, and two control regions (CRs). Phylogenetic analyses, conducted using concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes, produced two partially incongruent topologies. While the order Calanoida was consistently resolved as the sister lineage to the other three orders, topological instability was observed in the relationships of the orders Cyclopoida, Siphonostomatoida and Harpacticoida. Siphonostomatoida clustered with Cyclopoida in the nucleotide-based phylogeny, but with Harpacticoida in the amino acid-based phylogeny. The latter topology conforms to the widely accepted relationships, but we speculate that the former topology is more likely to be the correct one. Our study provides a complete mitogenome sequence of E. tumidus, which helps us better understand the molecular evolution of the genus Ergasilus. Additionally, we suggest a different perspective on the controversial phylogenetic relationships among Siphonostomatoida, Cyclopoida and Harpacticoida, diverging from previously accepted views.


Assuntos
Copépodes , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , Copépodes/genética , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Nucleotídeos
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2726, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548723

RESUMO

Polymeric materials, rich in carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen elements, present substantial fire hazards to both human life and property due to their intrinsic flammability. Overcoming this challenge in the absence of any flame-retardant elements is a daunting task. Herein, we introduce an innovative strategy employing catalytic polymer auto-pyrolysis before combustion to proactively release CO2, akin to possessing responsive CO2 fire extinguishing mechanisms. We demonstrate that potassium salts with strong nucleophilicity (such as potassium formate/malate) can transform conventional polyurethane foam into materials with fire safety through rearrangement. This transformation results in the rapid generation of a substantial volume of CO2, occurring before the onset of intense decomposition, effectively extinguishing fires. The inclusion of just 1.05 wt% potassium formate can significantly raise the limiting oxygen index of polyurethane foam to 26.5%, increase the time to ignition by 927%, and tremendously reduce smoke toxicity by 95%. The successful application of various potassium salts, combined with a comprehensive examination of the underlying mechanisms, underscores the viability of this strategy. This pioneering catalytic approach paves the way for the efficient and eco-friendly development of polymeric materials with fire safety.

7.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2309315, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544346

RESUMO

Vps34 is the unique member of the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase family that performs both vesicular transport and autophagy. Its role in natural killer (NK) cells remains uncertain. In this study, a model without Vps34 (Vps34fl/fl/CD122Cre/+) is generated, deleting Vps34 during and after NK-cell commitment. These mice exhibit a nearly 90% decrease in NK cell count and impaired differentiation. A mechanistic study reveals that the absence of Vps34 disrupts the transport of IL-15 receptor subunit alpha CD122 to the cell membrane, resulting in reduced responsiveness of NK cells to IL-15. In mice lacking Vps34 at the terminal stage of NK-cell development (Vps34fl/fl/Ncr1Cre/+), NK cells gradually diminish during aging. This phenotype is associated with autophagy deficiency and the stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, terminally differentiated NK cells lacking Vps34 display an accelerated senescence phenotype, while the application of antioxidants effectively reverses the senescence caused by Vps34 deletion by neutralizing ROS. In summary, this study unveils the dual and unique activity of Vps34 in NK cells. Vps34-mediated vesicular transport is crucial for CD122 membrane trafficking during NK cell commitment, whereas Vps34-mediated autophagy can delay NK cell senescence.

8.
Oncologist ; 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the survival outcomes of patients with initially unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) who underwent or did not undergo salvage surgery followed by a triple combination conversion treatment consisted of locoregional treatment (LRT), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), and anti-PD-1 antibodies. METHODS: The data from 93 consecutive patients with initially unresectable HCC and PVTT across 4 medical centers were retrospectively reviewed. They were converted successfully by the triple combination treatment and underwent or did not undergo salvage resection. The baseline characteristics, conversion schemes, conversion treatment-related adverse events (CTRAEs), overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) of the salvage surgery and non-surgery groups were compared. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for OS and PFS. Additionally, subgroup survival analysis was conducted by stratification of degree of tumor response and type of PVTT. RESULTS: Of the 93 patients, 44 underwent salvage surgery, and 49 did not undergo salvage surgery. The OS and PFS of the salvage surgery and non-surgery groups were not significantly different (P = .370 and .334, respectively). The incidence and severity of CTRAEs of the 2 groups were also comparable. Subgroup analyses revealed that for patients with complete response (CR) or types III-IV PVTT, there was a trend toward better survival in patients who did not undergo salvage surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that baseline α-fetoprotein and best tumor response per mRECIST criteria were independent prognostic factors for OS and PFS. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with initially unresectable HCC and PVTT who were successfully converted by the triple combination therapy, salvage liver resection may not be necessary, especially for the patients with CR or types III-IV PVTT.

9.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04032, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299774

RESUMO

*Joint senior authorship. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have observed the adverse effects of ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) on heart failure (HF). However, evidence regarding the impacts of specific PM2.5 components remains scarce. METHODS: We included 58 129 patients hospitalised for HF between 2013 and 2017 in 11 cities of Shanxi, China from inpatient discharge database. We evaluated exposure to PM2.5 and its components ((sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), organic matter (OM) and black carbon (BC)), along with meteorological factors using bilinear interpolation at each patients' residential address. We used multivariable logistic and linear regression models to assess the associations of these components with in-hospital case fatality, hospital expenses, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: Increase equivalents to the interquartile range (IQR) in OM (odds ratio (OR) = 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.26) and BC (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.26) were linked to in-hospital case fatality. Per IQR increments in PM2.5, SO42-, NO3-, OM, and BC were associated with cost increases of 420.62 (95% CI = 285.75, 555.49), 221.83 (95% CI = 96.95, 346.71), 214.93 (95% CI = 68.66, 361.21), 300.06 (95% CI = 176.96, 423.16), and 303.09 (95% CI = 180.76, 425.42) CNY. Increases of 1 IQR in PM2.5, SO42-, OM, and BC were associated with increases in length of hospital stay of 0.10 (95% CI = 0.02, 0.19), 0.09 (95% CI = 0.02, 0.17), 0.10 (95% CI = 0.03, 0.17), and 0.16 (95% CI = 0.08, 0.23) days. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ambient SO42-, OM, and BC might be significant risk factors for HF, emphasising the importance of formulating customised guidelines for the chemical constituents of PM and controlling the emissions of the most dangerous components.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Tempo de Internação , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
10.
Curr Med Sci ; 44(1): 180-186, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brain metastases significantly impact the clinical course of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to examine the age-related incidence, demographics, and survival of patients with HCC and brain metastases. METHODS: Data of HCC patients from 2010 to 2015 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registry were screened for the presence of brain metastases. They were stratified by age and ethnicity. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with brain metastases and those with overall survival (OS) and liver cancer-specific survival (CSS), respectively. RESULTS: A total of 141 HCC patients presenting with brain metastases were identified, accounting for 0.35% of all HCC patients and 2.37% of patients with metastatic disease. Among all HCC patients, the incidence rate was the highest among patients aged 30-49 years old (0.47%). Ethnicity was not associated with the presence of brain metastases at the time of HCC diagnosis. However, African-American patients presented with a significantly lower disease-specific survival [median time: 1 month; interquartile range (IQR): 0-3.0 months)]. Initial lung or bone metastasis was independently associated with an increased risk of the presence of brain metastases [odds ratio (OR): 12.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.40-18.97] but was not associated with a worse OS or CSS among those with brain metastases. CONCLUSION: This study identified the age-related incidence and risk factors of brain metastases in HCC patients. These results may contribute to the consideration of brain screening among patients with initial metastatic HCC with lung or bone metastases, and influence the counseling of this patient population regarding their prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Incidência , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Fatores de Risco
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(4)2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400488

RESUMO

In addressing challenges related to high parameter counts and limited training samples for finger vein recognition, we present the FV-MViT model. It serves as a lightweight deep learning solution, emphasizing high accuracy, portable design, and low latency. The FV-MViT introduces two key components. The Mul-MV2 Block utilizes a dual-path inverted residual connection structure for multi-scale convolutions, extracting additional local features. Simultaneously, the Enhanced MobileViT Block eliminates the large-scale convolution block at the beginning of the original MobileViT Block. It converts the Transformer's self-attention into separable self-attention with linear complexity, optimizing the back end of the original MobileViT Block with depth-wise separable convolutions. This aims to extract global features and effectively reduce parameter counts and feature extraction times. Additionally, we introduce a soft target center cross-entropy loss function to enhance generalization and increase accuracy. Experimental results indicate that the FV-MViT achieves a recognition accuracy of 99.53% and 100.00% on the Shandong University (SDU) and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (USM) datasets, with equal error rates of 0.47% and 0.02%, respectively. The model has a parameter count of 5.26 million and exhibits a latency of 10.00 milliseconds from the sample input to the recognition output. Comparison with state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods reveals competitive performance for FV-MViT.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Extremidades , Humanos , Entropia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Veias
12.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech ; 34(2): 190-195, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To comparatively analyze the clinical efficacy and safety of unilateral radioactive stent (RS) insertion versus bilateral normal stent (NS) insertion in patients with inoperable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with inoperable HC were treated in our hospital from January 2016 to December 2020. The treatment approach included the insertion of either unilateral RS or bilateral NS, evaluating the efficacy and safety of therapy in 2 distinct groups. RESULTS: A total of 58 individuals experienced the insertion of a unilateral RS, whereas 57 patients underwent the insertion of bilateral NS. No statistically significant difference between the unilateral RS and bilateral NS groups was seen in the technical success rates (98.3% vs 94.7%, P = 0.598) and clinical success rates (98.2% vs 100%, P = 0.514). While there is no statistically significant difference in the rates of stent restenosis (19.3% vs 9.3%, P = 0.132) between the two groups, the unilateral RS group demonstrated substantially longer stent patency (202 vs 119 d, P = 0.016) and overall survival (229 vs 122 d, P = 0.004) compared with the bilateral NS group. Moreover, 8 patients (14.0%) in the unilateral RS group and 14 patients (25.9%) in the bilateral NS group had postoperative complications with no significant difference ( P = 0.116). CONCLUSION: When inserting stents for inoperable HC, both unilateral RS and bilateral NS insertion procedures have demonstrated favorable therapeutic efficacy. Nevertheless, inserting a unilateral RS provided a longer duration of stent patency and overall survival than implantation of bilateral NS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colangiocarcinoma , Colestase , Tumor de Klatskin , Humanos , Tumor de Klatskin/cirurgia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/radioterapia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/complicações , Stents/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Drenagem/métodos , Colestase/cirurgia , Colangiocarcinoma/radioterapia , Colangiocarcinoma/cirurgia
13.
Nat Metab ; 6(3): 448-457, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418586

RESUMO

Insulin resistance is an early complication of diet-induced obesity (DIO)1, potentially leading to hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, accompanied by adaptive ß cell hypertrophy and development of type 2 diabetes2. Insulin not only signals via the insulin receptor (INSR), but also promotes ß cell survival, growth and function via the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R)3-6. We recently identified the insulin inhibitory receptor (inceptor) as the key mediator of IGF1R and INSR desensitization7. But, although ß cell-specific loss of inceptor improves ß cell function in lean mice7, it warrants clarification whether inceptor signal inhibition also improves glycaemia under conditions of obesity. We assessed the glucometabolic effects of targeted inceptor deletion in either the brain or the pancreatic ß cells under conditions of DIO in male mice. In the present study, we show that global and neuronal deletion of inceptor, as well as its adult-onset deletion in the ß cells, improves glucose homeostasis by enhancing ß cell health and function. Moreover, we demonstrate that inceptor-mediated improvement in glucose control does not depend on inceptor function in agouti-related protein-expressing or pro-opiomelanocortin neurons. Our data demonstrate that inceptor inhibition improves glucose homeostasis in mice with DIO, hence corroborating that inceptor is a crucial regulator of INSR and IGF1R signalling.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Dieta , Insulina/metabolismo , Homeostase , Neurônios/metabolismo
14.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 1, 2024 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study was performed to explore the association between blood lipids and cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: This study included 336 patients with T2DM. Relevant clinical data including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B were collected, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score were used to assess the cognitive function in patients with T2DM. RESULTS: Serum apolipoprotein A1 levels were significantly increased in T2DM patients with cognitive impairment compared with T2DM patients without cognitive impairment (p = 0.017). Serum apolipoprotein A1 levels were significantly negatively correlated with MoCA score (r = - 0.143, p = 0.009) and MMSE score (r = - 0.132, p = 0.016) in patients with T2DM. In multivariable-adjusted regression model, serum apolipoprotein A1 was independently associated with cognitive impairment in patients with T2DM (OR = 5.201, p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: Serum apolipoprotein A1 is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with T2DM, but not TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, and apolipoprotein B, indicating that increased serum apolipoprotein A1 may be a risk factor of cognitive impairment in patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Apolipoproteína A-I , LDL-Colesterol , Lipídeos , Triglicerídeos , HDL-Colesterol , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações
15.
J Org Chem ; 89(2): 1353-1360, 2024 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190649

RESUMO

We have developed a visible light-induced intermolecular [2 + 2]-cycloaddition reaction between alkenes and alkynes using thioxanthone and Cu(OTf)2 as cocatalysts. Various quinolin-2(1H)-ones, featuring diverse substituted groups, were successfully employed in this reaction, resulting in the synthesis of a series of 4,8b-dihydrocyclobuta[c]quinolin-3(2aH)-ones. Our methodology presents a novel synthetic approach for alkene-alkyne [2 + 2]-cycloaddition, delivering cyclobutene derivatives with exceptional regioselectivity.

16.
Heliyon ; 10(2): e24357, 2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38293443

RESUMO

Background: Fibrosis is a heavy burden on the global healthcare system. Recently, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that Extracellular vesicles play an important role in intercellular communication under both physiological and pathological conditions. This study aimed to explore the role of extracellular vesicles' in fibrosis using bibliometric methods. Methods: Original articles and reviews related to extracellular vesicles and fibrosis were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection database on November 9, 2022. VOSviewer was used to obtain general information, including co-institution, co-authorship, and co-occurrence visualization maps. The CiteSpace software was used to analyze citation bursts of keywords and references, a timeline view of the top clusters of keywords and cited articles, and the dual map. R package "bibliometrix" was used to analyze annual production, citation per year, collaboration network between countries/regions, thematic evolution map, and historiography network. Results: In total, 3376 articles related to extracellular vesicles and fibrosis published from 2013 to 2022 were included in this study, with China and the United States being the top contributors. Shanghai Jiao Tong University has the highest number of publications. The main collaborators were Giovanni Camussi, Stefania Bruno, Marta Tepparo, and Cristina Grange. Journals related to molecular, biology, genetics, health, immunology, and medicine tended to publish literature on extracellular vesicles and fibrosis. "Recovery," "heterogeneity," "degradation," "inflammation," and "mesenchymal stem cells" are the keywords in this research field. Literature on extracellular vesicles and fibrosis associated with several diseases, including "kidney disease," "rheumatoid arthritis," and "skin regeneration" may be the latest hot research field. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive perspective on extracellular vesicles and fibrosis through a bibliometric analysis of articles published between 2013 and 2022. We identified the most influential countries, institutions, authors, and journals. We provide information on recent research frontiers and trends for scholars interested in the field of extracellular vesicles and fibrosis. Their role in biological processes has great potential to initiate a new upsurge in future research.

17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(4): 2240-2249, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258624

RESUMO

Muscle atrophy refers to a decline in muscle mass and function, which has become a global concern due to the aging population. Various clinical trials have investigated the inhibitors of myostatin (MSTN). They have shown promising improvements in muscle function and quality of life. However, there are no drugs specifically targeting MSTN that have been approved for clinical use. In this study, we virtually screened liensinine (LIE), a food (Nelumbo nucifera)-derived compound, with low toxicity, from over 1.1 million compounds. We subsequently identified it as a potential candidate that targets MSTN by a cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) and drug affinity response target stability (DARTS) assay. Further validation through cellular and in vivo studies demonstrated its promising potential in combating muscle atrophy. The mechanism of action may involve hindering the interaction between MSTN and the activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) and downregulating the expression of downstream proteins, including the muscle RING-finger protein-1 (MuRF-1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx)/Atrogin-1, ultimately promoting muscle regeneration. These results provide a strong foundation for future studies to explore the therapeutic potential of LIE in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Isoquinolinas , Nelumbo , Fenóis , Humanos , Idoso , Miostatina/genética , Miostatina/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
18.
J Neurooncol ; 166(2): 331-339, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In previous studies, patients with intracranial germ cell tumour (iGCT) with pure choriocarcinoma or mixed germ cell tumours with choriocarcinoma element showed similar dismal prognoses, with median overall survival (OS) of 22 months and 1-year survival rate of approximately 60%. However, these conclusions need to be updated because radiotherapy, which is the mainstay for this disease, was not applied in a number of patients. Additionally, prognostic factors need to be explored in this population. METHODS: Clinical data of patients with iGCTs with histologically confirmed choriocarcinoma element or beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG) > 500 IU/L were collected from the archives of our institution and retrospectively studied. RESULTS: A total of 76 patients were eligible for this study. Except for two early deaths, all patients received radiotherapy (craniospinal irradiation [CSI], n = 23; non-CSI, n = 51). The median follow-up duration for the entire series was 63 months (range, 6-188 months). The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and OS rates were 81.5% and 84.1%, respectively. Among patients who did not have early death or progressive disease after induction chemotherapy, multivariate analysis revealed that chemotherapy cycles (> 4 vs. ≤ 4) (hazard ratio [HR] for EFS 0.144, p = 0.020; HR for OS 0.111, p = 0.028) and ß-HCG levels (> 3000 IU/L vs. ≤ 3000 IU/L) (HR for EFS 4.342, p = 0.059; HR for OS 6.614, p = 0.033) were independent factors for survival. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with iGCTs with choriocarcinoma element or ß-HCG > 500 IU/L showed improved survival with radiotherapy-based treatments. Additional chemotherapy cycles could result in additional survival benefits. Patients with ß-HCG level > 3000 IU/L had poorer prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Coriocarcinoma , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Coriocarcinoma/terapia , Coriocarcinoma/metabolismo , Coriocarcinoma/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Gonadotropina Coriônica/metabolismo
19.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 49(1): 23-32, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38001303

RESUMO

AIM: 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HBd) is used for the treatment of headaches, dizziness, and convulsions. The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of 4-HBd in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) rats by microdialysis technology with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). METHODS: Microdialysis was used to collect blood, feces, and urine of normal and CIRI model rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using HPLC-DAD and 4-HBd metabolites were determined using UPLC-MS. RESULTS: After gavage of 4-HBd in normal and middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) rats, it was widely distributed to all tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and brain) in both the equilibrium and elimination phases, and the distribution pattern was basically the same; the highest concentration was found in the brain. The absolute bioavailability of 4-HBd was 5.33%; however, after intragastric administration in normal and MCAO/R rats, fecal and urinary excretion of 4-HBd accounted for 0.02% and 0.01% and for 0.01% and 0.03% of the dosage, respectively. Furthermore, 4-HBd was rapidly metabolized into 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) after administration in both the control and MCAO/R groups. Compared with the control, the peak time of 4-HBd plasma concentration in the MCAO/R rats decreased from 10.67 min to 8.83 min, the area under the concentration-time curve decreased significantly, and the half-life increased from 31.81 min to 78.85 min. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid absorption and low absolute bioavailability of 4-HBd by gavage in rats are followed by rapid and wide distribution to various tissues and organs, including the brain. The prototype drug is excreted in the feces and urine in low amounts, and it is metabolized to 4-HBA in large amounts in vivo; the pathological state of the MCAO/R model mainly affects its absorption degree and metabolism rate.


Assuntos
Benzaldeídos , Isquemia Encefálica , Butiratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Ratos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Microdiálise , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
20.
Shock ; 61(2): 283-293, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010091

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Recent research has revealed that aerobic glycolysis has a strong correlation with sepsis-associated pulmonary fibrosis (PF). However, at present, the mechanism and pathogenesis remain unclear. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-induced aerobic glycolysis play a central role in septic pulmonary fibrogenesis. Cellular experiments demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide increased fibroblast activation through AMPK inactivation, HIF-1α induction, alongside an augmentation of aerobic glycolysis. By contrast, the effects were reversed by AMPK activation or HIF-1α inhibition. In addition, pretreatment with metformin, which is an AMPK activator, suppresses HIF-1α expression and alleviates PF associated with sepsis, which is caused by aerobic glycolysis, in mice. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α knockdown demonstrated similar protective effects in vivo . Our research implies that targeting AMPK activation and HIF-1α-induced aerobic glycolysis with metformin might be a practical and useful therapeutic alternative for sepsis-associated PF.


Assuntos
Metformina , Fibrose Pulmonar , Sepse , Camundongos , Animais , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Hipóxia , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Glicólise , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo
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