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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(1): 707-717, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915311

RESUMO

LMX1A (LIM homeobox transcription factor 1α) is a tumor suppressor protein. Our previous study has shown that microRNA-9 ("miR-9"), being upregulated in human gastric cancer (GC), targets LMX1A to promote GC cell progression. Through searching long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) database, we identified that LncRNA KCNQ1OT1 is the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-9. KCNQ1OT1 putatively targets miR-9. Its level is downregulated in human GC tissues. In AGS cells and primary human GC cells, forced overexpression of KCNQ1OT1, by a lentiviral construct, induced miR-9 downregulation and LMX1A upregulation. Furthermore, KCNQ1OT1 overexpression inhibited GC cell survival, proliferation, migration and invasion, but inducing apoptosis activation. Contrarily, KCNQ1OT1 silencing, by targeted siRNAs, induced miR-9 accumulation and LMX1A downregulation. Consequently, GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion were enhanced. Importantly, KCNQ1OT1 overexpression or silencing was ineffective in LMX1A knockout AGC cells. Taken together, KCNQ1OT1 inhibits GC cell progression via regulating miR-9 and LMX1A expression.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961660

RESUMO

Although the fate of nanoplastics (< 100 nm) in freshwater systems is increasingly well studied, much less is known about its potential threats to cyanobacterial blooms, the ultimate phenomenon of eutrophication occurring world-wide. Previous studies have evaluated the consequences of nanoplastics increasing the membrane permeability of microbes, there is no direct evidence for interactions between nanoplastics and microcystin; intracellular hepatotoxins produced by some genera of cyanobacteria. Here we show that amino-modified polystyrene nanoplastics (PS-NH2) promote microcystin synthesis and release from Microcystis aeruginosa, a dominant species causing cyanobacterial blooms, even without the change of coloration. We demonstrate that PS-NH2 inhibit photosystem II efficiency, reduces organic substance synthesis, and induces oxidative stress, enhancing the synthesis of microcystin. Furthermore, PS-NH2 promotes the extracellular release of microcystin from M. aeruginosa via transporter protein up-regulation and impaired cell membrane integrity. Our findings propose that the presence of nanoplastics in freshwater ecosystems might enhance the threat of eutrophication to aquatic ecology and human health.

3.
Nanoscale ; 12(3): 2063-2070, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912846

RESUMO

Bridging S22- moieties have been demonstrated to be highly active sites existing in metal polysulfides for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), thus the incorporation of high-density bridging S22- into a Ni3S2 material to improve its electrocatalytic HER performance is highly desirable and challenging. Herein, we report a novel Ni3S2 nanorod array decorated with (020)-oriented VS4 nanocrystals grown on nickel foam (Shig-NS-rod/NF) via a simple and facile solvothermal method. Results show that the in situ incorporation of VS4 not only triggers the formation of such a nanorod array structure, but also contributes to the uniform grafting of high-density and high catalytically active bridging S22- sites on the interface between Ni3S2 and VS4 for enhanced HER activity, and also promotes the absorption ability of OH- radicals and thus accelerates the HER Volmer step in alkaline media. As expected, the resultant Shig-NS-rod/NF material exhibits impressive catalytic performance toward the HER, with a much lower overpotential of 137 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and a long-term durability for at least 22 h, and is superior to Ni3S2 nanorod arrays with low-density bridging S22- (Slow-NS-rod/NF) and NS-film/NF counterparts (without VS4), even outperforming the NF-supported 20% Pt/C at a large current density of over 120 mA cm-2. Our findings put forward fresh insight into the rational design of highly efficient electrocatalysts toward the HER for green hydrogen fuel production.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 388: 122070, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954307

RESUMO

The emerging antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are increasingly appreciated to be as important as microbial contaminants. This paper focused on UV-activated persulfate (UV/PS), an advanced oxidation process, in removing ARB and ARGs from secondary wastewater effluent. Results showed that the inactivation efficiency of macrolides-resistant bacteria (MRB), sulfonamides-resistant bacteria (SRB), tetracyclines-resistant bacteria (TRB) and quinolones-resistant bacteria (QRB) by UV/PS reached 96.6 %, 94.7 %, 98.0 % and 99.9 % in 10 min, respectively. UV/PS also showed significant removal efficiency on ARGs. The reduction of total ARGs reached 3.84 orders of magnitude in UV/PS which is more than that in UV by 0.56 log. Particularly, the removal of mobile genetic elements (MGE) which might favor the horizontal gene transfer of ARGs among different microbial achieved 76.09 % by UV/PS. High-throughput sequencing revealed that UV/PS changed the microbial community. The proportions of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria that pose human health risks were 4.25 % and 1.6 % less than UV, respectively. Co-occurrence analyzes indicated that ARGs were differentially contributed by bacterial taxa. In UV/PS system, hydroxyl radical and sulfate radical contributed to the removal of bacteria and ARGs. Our study provided a new method of UV/PS to remove ARGs and ARB for wastewater treatment.

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 124: 109833, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958766

RESUMO

Pudilan Xiaoyan Oral Liquid (PDL) originated from "Pudilan" Classic Recipe of traditional Chinese medicine is one kind of anti-inflammatory Chinese patent medicine recorded in Chinese Pharmacopeia. PDL has been used clinically for treating inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. However, due to the complex composition of PDL, its potential anti-inflammation and the mechanism remain unknown. To identify the mechanism of the PDL in the treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury of mice. The mice models of lung injury were established and the changes of biochemical indices in serum and histopathology were detected to explore the effects of PDL. The approach of GC-MS metabolomics was used to find more significant metabolites, and the metabolic pathways were enriched through MetaboAnalyst. Then network analysis was applied to visualize the protein related to the important metabolites, merging into a protein-metabolite network via Cytoscape. The treatment of PDL could attenuate LPS-induced histopathological damage of lung tissues, followed by reducing pro-inflammation mediators including IL-10, TNF-a and NF-ĸB in serum. 11 potential metabolites were identified in lung tissue through metabolomics, which were significantly regulated to recover by PDL treatment. The correlated network was constructed by integrating potential metabolites and pathways. Aspartate and l-cysteine were selected as key metabolites and correlated proteins such as IL4I1 and ASPA were speculated as the potential target to treat LPS-induced lung injury using PDL. These results demonstrated that PDL might prevent the pathological process of lung injury through regulating the disturbed protein-metabolite network.

6.
Int J Mol Med ; 45(2): 485-496, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894256

RESUMO

Combined androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radiation therapy (RT) is the standard of care treatment for non­metastatic prostate cancer (NMPC). Despite the efficacy, treatment­related symptoms including fatigue greatly reduce the quality of life of cancer patients. The goal of the study is to examine the influence of combined ADT/RT on fatigue and understand its underlying mechanisms. A total of 64 participants with NMPC were enrolled. Fatigue was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy­Fatigue. Mitochondrial function parameters were measured as oxygen consumption from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) extracted from participants' whole blood. An ADT/RT­induced fatigue mouse model was developed, with fatigue measured as a reduction in voluntary wheel­running activity (VWRA) in 54 mice. Mitochondrial function was assessed in the ADT/RT mouse brains using western blot analysis of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and transcription factor A, mitochondrial (TFAM). The results demonstrated that fatigue in the ADT group was exacerbated during RT compared with the non­ADT group. This effect was specific to fatigue, as depressive symptoms were unaffected. PBMCs of fatigued subjects exhibited decreased ATP coupling efficiency compared to non­fatigued subjects, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. The ADT/RT mice demonstrated the synergistic effect of ADT and RT in decreasing VWRA. Brain tissues of ADT/RT mice exhibited decreased levels of GLUT4 and TFAM suggesting that impaired neuronal metabolic homeostasis may contribute to fatigue pathogenesis. In conclusion, these findings suggest that fatigue induced by ADT/RT may be attributable to mitochondrial dysfunction both peripherally and in the central nervous system (CNS). The synergistic effect of ADT/RT is behaviorally reproducible in a mouse model and its mechanism may be related to bioenergetics in the CNS.

7.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(1): 18-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950784

RESUMO

Objective: To study the expression and secretion of alternative complement pathway regulator complement factor H (CFH) in spontaneously produced or induced human embryonic stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (hESC-RPE). Methods: RPE cells were acquired by spontaneous differentiation from hESC (sdRPE), a source of hESC-RPE, according to the method used in clinical trials. RPE cells were also acquired under the induction of growth factors and small molecules for 14 d (iRPE). Acquired cells were kept culturing for 3 month for maturation. All differentiated cells(P3)were cultivated for 4-5 weeks prior to characterization with qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Secretion levels of CFH were investigated by ELISA. ARPE-19 cell line was served as control. Results: Both sdRPE and iRPE showed high similarity in cell morphology and the pattern of specific gene expression with human RPE. The relative CFH mRNA expression levels of both sdRPE and iRPE were significantly higher than that of ARPE-19 ( P<0.05). The CFH secretion levels of sdRPE in the 24 h-, 48 h- and 72 h-culture medium were higher than those of iRPE ( P=0.000 2); and this CFH secretion levels of both sdRPE and iRPE were higher than that of the ARPE-19 cell line ( P<0.000 1). Conclusion: Both sdRPE and iRPE derived by different differentiation methods expressed and secreted CFH, suggesting that hESC-RPE may have certain ability to regulate the alternative complement pathway.

8.
NMR Biomed ; : e4240, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977117

RESUMO

Retrospective electrocardiogram-gated, 2D phase-contrast (PC) flow MRI is routinely used in clinical evaluation of valvular/vascular disease in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). In patients not requiring general anesthesia, clinical standard PC is conducted with free breathing for several minutes per slice with averaging. In younger patients under general anesthesia, clinical standard PC is conducted with breath-holding. One approach to overcome this limitation is using either navigator gating or self-navigation of respiratory motion, at the expense of lengthening scan times. An alternative approach is using highly accelerated, free-breathing, real-time PC (rt-PC) MRI, which to date has not been evaluated in CHD patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a 38.4-fold accelerated 2D rt-PC pulse sequence using radial k-space sampling and compressed sensing with 1.5 × 1.5 × 6.0 mm3 nominal spatial resolution and 40 ms nominal temporal resolution, and evaluate whether it is capable of accurately measuring flow in 17 pediatric patients (aortic valve, pulmonary valve, right and left pulmonary arteries) compared with clinical standard 2D PC (either breath-hold or free breathing). For clinical translation, we implemented an integrated reconstruction pipeline capable of producing DICOMs of the order of 2 min per time series (46 frames). In terms of association, forward volume, backward volume, regurgitant fraction, and peak velocity at peak systole measured with standard PC and rt-PC were strongly correlated (R2 > 0.76; P < 0.001). Compared with clinical standard PC, in terms of agreement, forward volume (mean difference = 1.4% (3.0% of mean)) and regurgitant fraction (mean difference = -2.5%) were in good agreement, whereas backward volume (mean difference = -1.1 mL (28.2% of mean)) and peak-velocity at peak systole (mean difference = -21.3 cm/s (17.2% of mean)) were underestimated by rt-PC. This study demonstrates that the proposed rt-PC with the said spatial resolution and temporal resolution produces relatively accurate forward volumes and regurgitant fractions but underestimates backward volumes and peak velocities at peak systole in pediatric patients with CHD.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909399

RESUMO

Control of magnetic performances of molecular magnets is essential but few efforts have been documented. A green and efficient sonication assisted synthesis of a new heterometallic diruthenium(ii,iii) carbonate, Na[Ni(H2O)4Ru2(CO3)4]·3H2O (1), was carried out by self-assembling in aqueous solution. Compound 1 exhibits spin-glass behavior below ∼5.0 K, and a systematic investigation of the ultrasonic irradiation influence on the powder samples reveals that their coercivity increases from 50 Oe to 743 Oe with the control of ultrasonic power under appropriate conditions.

10.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898761

RESUMO

Tick blood meals are stored and digested in their midguts. Blood digestion is complex, and many proteins are involved. Study of the tick-derived proteins in the midgut content may aid in the discovery of active molecules that would be useful for anti-tick vaccines. We analyzed the midgut content proteomes of partially engorged female Haemaphysalis flava, fully engorged female H. flava, and hedgehog serum using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry and label-free quantitation. In this study, high-confidence protein profiling of tick midgut content was determined. Based on the search against our in-house transcriptome database, the 28 high-confidence proteins were identified. Of these, 17 were identified as tick-derived, and the rest were of unspecified origin (proteins that could not be differentiated as host-derived or tick-derived proteins). The function of these midgut content proteins identified here may involve nutrient transportation, anti-coagulation, erythrocyte lysis, detoxification, lipid metabolism, and immunization. The presence of hemoglobin suggested that the red blood cells were lysed in the gut lumen. The midgut contents contain a large amount of fibrinogen and it has the ability to clot immediately. The midgut contained mostly host-derived proteins, and these host proteins provide rich nutrients for tick development and reproduction. However, some intracellular proteins were also identified, suggesting the possibility of shedding of the midgut epithelium and ingestion of saliva during feeding. This finding advances our understanding of the digestive mechanism and will be useful in the screening of vaccine antigens.

11.
Water Res ; 170: 115339, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805497

RESUMO

Combination of ultraviolet and chloramine (i.e., UV/chloramine) treatment has been attracting increasingly attention in recent years due to its high efficiency in removing trace organic contaminants. This study investigated the degradation behaviors of two pyrazolone pharmaceuticals (i.e., Isopropyl phenazone (PRP) and Aminopyrine (AMP)) and their genetic toxicity variations during UV/chloramine treatment. The results showed that chloramine could hardly degrade PRP and AMP, while UV/chloramine greatly increased the observed first-order rate constant (kobs) of PRP and AMP degradation. The quenching and probe experiments illustrated that the reactive chlorine species (RCS) contributed dominantly to PRP removal, and hydroxyl radical (HO•) was the major contributor to the degradation of AMP, while the reactive amine radicals (RNS) could hardly degrade them. The overall degradation rates of PRP and AMP decreased as pH increased from 6.5 to 10. The kobs of PRP and AMP increased along with NH2Cl dosage increasing and reached a plateau at higher concentrations (0.2-0.5 mM). The present background carbonate (HCO3-, 1-10 mM), chloride (Cl-, 1-10 mM) and natural organic matter (NOM, 5-10 mg-C L-1) exhibited inhibition impacts on PRP and AMP degradation. In addition, the intermediates/products of PRP and AMP were identified and their general degradation pathways were proposed to be hydroxylation, deacetylation, and dephenylization. Specifically, Cl-substitution was inferred during PRP degradation, while demethylation in tertiary amine group was only observed in AMP degradation. These mechanisms including the main reactive sites of PRP and AMP were further confirmed by the frontier orbitals calculation. Moreover, the results of the genetic toxicity according to the micronucleus test of Viciafaba root tip indicated that UV/chloramine treatment could partially reduce the genetic toxicity of PRP and AMP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Aminopirina , Antipirina/análogos & derivados , Cloraminas , Cloro , Cinética , Oxirredução , Raios Ultravioleta
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134686, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731150

RESUMO

Magnesium phosphate potassium cement (MKPC) can be potentially used for solidification/stabilization (S/S) treatment of hazardous wastes. The influence of inorganic salts on the hydration process and microstructure of cementitious materials must be considered, especially to assess the performance of the S/S treatment of wastes with a high nitrate content. Hence, in this study, the hydration process and microstructure of MKPC specimens were investigated, along with their variations in compressive strength setting time, pH, and conductivity. The pore structure, phases composition, and elemental composition of the specimens were investigated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed that although the potassium nitrate (KNO3) solution did not affect the formation of struvite-K, it affected the crystallization degree of struvite-K, where its microstructure changed from dense, plate-like and prismatic crystals into loose, cluster-like crystals at higher amounts of nitrate. Furthermore, the addition of nitrate delayed the setting time and slowed the pH growth during the hydration process of the MKPC. The nitrate solution hindered the hydration process of the MKPC specimens and increased their porosity. When the amount of nitrate was less than 5 wt%, the effect of nitrate on the hydration and hardening of the MKPC was small. However, at higher amounts of nitrate, the nitrate ions had a negative effect on the compressive strength development of the MKPC and the hydration process was delayed.

13.
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1099-1105, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid with several functions in the human body. Although freeze-thawing could effectively accumulate GABA in soybean sprouts, the mechanism has not been revealed. The mechanism by which freeze-thawing enhances GABA accumulation in germinated soybean was revealed by evaluating GABA content, the activity of related synthesis enzymes, and the microstructure of the tissues and cells of sprouts. The germinated soybeans were treated at different temperatures (from -196 °C to 25 °C) for 12 h and then thawed at 25 °C for 6 h. RESULTS: The results showed that GABA content in frozen soybean sprouts did not change significantly before thawing. After thawing, the GABA content of sprouts increased by 83.9% and 82.9% when treated by liquid nitrogen flash freeze at - 80 °C for 12 h compared with the control (4 °C treatment for 12 h). The results indicated that GABA formation mainly occurred during thawing. However, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), diamine oxidase (DAO), and aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) activity decreased during thawing. Based on the malonaldehyde (MDA) content and microstructure of sprouts, it was suggested that freezing at lower temperatures (< -20 °C) maintained the integrity of the cell structure, while the tissues and cell membranes were broken during thawing. CONCLUSION: These results could provide evidence for the hypothesis that GABA formation resulted from full contact between enzymes and substrates during thawing, rather than the contribution of higher enzyme activity. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113693, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838391

RESUMO

2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is associated with various adverse human health effects; however, the knowledge of its toxicity is still very limited. Mitochondrial injury has been observed in liver cells exposed to BDE-47 in vitro. Mitophagy impairment causes the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, contributing to the pathological mechanisms of liver injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDE-47 impairs mitophagy to trigger mitochondrial dysfunction-related liver injury and the underlying mechanisms. This study revealed that BDE-47 elicited mitochondrial dysfunction and related oxidative liver injury by impairing mitophagy. Moreover, our results showed that NAD+ insufficiency is responsible for BDE-47-mediated mitophagy defect and mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse livers, which was associated with suppression of Sirt3/FoxO3a/PINK1 signaling. Furthermore, our results indicated a potential role of miR-34a-5p in the hepatotoxicity of BDE-47. Mechanistically, BDE-47 dramatically upregulated miR-34a-5p expression in mouse livers. The data from AAV-sponge-mediated miR-34a-5p inhibition suggested that miR-34a-5p diminished NAD+ level by directly targeting NAMPT expression in BDE-47-treated mouse livers, which was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Consequently, miR-34a-5p markedly abated Sirt3/FoxO3a/PINK1 signaling-mediated mitophagy to promote mitochondrial dysfunction in BDE-47-treated mouse livers. The present study provided in vivo evidence to reveal a potential mechanism for BDE-47-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and related liver injury and indicated that miR-34a-5p-mediated mitophagy impairment might be a therapeutic target for BDE-47 toxicity.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(23): 11358-11368, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822638

RESUMO

microRNA-9 ("miR-9"), upregulated in human gastric cancer (GC) tissues, targets LMX1A (LIM homeobox transcription factor 1α) to promote GC cell progression. The underlying mechanism of miR-9 upregulation in GC is still unknown. Through searching multiple long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) databases, we here discovered that the long non-coding RNA LINC00682 (long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 682) putatively targets miR-9. We show that ectopic overexpression of LINC00682 induced miR-9 downregulation but LMX1A upregulation, inhibiting AGS cell survival, proliferation, migration and invasion. Significant apoptosis activation was detected in LINC00682-overexpressed AGS cells. Contrarily, LINC00682 knockdown induced miR-9 upregulation but LMX1A downregulation, promoting AGS cell survival, proliferation, migration and invasion. In the primary human GC cells, forced LINC00682 overexpression similarly induced miR-9 downregulation and LMX1A upregulation, causing proliferation inhibition and apoptosis activation. Significantly, restoring miR-9 expression by a lentiviral construct reversed LINC00682-induced actions in GC cells. Furthermore, LINC00682 was ineffective in LMX1A KO AGS cells. Importantly, LINC00682 expression levels are significantly downregulated in human GC tissues. We conclude that LINC00682 inhibits GC cell progression via targeting miR-9-LMX1A signaling axis.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784887

RESUMO

Galectins are an ancient family of lectins characterized by evolutionarily conserved amino acid sequences and ß-galactoside recognition and binding sites. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is one of 15 known galectins. This protein has important functions in numerous biological activities, including cardiac fibrosis and heart failure. In recent years, many studies have shown that Gal-3 is closely associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and may be a promising biomarker for the assessment of severity as well as prognosis prediction in AMI patients, but controversy still exists. In this review, we summarize the latest literature on the relationship between Gal-3 and unstable plaques, the secretion kinetics of Gal-3 during the acute phase of AMI, and the value of Gal-3 in the prediction of post-AMI remodeling. Finally, the possible value of Gal-3 as a biological target for AMI therapy is examined.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785080

RESUMO

Edge loading that occurs in hip joint replacements due to dynamic separation of the joint bearings has been shown to cause severe wear for meal-on-metal bearings. In the present study, the multibody dynamics model for metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joints with a medial-lateral translational mismatch in the centers of rotation of the cup and head has been developed to predict the dynamic separation and contact force of edge loading under gait loading conditions. The effects of larger head diameters (28-55 mm), in combination with the translational mismatch (0-4 mm) and varied cup inclination angles (45°-65°), on edge loading of MoM bearings have been computationally investigated. For the given translational mismatch, increasing head diameters results in negligible effects on the dynamic separation, contact force and severity of edge loading. Increasing head size also leads to increased offset loading torque which has been found to reach at the level that may cause cup loosening under larger translational mismatch at 4 mm. The result highlights the importance of the cup inclination angle of 45° and a lower translational mismatch to avoid severe edge loading.

19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785090

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is an emerging and re-emerging epizootic virus of swine that causes substantial economic losses to the pig industry in China and other countries. The variations in the virus, and its co-infections with other enteric viruses, have contributed to the poor control of PEDV infection. In the current study, a broad epidemiological investigation of PEDV was carried out in 22 provinces or municipalities of China during 2015-2018. The enteric viruses causing co-infection with PEDV and the genetic diversity of the PEDV S1 gene were also analysed. The results indicated that, of the 543 diarrhoea samples, 66.85% (363/543) were positive for PEDV, and co-infection rates of PEDV with 13 enteric viruses ranged from 3.58% (13/363) to 81.55% (296/363). Among these enteric viruses, the signs of diarrhoea induced by PEDV were potentially associated with co-infections with porcine enterovirus 9/10 (PEV) and torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV-2) (p < .05). The 147 PEDV strains identified in our study belong to Chinese pandemic strains and exhibited genetic diversity. The virulence-determining S1 proteins of PEDV pandemic strains were undergoing amino acid mutations, in which S58_S58insQGVN-N135dup-D158_I159del-like mutations were common patterns (97.28%, 143/147). When compared with 2011-2014 PEDV strains, the amino acid mutations of PEDV pandemic strains were mainly located in the N-terminal domain of S1 (S1-NTD), and 21 novel mutations occurred in 2017 and 2018. Furthermore, protein homology modelling showed that the mutations in pattern of insertion and deletion mutations of the S1 protein of PEDV pandemic strains may have caused structural changes on the surface of the S1 protein. These data provide a better understanding of the co-infection and genetic evolution of PEDV in China.

20.
Insect Sci ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829500

RESUMO

Peroxidasin plays a unique role in the formation and stability of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the animal kingdom; however, it was only characterized in Diptera, not in other insect orders. In this study peroxidasin (CsPxd) was first identified and characterized from Chilo suppressalis, a lepidopteran pest. CsPxd complementary DNA with a 4080 bp open reading frame encodes a peptide of 1359 amino acids; the derived amino acid sequence of CsPxd harbors the typical structural characteristics of peroxidasin family in heme-peroxidase superfamily, including the signal peptide at N-terminal, leucine-rich repeat domain, Ig-loop motifs and peroxidase domain, signifying the extracellular location of protein and the involvement in ECM formation. Eukaryotic expression reveals CsPxd protein displays peroxidase activity on H2 O2 , justifying the membership of peroxidase. Phyletic analysis shows the monophyletic evolution pattern of peroxidasin in insect phyle, and moreover only one peroxidasin is present in each species of insects, suggesting its evolutionary conservation on function. Peroxidasin messenger RNA is mainly expressed in egg and the final instar larvae stage. Injection of peroxidasin double-stranded RNA into the final instar larvae impacts the cuticle sclerotization during the metamorphosis from larvae to pupa, and eventually lead to lethality of larvae and pupa. These results suggest the presence of collagen crosslink in chorion and cuticle of insects, and indicate peroxidasin plays a role in the development of chorion and cuticle; furthermore peroxidasin might be the one of potential target genes for pest control using RNA interference.

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