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1.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075882

RESUMO

Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the risk of infection to a mother and neonate, but antibiotic-mediated maternal and neonatal microbiota dysbiosis increases other health risks to newborn infants. We studied the impact of perinatal antibiotic prophylaxis on the microbiota in mothers and newborns with full-term or preterm delivery. Ninety-eight pregnant women and their neonates were divided into the following four groups: full term without antibiotic exposure (FT), full term with antibiotic exposure (FTA), preterm without antibiotic exposure (PT), and preterm with antibiotic exposure (PTA). Bacterial composition was analyzed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene from maternal vaginal swabs (V) and neonatal meconium (F). The results showed that in maternal vaginal and neonatal meconium microbiota, FT and PT groups had a higher load of Lactobacillus spp. than did the FTA and PTA groups. In addition, whether in the mother or newborn, the dissimilarity in microbiota between FT and PT was the lowest compared to that between other groups. Compared to the FT and PT groups, the dissimilarity in microbial structures between the vagina and meconium decreased in the FTA and PTA groups. The health outcome of infants reveals an association between early-onset sepsis and antibiotic-mediated microbiota dysbiosis. In conclusion, perinatal antibiotic exposure is related to the establishment of gut microbiota and health risks in newborns. Promoting the rational usage of antibiotics with pregnant women will improve neonatal health.IMPORTANCE Perinatal antibiotic prophylaxis is an effective method for preventing group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection in newborns. Antibiotic exposure unbalances women's vaginal microbiota, which is associated with the establishment of the newborn gut microbiota. However, the influence of perinatal antibiotic exposure on neonatal gut microbiota colonization and health outcomes remains unclear. In this study, we found that perinatal antibiotic exposure induced microbiota dysbiosis in a woman's vagina and the neonatal gut, and we highlight a significant decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. The influence of antibiotic use on the microbiota was greater than that from gestational age. Additionally, full-term newborns without antibiotic exposure had no evidence of early-onset sepsis, whereas in full-term or preterm newborns with antibiotic exposure before birth, at least one infant was diagnosed with early-onset sepsis. These results suggest an association between perinatal antibiotic exposure and microbial dysbiosis in maternal vaginal and neonatal gut environments, which may be related to the occurrence of early-onset sepsis.

2.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 2020 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957071

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a dependent risk factor in the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). High glucose supply has negative effects on nucleus pulpous (NP) cell and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) biology. However, the effect of hyperglycaemia on the biological characterization of nucleus pulpous-derived mesenchymal stem cell (NPMSC) has not been investigated previously. Therefore, further exploration of the effects of DM-associated hyperglycaemia on NPMSC biology is important to better understand and develop endogenous repair strategies of DM patient-associated IVDD. Therefore, the cell biological characteristics were compared between NPMSC cultured in media with low glucose concentration (LG-NPMSC) and high glucose concentration (HG-NPMSC). The results demonstrated that HG-NPMSC showed significantly decreased cell proliferation, colony formation ability, migration and wound-healing capability compared with those of LG-NPMSC. HG-NPMSC also showed significantly decreased expressions of stemness genes and mRNA and protein expressions of silent information regulator protein 1 (SIRT1), SIRT6, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), whereas increased cell apoptosis, cell senescence and caspase-3 expression. These results suggest that high glucose may decrease proliferation and stemness maintenance ability and increase apoptosis and senescence of NPMSC. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: We found that high glucose concentration significantly decreased cell proliferation, colony formation ability, migration and wound-healing capability of nucleus pulposus-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Moreover, high glucose cultured nucleus pulposus-derived mesenchymal stem cells showed significantly decreased expression of stemness genes, related mRNA and protein, whereas increased cell apoptosis, cell senescence and expression of caspase-3. The present study indicated that better control of high concentration glucose in the early stage of diabetes mellitus should be recommended to prevent or limit intervertebral disc degeneration.

3.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996972

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: BoFL, a candidate gene conferring the feathered-leaved trait in ornamental kale, is located in a 374.532-kb region on chromosome C9. Leaf shape is an important economic trait in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Identifying the genes that influence leaf shape would provide insight into the mechanism underlying leaf development. In this study, we constructed F1, F2, BC1P1, BC1P2, and F2:3 populations from a cross between a feathered-leaved inbred line, F0819, and a smooth-leaved inbred line, S0835, of ornamental kale. Genetic analysis showed that the feathered-leaved trait was controlled by a semi-dominant gene, BoFL. Using bulked segregant analysis sequencing, we mapped the BoFL gene to a 4.17-Mb interval on chromosome C9. Next, we narrowed down the candidate region to 374.532-kb by fine-scale mapping between the two flanking markers INDEL940 and INDEL5443. We identified 38 genes in the candidate region, among which only Bo9g184610 showed significant variation in expression level between the two parental lines. Sequencing of the gene in the parental lines identified three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences, containing two nonsynonymous and one synonymous SNPs, which resulted in coding variations of an aspartate and a phenylalanine residue in F0819, but an alanine and a leucine residue in S0835. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker, CAPS4610, corresponding to the first nonsynonymous SNP co-segregated with the leaf shape trait. We thus speculated that the gene conferring the feathered-leaved trait is BoALG10, a homolog of ALG10, which encodes an alpha-1,2-glucosyltransferase in Arabidopsis thaliana. This work will be useful for understanding the mechanism of leaf development and provides important information for the breeding of kale with novel leaf shapes.

4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 229: 117935, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951940

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to use advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy (ATR-Ft/IRS) to study an interaction between legume protein molecular structure from biodegradation residues and nutritional properties of newly developed genotypes of cool-climate adapted faba bean seed with low and normal tannin levels grown in western Canada. Protein molecular structures including amide I, II areas and peak heights, α-helix and ß-sheet peak heights in rumen biodegradation residues were determined by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared molecular spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The nutritional properties were determined which included chemical and nutrient profiles, in situ rumen degradation kinetics, rumen protein degradation, and intestinal protein digestion in the newly developed genotypes of faba bean seeds with low and normal tannin levels. The results showed that the spectral intensity of faba bean varieties with a normal tannin level in rumen biodegradation residues was greater (P < 0.05) than that with a low tannin level. The spectral intensity of amide I, II areas and peak heights, α-helix and ß-sheet peak heights in all genotypes (except the variety of Snowdrop) in biodegradation residuals of faba bean seeds had a unique pattern with increasing first and then decreasing with the increasing of rumen incubation time. The molecular structures of protein (α-helix, ratio of α-helix to ß-sheet height and amide I to II area, R2 > 0.6) were associated with in situ degradation kinetics - soluble (S) and potential degradable fractions (D) and rumen protein degradation- bypass or undegraded protein (BCP or RUP). The molecular spectral parameters in the FTIR fingerprint region didn't form cluster among different genotypes in residual faba bean seeds in 12 h and 24 h incubation, which indicate they had similar protein molecular structures after incubation. In conclusion, there was an interaction between protein molecular structure from biodegradation residues and nutritional properties of newly developed cool-climate adapted faba bean seeds with normal and low level of tannin. The cool-climate adapted genotype had an impact on the protein molecular structure, and the protein utilization and metabolism were predictable from protein spectral molecular structures after rumen biodegradation with ATR-Ft/IRS spectroscopy.

5.
Gut Microbes ; : 1-12, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971861

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) causes high morbidity and mortality worldwide, and noninvasive gut microbiome (GM) biomarkers are promising for early CRC diagnosis. However, the GM varies significantly based on ethnicity, diet and living environment, suggesting varied GM biomarker performance in different regions. We performed a metagenomic association analysis on stools from 52 patients and 55 corresponding healthy family members who lived together to identify GM biomarkers for CRC in Chongqing, China. The GM of patients differed significantly from that of healthy controls. A total of 22 microbial genes were included as screening biomarkers with high accuracy in additional 46 cases and 40 randomly selected healthy adults in Chongqing (area under the receive-operation curve (AUC) = 0.905, 95% CI 0.832-0.977). The classifier based on the identified 22 biomarkers also performed well in the cohort from Hong Kong (AUC = 0.811, 95% CI 0.715-0.907) and French (AUC = 0.859, 95% CI 0.773-0.944) populations. Quantitative PCR was applied for measuring three selected biomarkers in the classification of CRC patients in independent Chongqing population containing 30 cases and 30 controls and the best biomarker from Coprobacillus performed well with high AUC (0.930, 95% CI 0.904-0.955). This study revealed increased sensitivity and applicability of our GM biomarkers compared with previous biomarkers significantly promoting the early diagnosis of CRC.

6.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(2): 40, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897805

RESUMO

There is a need to develop in vitro dissolution methods that discriminate for particle size of the manipulated abuse deterrent formulation (ADF) and that can be used for in vivo predictive models since dissolution methods developed for intact formulation might not be suitable for manipulated ones. A vertical diffusion cell (VDC) and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Apparatus 1, 2, and 4 were evaluated for measuring the dissolution of intact and manipulated metoprolol succinate tablets with abuse deterrent-like properties. These tablets were physically manipulated to produce fine (106-500 µm) and coarse (500-1000 µm) powder samples. The VDC method was not able to discriminate the effect of particle size on drug release with varied stirring rate (200 to 800 rpm), molecular weight cut-off (MWCO, 3-5 kDa to 12-14 kDa) of the diffusion membrane, or composition and ionic strength (0.45% and 0.9%) of receiver medium. Standard and modified USP Apparatus 1 and 2 methods were assessed; however, large variations (RSD > 20%) were observed with USP Apparatus 1 for manipulated product dissolution and floating powder samples caused failure of auto-sampling when using standard USP Apparatus 2. For the USP Apparatus 4 dissolution method, packing configuration (1, 3, 8 layers and blend), ionic strength of dissolution medium (0.017, 0.077, and 0.154 M additional NaCl), and flow rate (4, 8, 16 mL/min) were studied to discriminate the effect of particle size on release. The USP Apparatus 4 dissolution method was optimized by using a packaging configuration of 8 layers with 8 mL/min flow rate which exhibited low variability and complete drug release and it could be used for in vivo predictive models. The dissolution method variables can be optimized for a specific product for desirable reproducibility and discriminatory power when using USP Apparatus 4.

7.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allicin can suppress liver and cardiac fibrosis; thus, we hypothesized that it might prevent scar tissue from extensive epidural fibrosis after laminectomy. METHODS: Human epidural scar fibroblasts were isolated from surgical specimens and treated with allicin at a gradient of concentrations. Morphology, viability, migration rate, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were measured by fluorescence microscope, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, scratch assay, and flow cytometry. Western blot was used to measure the expression level of proliferation-related proteins. RESULTS: After treatment by allicin, cell viability (P = 0.042) and migration rate (P = 0.010 in scratch assay and P = 0.025 in transwell assay) decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The percentage of G1 phase cells significantly decreased (P = 0.017), whereas the percentage of S phase cells (P = 0.096) and G2 phase cells (P = 0.038) significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the percentage of apoptotic cells increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P = 0.036). Compared with the control group, the expression level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein (P = 0.081) and Bcl-2 protein (P = 0.029) significantly decreased, whereas the BAX protein level significantly increased (P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Allicin can suppress human epidural scar fibroblast migration, induce cell apoptosis, and block cell proliferation at S phase and G2 phase.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(2): 1272-1284, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959736

RESUMO

Male late-onset hypogonadism is an age-related disease, the core mechanism of which is dysfunction of senescent Leydig cells. Recent studies have shown that elimination of senescent cells can restore proper homeostasis to aging tissue. In the present study, we found that the fork head box O (FOXO) transcription factor FOXO4 was specially expressed in human Leydig cells and that its translocation to the nucleus in the elderly was related to decreased testosterone synthesis. Using hydrogen peroxide-induced senescent TM3 Leydig cells as an in vitro model, we observed that FOXO4 maintains the viability of senescent Leydig cells and suppresses their apoptosis. By disrupting the FOXO4-p53 interaction, FOXO4-DRI, a specific FOXO4 blocker, selectively induced p53 nuclear exclusion and apoptosis in senescent Leydig cells. In naturally aged mice, FOXO4-DRI improved the testicular microenvironment and alleviated age-related testosterone secretion insufficiency. These findings reveal the therapeutic potential of FOXO4-DRI for the treatment of male late-onset hypogonadism.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 49(7): 2159-2167, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994553

RESUMO

The effect of screening the CoII moment of monomeric [CoIIL2(H2O)] (L = 8-hydroxyquinaldine), having a trigonal bipyramid coordination, by diamagnetic Zn in CoxZn1-x solid solutions on its magnetic relaxation was explored using ac-susceptibility, high-field electron-spin-resonance measurements and CASPT2 calculations. The retention of the crystal structure for all the solid solutions was demonstrated using single crystal diffraction. The dc-magnetization and theoretical fittings of the susceptibility for Co1 and Co0.1Zn0.9 gave a large zero-field-splitting (ZFS) D of 50 ± 6 cm-1, and very weak dipole interaction between the nearest neighbors, while EPR and calculations confirmed the positive sign of the axial component (D). Consistent parameters were obtained from experiments and theory. Importantly, only field-induced relaxation was observed for the samples with less than 50% Co and a gradual change in the barrier energy to moment reversal and relaxation times was observed between 11% and 20% Co, while both were enhanced for higher dilutions. The results establish a clear barrier for extending the longevity of the magnetism for this type of single-ion species by lowering the intramolecular interactions. The results suggest that the magnetic interaction persists up to the second sphere, that is, for a dilution of 1 in 9 (11% Co). Importantly, this method is applicable to all single-ion magnet systems, that is, the optimum dilution concentration to restrain the dipole field can be given only by the single crystal structure.

10.
Per Med ; 17(1): 15-22, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797717

RESUMO

Aim: This study investigated the association between voriconazole-induced liver injury and gene polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and UGT1A4. Materials & methods: Thirty-eight adult patients who received voriconazole therapy were included in the study. Genotype of CYP2C19 was detected using gene chip hybrid analysis. The UGT1A4 142T>G was genotyped using PCR-RFLP analysis. Results: Ten patients (26.3%) had voriconazole-induced liver injury and were considered as the case group There was no significant difference between the two groups in genotype and allele frequencies of CYP2C19*2 and UGT1A4 142T>G (p > 0.05), however, the GA frequency of CYP2C19 *3 in the drug-induced liver injury case group was higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05). Compared with patients carrying *1/*1 or *1/*2, there was no significant difference in voriconazole trough concentration of the patients with *1/*3 (p > 0.05). Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between voriconazole-induced liver injury and gene polymorphisms of CYP2C19 and UGT1A4.

11.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 36(1): e3174, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050384

RESUMO

It has been reported that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors could increase blood viscosity, which may further increase risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between SGLT2 inhibitors and risk of VTE in patients with type 2 diabetes. We systematically searched electronic databases up to April 2019 to identify randomized trials that reported the events of VTE in SGLT2 inhibitors group and control group (placebo or other active antidiabetic drugs). The primary outcome was VTE, and secondary outcomes included deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate the risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. In total, 29 randomized trials involving 56 035 patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Incidence of VTE was not significantly different between SGLT2 inhibitors group and control group (128/32 038 vs 92/23 997), yielding an RR of 0.98 (95% CI, 0.75-1.28). Similarly, null associations were observed in the subgroup analyses. Our cumulative meta-analysis demonstrated the stability of our overall result over time. There was no significant association between SGLT2 inhibitors and risk of both DVT (17 trials; 31/17 442 vs 15/10 930; RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.60-1.89) and PE (19 trials; 56/26 118 vs 41/19 517; RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.67-1.46). Low statistical heterogeneity and no evidence of publication bias were observed. Current evidence from randomized trials found no association between SGLT2 inhibitors and risk of VTE among patients with type 2 diabetes.

12.
Bioinformatics ; 36(1): 49-55, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218360

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Cell divisions start from replicating the double-stranded DNA, and the DNA replication process needs to be precisely regulated both spatially and temporally. The DNA is replicated starting from the DNA replication origins. A few successful prediction models were generated based on the assumption that the DNA replication origin regions have sequence level features like physicochemical properties significantly different from the other DNA regions. RESULTS: This study proposed a feature selection procedure to further refine the classification model of the DNA replication origins. The experimental data demonstrated that as large as 26% improvement in the prediction accuracy may be achieved on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, the prediction accuracies of the DNA replication origins were improved for all the four yeast genomes investigated in this study. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The software sefOri version 1.0 was available at http://www.healthinformaticslab.org/supp/resources.php. An online server was also provided for the convenience of the users, and its web link may be found in the above-mentioned web page. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

13.
Infect Drug Resist ; 12: 3807-3816, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824178

RESUMO

Purpose: Talaromyces marneffei (T.M) is an intracellular opportunistic fungus that causes invasive mycosis in patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) caused by T.M infection is extremely rare. Here, we analyzed the clinical features, immune mechanisms, treatment, and prognosis related to this comorbidity. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted between August 2012 and February 2019 at multiple research centers. Patients who presented with culture and/or histopathological proof of talaromycosis-associated HLH were included. Results: HIV-negative patients (n = 126) were enrolled. Of nine patients with T.M infection combined with secondary HLH, six were preschool children (five boys and one girl), and three were adults (two men and one woman). Seven of these nine had underlying diseases or recurrent infections. The most common symptoms were fever, anemia, hypoproteinemia, cough, weight loss, oral thrush, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, digestive symptoms, joint pain, and dyspnea. All patients showed reduced hemoglobin concentrations and platelet numbers. Liver dysfunction, hyperferritinemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and low natural killer cell numbers were observed. Eight of nine patients received antifungal therapy, one patient did not receive therapy, and two of nine patients received anti-HLH therapy. Four died during treatment. Conclusion: T.M fungemia associated with HLH was related to high mortality. Once diagnosed, timely and effective antifungal treatments and supportive care are essential.

14.
Cell Rep ; 29(11): 3693-3707.e5, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825845

RESUMO

When the core body temperature is higher than 40°C, life is threatened due to heatstroke. Tumor repressor p53 is required for heat-induced apoptosis at hyperthermia conditions (>41°C). However, its role in sub-heatstroke conditions (≤40°C) remains unclear. Here, we reveal that both zebrafish and human p53 promote survival at 40°C, the heatstroke threshold temperature, by preventing a hyperreactive heat shock response (HSR). At 40°C, both Hsf1 and Hsp90 are activated. Hsf1 upregulates the expression of Hsc70 to trigger Hsc70-mediated protein degradation, whereas Hsp90 stabilizes p53 to repress the expression of Hsf1 and Hsc70, which prevents excessive HSR to maintain cell homeostasis. Under hyperthermia conditions, ATM is activated to phosphorylate p53 at S37, which increases BAX expression to induce apoptosis. Furthermore, growth of p53-deficient tumor xenografts, but not that of their p53+/+ counterparts, was inhibited by 40°C treatment. Our findings may provide a strategy for individualized therapy for p53-deficient cancers.

15.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(4): 783-792, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Citrus fruit are suggested to be associated with reduced risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but findings from epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to synthesize the association by conducting a meta-analysis of existing evidence. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Databases including Medline, EMBASE, Web of science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies up to March 2019 using a series comprehensive searching terms. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of citrus fruit intake with NPC risk from each study were extracted to calculate a pooled association estimate with its 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Nine studies totaling 3304 cases and 3850 controls were included in this analysis. Citrus fruit intake was significantly associated with reduced risk of NPC (OR: 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.91, p=0.005). In addition, this association tended to be stronger in Chinese (OR: 0.67, 95% CI 0.54-0.84, p<0.001). Dose-response analysis using cubic splines showed the risk of NPC decreased by 21% for citrus fruit intake of 4 times/week (OR: 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of citrus fruit was associated with a significantly reduced risk of NPC, especially in Chinese.

17.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 2697-2709, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819402

RESUMO

Purpose: Elastin peptides (EP) can induce lung inflammation and emphysema. Erythromycin has been shown to decrease acute exacerbation frequency and delay lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and ameliorate emphysema in murine models; however, the mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to observe the preventive and immunomodulatory effects of erythromycin in a mouse model of EP-induced emphysema. Methods: In the in vivo study, Balb/c mice were treated with EP intranasally on day 0, and then administered erythromycin (100 mg/kg) or vehicle orally on day 1, which was continued every other day. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke were used as an emphysema positive control. The severity of emphysema and inflammation in the lungs of EP-exposed mice with or without erythromycin treatment were observed on day 40 after EP administration. In the in vitro study, naïve CD4+T cells were isolated from healthy mice spleens and stimulated by EP with or without erythromycin incubation. Flow cytometry was used to measure the proportions of Th1, Th17, and Treg cells. ELISA was used to detect cytokine levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-6, and TGF-ß. Transcript levels of Ifnγ, IL17a, and Foxp3 were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Results: After exposure to EP, Th1 and Th17 cell percentages and the levels of inflammatory cytokines increased in vivo and in vitro, while Treg cells decreased in vivo. Erythromycin reduced IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-6 inflammatory cytokines, MLI, and the inflammation score in the lungs of EP-exposed mice. In vitro, erythromycin also limited Th17 and Th1 cell differentiation and downregulated transcript levels of Ifnγ and IL17a in the EP-stimulated CD4+T cells. Conclusion: The Th1 and Th17 cell responses were increased in EP-induced emphysema. Prophylactic use of erythromycin effectively ameliorated emphysema and modulated CD4+T cells responses in EP-induced lung inflammation in mice.

18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 3179-3185, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854716

RESUMO

In a cyclic alternating O/A operation mode, phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) can undertake phosphate removal and enrichment as the main process in wastewater treatment plants. The effects of the concentration of carbon sources during the aerobic stage on phosphate removal and enrichment performance of PAO biofilms, and the microbial population structure in the biofilms, were investigated. The results showed that the aerobic COD concentration decreased from 200 mg·L-1 to 0 mg·L-1, the phosphorus uptake rate improved by 1.29 times, the phosphorus concentration in effluent stabilized below 0.5 mg·L-1, the phosphorus release rate increased by 3.56 times, and the phosphate concentration in the circulating solution increased from 27.125 mg·L-1 to 55.91 mg·L-1. With respect to the change in microbial communities, the identification showed that the abundance of Proteobacteria increased by approximately two times, and the enrichment effects of Rhodocyclaceae and Anaerolineaceae increased by 2.28 and 5 times, respectively. Reducing the concentration of the carbon source in the aerobic section was beneficial to the screening and enrichment of PAOs, strengthening the removal of phosphate in the aerobic section and the release of phosphate in the anaerobic section. This resulted in an enriched phosphate solution. These observations provide a theoretical basis for future urban sewage treatment plants seeking to reduce their carbon demand.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Carbono , Fosfatos/isolamento & purificação , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Fósforo , Proteobactérias , Rhodocyclaceae , Esgotos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679099

RESUMO

Children of depressed mothers are at risk for maladaptive emotion regulation. This study examined a model of maternal rumination that links maternal depressive symptoms to child emotion regulation. A sample of 126 mother-child dyads (65 girls) participated in the current study, at three assessment points when children were age three, four, and five. At all assessment points, mothers reported their depressive symptoms and ruminative response style. Child emotion regulation was assessed observationally from two laboratory tasks, which were designed to elicit anger and sadness. Elevated maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher concurrent rumination. Maternal rumination at child age four predicted that more child focus on distress during sadness-eliciting tasks and less child active distraction during anger-eliciting tasks 1 year later. Additionally, maternal rumination at child age three and four predicted less child passive behaviors in anger-eliciting tasks prospectively. Findings suggest that maternal rumination is predictive of using maladaptive regulatory strategies among children of depressed mothers. This study has significant implications for intervention programs targeting depressed mothers and their children.

20.
J Fam Psychol ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670561

RESUMO

The socialization of emotion in preschool-aged children is an important developmental task, which is associated with a number of socioemotional outcomes. This study examined the contribution of both fathers' and mothers' emotion coaching to their 3- to 4-year-old children's emotion socialization. Two time points of data were collected for 69 families. We employed a time sampling observational method to capture the emotion socialization process in the naturalistic home environment. Fathers' and mothers' emotion coaching and expression, as well as children's emotion expression, were assessed at home using an audio recording device. Children's emotion expressions were also captured during an emotion eliciting task in a lab setting 1 year later. Regression analyses revealed that children of more positively expressive fathers also showed more positive emotion expression concurrently. Paternal emotion coaching, but not maternal emotion coaching, was predictive of children's increased positive expression in the lab 1 year later. This study provides evidence for unique contributions of fathers, above and beyond mothers, to the emotion socialization outcomes of their children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

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