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1.
Clin Exp Med ; 24(1): 70, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578316

RESUMO

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is an autoimmune disease that involves inflammation of blood vessels. There is increasing evidence that platelets play a crucial role not only in hemostasis but also in inflammation and innate immunity. In this study, we explored the relationship between platelet count, clinical characteristics, and the prognosis of patients with AAV. We divided 187 patients into two groups based on their platelet count. Clinicopathological data and prognostic information were retrospectively gathered from medical records. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify risk factors for prognosis, including end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality. The cutoff point for platelet count was set at 264.5 × 109/L, as determined by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for predicting progression to ESRD in patients with AAV. We observed patients with low platelet count (platelets < 264.5 × 109/L) had lower leukocytes, hemoglobin, complement, acute reactants, and worse renal function (P for eGFR < 0.001). They were also more likely to progress to ESRD or death compared to the high platelet count group (platelets > 264.5 × 109/L) (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0338, respectively). Low platelet count was potentially an independent predictor of poor renal prognosis in the multivariate regression analysis [HR 1.670 (95% CI 1.019-2.515), P = 0.014]. Lower platelet count at diagnosis is associated with more severe clinical characteristics and impaired renal function. Therefore, platelet count may be an accessible prognostic indicator for renal outcomes in patients with AAV.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos , Falência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Rim/patologia , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Inflamação/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The discovery of agricultural fungicide candidates from natural products is one of the key strategies to develop environment friendly agricultural fungicides with high efficiency, high selectivity, and unique mechanisms of action. Based on previous work, a series of novel α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) derivatives containing benzothiophene moiety were designed and synthesized. RESULTS: The majority of the proposed compounds displayed moderate to considerable antifungal efficacy against the tested pathogenic fungi and oomycetes, some exhibiting broad spectrum antifungal activity. Notably, compounds 2 (3-F-Ph) and 7 (4-Cl-Ph) showed excellent antifungal activity against R. solani with EC50 values of 0.94 and 0.99 mg/L, respectively, comparable to the commercial fungicide tebuconazole (EC50 = 0.96 mg/L), and also displayed significant inhibitory effects against V. mali with EC50 values of 2.26 and 1.67 mg/L, respectively, better than famoxadone and Carabrone. The in vivo protective and curative effects against R. solani of compound 2 were 57.2% and 53.7% at 100 mg/L, respectively, which were equivalent to tebuconazole (51.6% and 52.4%). Further investigations found that compound 2 altered the ultrastructure of R. solani cell, significantly increased the relative conductivity of the cells, and reduced the activity of complex III in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results showed that compound 2 matched well with the Qo pocket. CONCLUSION: The results revealed that MBL derivatives containing benzothiophene moiety are promising antifungal candidates and provide a new backbone structure for further optimization of novel fungicides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Org Lett ; 26(11): 2309-2314, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466078

RESUMO

2-Alkylpyridines are a privileged scaffold throughout the realm of organic synthesis and play a key role in natural products, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Herein, we report the first B-alkyl Suzuki cross-coupling of 2-pyridyl ammonium salts to access functionalized 2-alkylpyridines. The use of well-defined, operationally simple Pd-NHCs permits for an exceptionally broad scope of the challenging B-alkyl C-N cross-coupling with organoboranes containing ß-hydrogen, representing a novel method for the discovery of highly sought-after molecules for plant protection.

5.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 119, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pattern recognition receptor Dectin-1 was initially discovered to play a pivotal role in mediating pulmonary antifungal immunity and promoting neutrophil-driven inflammation. Recent studies have revealed that Dectin-1 is overexpressed in asthma, but the specific mechanism remains elusive. Additionally, Dectin-1 has been implicated in promoting pyroptosis, a hallmark of severe asthma airway inflammation. Nevertheless, the involvement of the non-classical pyroptosis signal caspase-11/4 and its upstream regulatory mechanisms in asthma has not been completely explored. METHODS: House dust mite (HDM)-induced mice was treated with Dectin-1 agonist Curdlan, Dectin-1 inhibitor Laminarin, and caspase-11 inhibitor wedelolactone separately. Subsequently, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed. Western blotting was performed to measure the protein expression of caspase-11 and gasdermin D (GSDMD). Cell pyroptosis and the expression of chemokine were detected in vitro. The correlation between Dectin-1 expression, pyroptosis factors and neutrophils in the induced sputum of asthma patients was analyzed. RESULTS: Curdlan appeared to exacerbate neutrophil airway inflammation in asthmatic mice, whereas wedelolactone effectively alleviated airway inflammation aggravated by Curdlan. Moreover, Curdlan enhanced the release of caspase-11 activation fragments and N-terminal fragments of gasdermin D (GSDMD-N) stimulated by HDM both in vivo or in vitro. In mouse alveolar macrophages (MH-S cells), Curdlan/HDM stimulation resulted in vacuolar degeneration and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. In addition, there was an upregulation of neutrophil chemokines CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL5 and their receptor CXCR2, which was suppressed by wedelolactone. In asthma patients, a positive correlation was observed between the expression of Dectin-1 on macrophages and caspase-4 (the human homology of caspase-11), and the proportion of neutrophils in induced sputum. CONCLUSION: Dectin-1 activation in asthma induced caspase-11/4 mediated macrophage pyroptosis, which subsequently stimulated the secretion of chemokines, leading to the exacerbation of airway neutrophil inflammation.


Assuntos
Asma , Lectinas Tipo C , Neutrófilos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Asma/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Gasderminas , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pyroglyphidae , Piroptose
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(8): 3894-3903, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366986

RESUMO

In an ongoing effort to explore more potent antifungal pogostone (Po) analogues, we maintained the previously identified 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-2-pyrone core motif while synthesizing a series of Po analogues with variations in the alkyl side chain. The in vitro bioassay results revealed that compound 21 was the most potent antifungal analogue with an EC50 value of 1.1 µg/mL against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Meanwhile, its Cu(II) complex 34 manifested significantly enhanced antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 300 µg/mL compared with 21 (MIC = 700 µg/mL). Complex 34 exhibited a striking preventive effect against S. sclerotiorum and Xcc in rape leaves, with control efficacies of 98.8% (50 µg/mL) and 80.7% (1000 µg/mL), respectively. The 3D-QSAR models generated using Topomer comparative molecular field analysis indicated that a shorter alkyl chain (carbon atom number <8), terminal rings, or electron-deficient groups on the alkyl side chain are beneficial for antifungal potency. Further, bioassay results revealed that the component of 21 in complex 34 dominated the antifungal activity, but the introduction of Cu(II) significantly enhanced its antibacterial activity. The toxicological observations demonstrated that 21 could induce abnormal mitochondrial morphology, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in S. sclerotiorum. The enzyme assay results showed that 21 is a moderate promiscuous inhibitor of mitochondrial complexes II and III. Besides, the introduction of Cu(II) to 34 could promote the disruption of the cell membrane and intracellular proteins and the ROS level in Xcc compared with 21. In summary, these results highlight the potential of 34 as a dual antifungal and antibacterial biocide for controlling rape diseases or as a promising candidate for further optimization.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos , Óleos Voláteis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47453, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom during and after COVID-19 infection; however, few studies have described the cough profiles of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and associated risk factors of severe and persistent cough in individuals with COVID-19 during the latest wave of the Omicron variant in China. METHODS: In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we collected information of the characteristics of cough from individuals with infection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant using an online questionnaire sent between December 31, 2022, and January 11, 2023. RESULTS: There were 11,718 (n=7978, 68.1% female) nonhospitalized responders, with a median age of 37 (IQR 30-47) years who responded at a median of 16 (IQR 12-20) days from infection onset to the time of the survey. Cough was the most common symptom, occurring in 91.7% of participants, followed by fever, fatigue, and nasal congestion (68.8%-87.4%). The median cough visual analog scale (VAS) score was 70 (IQR 50-80) mm. Being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43), having a COVID-19 vaccination history (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.37-2.12), current smoking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41-0.58), chronic cough (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.69-2.45), coronary heart disease (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.52), asthma (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.46), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45) were independent factors for severe cough (VAS>70, 37.4%). Among all respondents, 35.0% indicated having a productive cough, which was associated with risk factors of being female (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.31-1.57), having asthma (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.52-2.22), chronic cough (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.74), and GERD (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). Persistent cough (>3 weeks) occurred in 13.0% of individuals, which was associated with the risk factors of having diabetes (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.30-3.85), asthma (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.62), and chronic cough (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Cough is the most common symptom in nonhospitalized individuals with Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant infection. Being female, having asthma, chronic cough, GERD, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and a COVID-19 vaccination history emerged as independent factors associated with severe cough, productive cough, and persistent cough.


Assuntos
Asma , COVID-19 , Doença das Coronárias , Diabetes Mellitus , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , China/epidemiologia , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(5): 2492-2500, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271672

RESUMO

Structural diversity derivatization from natural products is an important and effective method of discovering novel green pesticides. Cinnamic acids are abundant in plants, and their unparalleled structures endow them with various excellent biological activities. A series of novel cinnamic oxime esters were designed and synthesized to develop high antifungal agrochemicals. The antifungal activity, structure-activity relationship, and action mechanism were systematically studied. Compounds 7i, 7u, 7v, and 7x exhibited satisfactory activity against Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, with inhibition rates of ≥90% at 50 µg/mL. Compounds 7z and 7n demonstrated excellent activities against Valsa mali and Botrytis cinerea, with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 0.71 and 1.41 µg/mL, respectively. Compound 7z exhibited 100% protective and curative activities against apple Valsa canker at 200 µg/mL. The control effects of 7n against gray mold on tomato fruits and leaves were all >96%, exhibiting superior or similar effects to those of the commercial fungicide boscalid. Furthermore, the quantitative structure-activity relationship was established to guide the further design of higher-activity compounds. The preliminary results on the action mechanism revealed that 7n treatment could disrupt the function of the nucleus and mitochondria, leading to reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell membrane damage. Its primary biochemical mechanism may be inhibiting fungal ergosterol biosynthesis. The novel structure, simple synthesis, and excellent activity of cinnamic oxime esters render them promising potential fungicides.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Cinamatos , Fungicidas Industriais , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Oximas/farmacologia , Botrytis
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 127: 111332, 2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38071913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inhibitory effect of γδT17 cells on the formation of murine malignant pleural effusions (MPE) has been established. However, there is limited understanding regarding the phenotypic characterization of γδ T cells in MPE patients and their recruitment to the pleural cavity. METHODS: We quantified γδ T cell prevalence in pleural effusions and corresponding peripheral blood from malignant and benign patients using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. The expression of effector memory phenotype, stimulatory/inhibitory/chemokine receptors and cytokines on γδ T cells in MPE was analyzed using multicolor flow cytometry. The infiltration of γδ T cells in MPE was assessed through immunofluorescence, ELISA, flow cytometry and transwell migration assay. RESULTS: We observed a significant infiltration of γδ T cells in MPE, surpassing the levels found in blood and benign pleural effusion. γδ T cells in MPE exhibited heightened expression of CD56 and an effector memory phenotype, while displaying lower levels of PD-1. Furthermore, γδ T cells in MPE showed higher levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-22) and chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5 and CCR6). CCR2 expression was notably higher in the Vδ2 subtype compared to Vδ1 cells. Moreover, the complement C5a enhanced cytokine release by γδ T cells, upregulated CCR2 expression in Vδ2 subsets, and stimulated the production of chemokines (CCL2, CCL7 and CCL20) in MPE. In vitro utilizing CCR2 neutralising and C5aR antagonist significantly reduced the recruitment of γδ T cells. CONCLUSIONS: γδ T cells infiltrate MPE by overexpressing CCR2 and exhibit hightened inflammation, which is further augmented by C5a.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural Maligno , Derrame Pleural , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Quimiotaxia , Citocinas , Inflamação , Derrame Pleural Maligno/patologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Receptores de Quimiocinas , Complemento C5a/metabolismo
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2023 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38087429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum seriously endangers oilseed rape production worldwide, and the occurrence of fungicide-resistant mutants of S. sclerotiorum leads to control decline. Thus, it is critical to explore new green substitutes with different action mechanisms and high antifungal activity. Herein, the activity and the action mechanism of natamycin against S. sclerotiorum were evaluated. RESULTS: Natamycin showed potent inhibition on the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum, and half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) values against 103 S. sclerotiorum strains ranged from 0.53 to 4.04 µg/mL (mean 1.44 µg/mL). Natamycin also exhibited high efficacy against both carbendazim- and dimethachlone-resistant strains of S. sclerotiorum on detached oilseed rape leaves. No cross-resistance was detected between natamycin and carbendazim. Natamycin markedly disrupted hyphal form, sclerotia formation, integrity of the cell membrane, and reduced the content of oxalic acid and ergosterol, whereas it increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde content. Interestingly, exogenous addition of ergosterol could reduce the inhibition of natamycin against S. sclerotiorum. Importantly, natamycin significantly inhibited expression of the Cyp51 gene, which is contrary to results for the triazole fungicide flusilazole, indicating a different action mechanism from triazole fungicides. CONCLUSION: Natamycin is a promising effective candidate for the resistance management of S. sclerotiorum. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(46): 17713-17722, 2023 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37943656

RESUMO

In this investigation, the antifungal activity, its influence on the quality of apples, and the molecular mechanism of natamycin against Colletotrichum fructicola were systematically explored. Our findings indicated that natamycin showed significant inhibition against C. fructicola. Moreover, it efficaciously maintained the apple quality by modulating the physicochemical index. Research on the antifungal mechanism showed that natamycin altered the mycelial microstructure, disrupted the plasma membrane integrality, and decreased the ergosterol content of C. fructicola. Interestingly, the exogenous addition of ergosterol weakened the antifungal activity of natamycin. Importantly, natamycin markedly inhibited the expression of Cyp51A and Cyp51B genes in C. fructicola, which was contrary to the results obtained after treatment with triazole fungicide flusilazole. All these results exhibited sufficient proof that natamycin had enormous potential to be conducive as a promising biopreservative against C. fructicola on apples, and these findings will advance our knowledge on the mechanism of natamycin against pathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Malus , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Natamicina/farmacologia , Natamicina/metabolismo , Colletotrichum/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Ergosterol
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 819, 2023 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Mersilene tape versus alternative suture types in prolonging singleton pregnancies as well as other pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, in cases of history-, ultrasound-, and exam-indicated cervical cerclage. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant studies comparing different suture types in cervical cerclage procedures. The primary outcome of interest was preterm birth (PTB) rate < 37, <35, < 28, and < 24 weeks. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the relationship between suture type and various outcomes. RESULTS: A total of five studies, including three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two retrospective studies, with a combined participation of 2325 individuals, were included. The pooled analysis indicated no significant association between suture type and PTB at less than 37 weeks of gestation (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.65-1.60, p < 0.01, I2 = 74%). Women who received Mersilene tape had a higher risk of PTB at 34-37 weeks (RR: 2.62, 95% CI: 1.57-4.37, p = 0.69, I2 = 0%), but a lower risk of PTB at less than 34 weeks (RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.28-0.66, p = 0.66, I2 = 46%). No statistically significant differences were observed for PTB before 28 weeks (RR: 1, 95% CI: 0.65-1.53, p = 0.70, I2 = 0%), before 24 weeks (RR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.60-1.23, p = 0.33, I2 = 0%), incidence of chorioamnionitis (RR: 0.97, 95% CI: 020-4.83, p < 0.01, I2 = 95%), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.28-2.22, p = 0.08, I2 = 67%) and neonatal death (RR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.42-2.35, p = 0.17, I2 = 48%). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that Mersilene tape does not reduce the risk of PTB before 37, 28 or 24 weeks. We observed higher risk of preterm birth between 34 and 37 weeks with Mersilene tape but lower incidence before 34 weeks, a period with higher neonatal morbidity and mortality. Due to the limited number of studies, our results and their clinical significance should be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
Cerclagem Cervical , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Humanos , Cerclagem Cervical/métodos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Colo do Útero , Suturas
13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2023 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37921616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contralateral cervical seventh (cC7) nerve to C7 transfer has been proven effective for treating spastic upper limb. However, for those whose major impairment is not in the C7 area, cC7 nerve transfer to other nerve(s) may achieve a better outcome. The aim of this study was to explore the optimal surgical approach for transferring cC7 to one or two nerves by cadaveric study and to discuss the possible applications for hemiplegic patients. METHODS: Modified cC7 transfer to one (five procedures) or two nonadjacent (three procedures) nerve roots was proposed, and success rates of direct coaptation through two surgical approaches were compared: the superficial surface of longus colli (sLC) and the deep surface of longus colli (dLC) approaches. The length, diameter and distance of relevant nerves were also measured in 25 cadavers. RESULTS: Compared with the sLC approach, the distance of the dLC approach was 1.1 ± 0.3 cm shorter. The success rates for the sLC and dLC approaches were as follows, respectively: cC7-C5 surgery, 94% and reached 98%; cC7-C6 surgery, 54% and 96%; cC7-C7 surgery, 42% and 94%; cC7-C8 surgery, 34% and 94%; cC7-T1 surgery, 24% and 62%; cC7-C5C7 surgery, 74% and 98%; cC7-C6C8 surgery, 54% and 98%. cC7-C7T1 surgery, 42% and 88%. CONCLUSIONS: The dLC approach greatly improved direct coaptation rate for cC7 nerve transfer. The modified cC7 nerve transfer procedures are technically feasible for further application in clinic.

14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 125(Pt A): 111065, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37862725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucosal immune-associated γδ T cells have been implicated in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, the involvement of Vδ1 T cells, the major γδ T cells subtype, in renal damage and the mechanism underlying their migration from peripheral blood to kidney in IgAN remain unclear. METHODS: Clinical data from IgAN patients and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed. Phenotypes and chemokine receptors of γδ T cell were compared between IgAN patients and HC. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were performed to assess the infiltration of γδ T cell subsets and the expression of chemokine in renal tissues. In vitro, C5a was used to stimulate the human glomerular mesangial cells (HMCs) and chemotaxis experiment was used to examine Vδ1 T cells migration. Correlation between Vδ1 T cells and related clinical indicators were analyzed. RESULTS: IgAN patients exhibited decreased Vδ1 T cell in blood but increased levels in kidneys compared to HC. Increased CCR2-expressing Vδ1 T cells and serum level of CCL2 were observed in IgAN patients. CCL2 co-localized with CCR2 in HMCs of IgAN. In vitro, C5a enhanced Vδ1 T cells recruitment by HMCs through CCL2-CCR2 axis. Importantly, circulating Vδ1 T cell levels showed a negatively correlated with both the urinary protein creatinine ratio (UACR) and 24-hour urine protein (UP). Moreover, kidney infiltration of Vδ1 cells positively correlated with UACR, UP, mesangial hyperplasia and renal tubule atrophy/interstitial fibrosis in IgAN. CONCLUSIONS: C5a-induced production of CCL2 by HMCs facilitates Vδ1 T cells recruitment via the CCL2-CCR2 axis, contributing to renal damage in IgAN.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite por IGA , Humanos , Quimiocina CCL2 , Quimiocinas , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Células Mesangiais/metabolismo , Receptores CCR2 , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 194: 105512, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37532363

RESUMO

The main component of orange peel essential oil is limonene. Limonene is a natural active monoterpene with multiple functions, such as antibacterial, antiseptic and antitumor activity, and has important development value in agriculture. This study found that limonene exhibited excellent anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) bioactivity, with results showing that its protection activity, inactivation activity, and curative activity at 800 µg/mL were 84.93%, 59.28%, and 58.89%, respectively-significantly higher than those of chito-oligosaccharides. A direct effect of limonene on TMV particles was not observed, but limonene triggered the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. Further determination of the induction activity of limonene against TMV demonstrated that it displayed good induction activity at 800 µg/mL, with a value of 60.59%. The results of physiological and biochemical experiments showed that at different treatment days, 800 µg/mL limonene induced the enhancement of defense enzymes activity in tobacco, including of SOD, CAT, POD, and PAL, which respectively increased by 3.2, 4.67, 4.12, and 2.33 times compared with the control (POD and SOD activities reached highest on the seventh day, and PAL and CAT activities reached highest on the fifth day). Limonene also enhanced the relative expression levels of pathogenesis related (PR) genes, including NPR1, PR1, and PR5, which were upregulated 3.84-fold, 1.86-fold and 1.71-fold, respectively. Limonene induced the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), and increased the relative expression levels of genes related to SA biosynthesis (PAL) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst (RBOHB), which respectively increased by 2.76 times and 4.23 times higher than the control. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an important plant immune defense against pathogen infection. The observed accumulation of SA, the enhancement of defense enzymes activity and the high-level expression of defense-related genes suggested that limonene may induce resistance to TMV in tobacco by activating SAR mediated by the SA signaling pathway. Furthermore, the experimental results demonstrated that the expression level of the chlorophyll biosynthesis gene POR1 was increased 1.72-fold compared to the control in tobacco treated with 800 µg/mL limonene, indicating that limonene treatment may increase chlorophyll content in tobacco. The results of pot experiment showed that 800 µg/mL limonene induced plant resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (33.33%), Phytophthora capsici (54.55%), Botrytis cinerea (50.00%). The bioassay results indicated that limonene provided broad-spectrum and long-lasting resistance to pathogen infection. Therefore, limonene has good development and utilization value, and is expected to be developed into a new botanical-derived anti-virus agent and plant immunity activator in addition to insecticides and fungicides.


Assuntos
Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco , Limoneno/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
16.
J Nephrol ; 36(8): 2295-2304, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37395920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematuria is common in myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis (ANCA-MPO). Previous studies have mainly focused on urinary dysmorphic red blood cells and few have reported the clinical significance of isomorphic urinary red blood cells. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to assess the predictive yield  of urinary isomorphic red blood cells for disease severity and renal outcomes in patients with ANCA-MPO associated vasculitis. METHODS: A total of 191 patients with ANCA-MPO associated vasculitis with hematuria were retrospectively selected and were divided into two groups (with isomorphic red blood cells versus dysmorphic red blood cells) according to the percentage of isomorphic red blood cells on urinary sediment analysis. Clinical, biological and pathological data at diagnosis were compared. Patients were followed up for a median of 25 months and progression to end-stage kidney disease and death were regarded as main outcome events. Additionally, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate the risk factors for end-stage kidney disease. RESULTS: Out of 191 patients, 115 (60%) had ≥ 70% and 76 (40%) had < 30% urine isomorphic red blood cells. Compared with patients in the dysmorphic red blood cell group, patients in the isomorphic red blood cell group had a significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) [10.41 mL/min (IQR 5.84-17.06) versus 12.53 (6.81-29.26); P = 0.026], higher Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score [16 (IQR 12-18) versus 14 (10-18); P = 0.005] and more often received plasma exchange [40.0% versus 23.7% (P = 0.019)] at diagnosis. Kidney biopsies revealed a higher proportion of patients with glomerular basement membrane fracture in the isomorphic red blood cell group [46.3% versus 22.9% (P = 0.033)]. Furthermore, patients with predominant urinary isomorphic red blood cells were more likely to progress to end-stage kidney disease [63.5% versus 47.4% (P = 0.028)] and had a higher risk of death [31.3% versus 19.7% (P = 0.077)]. The end-stage kidney disease-free survival was lower in patients in the isomorphic red blood cell group (P = 0.024). However, urine isomorphic red blood cells ≥ 70% could not predict the presence of end-stage kidney disease in multivariate Cox analysis. CONCLUSION: Myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis patients with predominant urinary isomorphic red blood cells at diagnosis had more severe clinical manifestations and a higher risk of poor renal outcomes. In this respect, urinary isomorphic red blood cells could be viewed as a promising biomarker of ANCA_MPO vasculitis severity and progression.


Assuntos
Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos , Falência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hematúria , Peroxidase , Rim/patologia , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/complicações , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/diagnóstico , Vasculite Associada a Anticorpo Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/terapia , Gravidade do Paciente
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(29): 11008-11015, 2023 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37432089

RESUMO

Developing fungicides from active botanical skeletons is one of the effective methods to tackle the resistance of plant pathogens. Based on our previous discoveries, a series of novel α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) derivatives containing heterocycles and phenyl rings were designed according to the antifungal molecule carabrone first discovered in plant Carpesium macrocephalum. The target compounds were synthesized, and the inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungi as well as the mechanism of action were then systematically investigated. Several compounds showed promising inhibitory activities against a variety of fungi. The most potent compound 38 exhibited the EC50 value of 0.50 mg/L against Valsa mali (V. mali), which was more effective than that of commercial fungicide famoxadone. The protective effect of compound 38 against V. mali on apple twigs was superior to that of famoxadone, with an inhibition rate of 47.9% at 50 mg/L. The physiological and biochemical results showed that compound 38 inhibits V. mali by causing cell deformation and contraction, reducing the number of intracellular mitochondria, thickening the cell wall, as well as increasing the permeability of the cell membrane. Based on three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) analyses, it was shown that the introduction of the bulky and negatively charged groups favored the antifungal activity of the novel MBL derivatives. These findings suggest that compound 38 can be a potential candidate for novel fungicides worthy of further investigation further.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Fungicidas Industriais , Antifúngicos/química , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Pest Manag Sci ; 79(11): 4607-4616, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37436717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco bacterial wilt is a typical soil-borne disease caused by Ralstonia nicotianae, which causes huge losses in tobacco production every year. The crude extract of Carex siderosticta Hance was shown to have antibacterial activity against R. nicotianae during our search, and the natural antibacterial components were sought after using bioassay-guided fractionation of the compounds. RESULT: Ethanol extract of Carex siderosticta Hance with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 100 µg/mL against R. nicotianae in vitro. The potential of these compounds as antibactericides against R. nicotianae were assessed. Curcusionol (1), showed the highest antibacterial activity against R. nicotianae with MIC value of 12.5 µg/mL in vitro. In the protective effect tests, the control effect of curcusionol (1) was 92.31 and 72.60%, respectively, after application of 7 and 14 days, at a concentration of 1500 µg/mL, being comparable to that of streptomycin sulfate at a concentration of 500 µg/mL, confirming that curcusionol (1) showed the potential for the development of new antibacterial drugs. RNA-sequencing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed that curcusionol mainly destroys R. nicotianae cell membrane structure and affects quorum sensing (QS) to inhibit pathogenic bacteria. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the antibacterial activity of Carex siderosticta Hance makes it a botanical bactericide against R. nicotianae, while curcusionol as lead structures for antibacterial development is obvious by its potent antibacterial activity. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Carex (Planta) , Ralstonia solanacearum , Ralstonia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Bactérias , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
19.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(4): 526-537, 2023 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37385615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces neuron transdifferentiation of adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCCs) and consequently downregulates the secretion of epinephrine (EPI), which may be involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Mammalian achaete scute-homologous 1 (MASH1), a key regulator of neurogenesis in the nervous system, has been proved to be elevated in AMCCs with neuron transdifferentiation in vivo. This study aims to explore the role of MASH1 in the process of neuron transdifferentiation of AMCCs and the mechanisms. METHODS: Rat AMCCs were isolated and cultured. AMCCs were transfected with siMASH1 or MASH1 overexpression plasmid, then were stimulated with NGF and/or dexamethasone, PD98059 (a MAPK kinase-1 inhibitor) for 48 hours. Morphological changes were observed using light and electron microscope. Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT, the key enzyme for epinephrine synthesis) and tyrosine hydroxylase were detected by immunofluorescence. Western blotting was used to test the protein levels of PNMT, MASH1, peripherin (neuronal markers), extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinases (pERK), and JMJD3. Real-time RT-PCR was applied to analyze the mRNA levels of MASH1 and JMJD3. EPI levels in the cellular supernatant were measured using ELISA. RESULTS: Cells with both tyrosine hydroxylase and PNMT positive by immunofluorescence were proved to be AMCCs. Exposure to NGF, AMCCs exhibited neurite-like processes concomitant with increases in pERK/ERK, peripherin, and MASH1 levels (all P<0.05). Additionally, impairment of endocrine phenotype was proved by a signifcant decrease in the PNMT level and the secretion of EPI from AMCCs (all P<0.01). MASH1 interference reversed the effect of NGF, causing increases in the levels of PNMT and EPI, conversely reduced the peripherin level and cell processes (all P<0.01). MASH1 overexpression significantly increased the number of cell processes and peripherin level, while decreased the levels of PNMT and EPI (all P<0.01). Compared with the NGF group, the levels of MASH1, JMJD3 protein and mRNA in AMCCs in the NGF+PD98059 group were decreased (all P<0.05). After treatment with PD98059 and dexamethasone, the effect of NGF on promoting the transdifferentiation of AMCCs was inhibited, and the number of cell processes and EPI levels were decreased (both P<0.05). In addition, the activity of the pERK/MASH1 pathway activated by NGF was also inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: MASH1 is the key factor in neuron transdifferentiation of AMCCs. NGF-induced neuron transdifferentiation is probably mediated via pERK/MASH1 signaling.


Assuntos
Medula Suprarrenal , Células Cromafins , Animais , Ratos , Transdiferenciação Celular , Dexametasona , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Mamíferos , Fator de Crescimento Neural , Neurônios , Periferinas , Proteínas Quinases , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase
20.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e065173, 2023 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37130672

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aphasia affects many stroke survivors; therefore, effective treatments are urgently needed. Preliminary clinical findings have suggested an association between contralateral C7-C7 cross nerve transfer and recovery from chronic aphasia. Randomised controlled trials supporting the efficacy of C7 neurotomy (NC7) are lacking. This study will explore the efficacy of NC7 at the intervertebral foramen for improving chronic poststroke aphasia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study protocol reports a multicentre, randomised, assessor-blinded active-controlled trial. A total of 50 patients with chronic poststroke aphasia for over 1 year and with a aphasia quotient calculated by Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotient (WAB-AQ) score below 93.8 will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (25 individuals each) to receive NC7 plus intensive speech and language therapy (iSLT), or iSLT alone programme. The primary outcome is the change in Boston Naming Test score from baseline to the first follow-up after NC7 plus 3 weeks of iSLT or iSLT alone. The secondary outcomes include the changes in the WAB-AQ, Communication Activities of Daily Living-3, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) speech language function, Barthel Index, Stroke Aphasic Depression Questionnaire-hospital version and sensorimotor assessments. The study will also collect functional imaging outcomes of naming and semantic violation tasks through functional MRI and electroencephalogram to evaluate the intervention-induced neuroplasticity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the institutional review boards of Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, and all participating institutions. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR2200057180.


Assuntos
Afasia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Afasia/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Fonoterapia/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto
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