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1.
Science ; 384(6698): 895-901, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781380

RESUMO

The covalent interaction of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) with transition metal atoms gives rise to distinctive frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs). These emergent electronic states have spurred the widespread adoption of NHC ligands in chemical catalysis and functional materials. Although formation of carbene-metal complexes in self-assembled monolayers on surfaces has been explored, design and electronic structure characterization of extended low-dimensional NHC-metal lattices remains elusive. Here we demonstrate a modular approach to engineering one-dimensional (1D) metal-organic chains and two-dimensional (2D) Kagome lattices using the FMOs of NHC-Au-NHC junctions to create low-dimensional molecular networks exhibiting intrinsic metallicity. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and first-principles density functional theory reveal the contribution of C-Au-C π-bonding states to dispersive bands that imbue 1D- and 2D-NHC lattices with exceptionally small work functions.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(23): 15879-15886, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38813680

RESUMO

The integration of low-energy states into bottom-up engineered graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is a robust strategy for realizing materials with tailored electronic band structure for nanoelectronics. Low-energy zero-modes (ZMs) can be introduced into nanographenes (NGs) by creating an imbalance between the two sublattices of graphene. This phenomenon is exemplified by the family of [n]triangulenes (n ∈ N). Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of [3]triangulene-GNRs, a regioregular one-dimensional (1D) chain of [3]triangulenes linked by five-membered rings. Hybridization between ZMs on adjacent [3]triangulenes leads to the emergence of a narrow band gap, Eg,exp ∼ 0.7 eV, and topological end states that are experimentally verified using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Tight-binding and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the local density approximation corroborate our experimental observations. Our synthetic design takes advantage of a selective on-surface head-to-tail coupling of monomer building blocks enabling the regioselective synthesis of [3]triangulene-GNRs. Detailed ab initio theory provides insights into the mechanism of on-surface radical polymerization, revealing the pivotal role of Au-C bond formation/breakage in driving selectivity.

3.
Nano Lett ; 24(17): 5387-5392, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629638

RESUMO

Topological phases in laterally confined low-dimensional nanographenes have emerged as versatile design tools that can imbue otherwise unremarkable materials with exotic band structures ranging from topological semiconductors and quantum dots to intrinsically metallic bands. The periodic boundary conditions that define the topology of a given lattice have thus far prevented the translation of this technology to the quasi-zero-dimensional (0D) domain of small molecular structures. Here, we describe the synthesis of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) featuring two localized zero modes (ZMs) formed by the topological junction interface between a trivial and nontrivial phase within a single molecule. First-principles density functional theory calculations predict a strong hybridization between adjacent ZMs that gives rise to an exceptionally small HOMO-LUMO gap. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy corroborate the molecular structure of 9/7/9-double quantum dots and reveal an experimental quasiparticle gap of 0.16 eV, corresponding to a carbon-based small molecule long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) absorber.

4.
ACS Nano ; 17(24): 24901-24909, 2023 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051766

RESUMO

The low-energy electronic structure of nanographenes can be tuned through zero-energy π-electron states, typically referred to as zero-modes. Customizable electronic and magnetic structures have been engineered by coupling zero-modes through exchange and hybridization interactions. Manipulation of the energy of such states, however, has not yet received significant attention. We find that attaching a five-membered ring to a zigzag edge hosting a zero-mode perturbs the energy of that mode and turns it into an off-zero mode: a localized state with a distinctive electron-accepting character. Whereas the end states of typical 7-atom-wide armchair graphene nanoribbons (7-AGNRs) lose their electrons when physisorbed on Au(111) (due to its high work function), converting them into off-zero modes by introducing cyclopentadienyl five-membered rings allows them to retain their single-electron occupation. This approach enables the magnetic properties of 7-AGNR end states to be explored using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on a gold substrate. We find a gradual decrease of the magnetic coupling between off-zero mode end states as a function of GNR length, and evolution from a more closed-shell to a more open-shell ground state.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(35): 19338-19346, 2023 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37611208

RESUMO

Substitutional heteroatom doping of bottom-up engineered 1D graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is a versatile tool for realizing low-dimensional functional materials for nanoelectronics and sensing. Previous efforts have largely relied on replacing C-H groups lining the edges of GNRs with trigonal planar N atoms. This type of atomically precise doping, however, only results in a modest realignment of the valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB) energies. Here, we report the design, bottom-up synthesis, and spectroscopic characterization of nitrogen core-doped 5-atom-wide armchair GNRs (N2-5-AGNRs) that yield much greater energy-level shifting of the GNR electronic structure. Here, the substitution of C atoms with N atoms along the backbone of the GNR introduces a single surplus π-electron per dopant that populates the electronic states associated with previously unoccupied bands. First-principles DFT-LDA calculations confirm that a sizable shift in Fermi energy (∼1.0 eV) is accompanied by a broad reconfiguration of the band structure, including the opening of a new band gap and the transition from a direct to an indirect semiconducting band gap. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) lift-off charge transport experiments corroborate the theoretical results and reveal the relationship among substitutional heteroatom doping, Fermi-level shifting, electronic band structure, and topological engineering for this new N-doped GNR.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(28): 15162-15170, 2023 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37428750

RESUMO

Metallic graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) represent a critical component in the toolbox of low-dimensional functional materials technology serving as 1D interconnects capable of both electronic and quantum information transport. The structural constraints imposed by on-surface bottom-up GNR synthesis protocols along with the limited control over orientation and sequence of asymmetric monomer building blocks during the radical step-growth polymerization have plagued the design and assembly of metallic GNRs. Here, we report the regioregular synthesis of GNRs hosting robust metallic states by embedding a symmetric zero-mode (ZM) superlattice along the backbone of a GNR. Tight-binding electronic structure models predict a strong nearest-neighbor electron hopping interaction between adjacent ZM states, resulting in a dispersive metallic band. First-principles density functional theory-local density approximation calculations confirm this prediction, and the robust, metallic ZM band of olympicene GNRs is experimentally corroborated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(41): 25077-25087, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056687

RESUMO

The molecular origins of homochirality on Earth is not understood well, particularly how enantiomerically enriched molecules of astrobiological significance like sugars and amino acids might have been synthesized on icy grains in space preceding their delivery to Earth. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) identified in carbonaceous chondrites could have been processed in molecular clouds by circularly polarized light prior to the depletion of enantiomerically enriched helicenes onto carbonaceous grains resulting in chiral islands. However, the fundamental low temperature reaction mechanisms leading to racemic helicenes are still unknown. Here, by exploiting synchrotron based molecular beam photoionization mass spectrometry combined with electronic structure calculations, we provide compelling testimony on barrierless, low temperature pathways leading to racemates of [5] and [6]helicene. Astrochemical modeling advocates that gas-phase reactions in molecular clouds lead to racemates of helicenes suggesting a pathway for future astronomical observation and providing a fundamental understanding for the origin of homochirality on early Earth.


Assuntos
Meteoroides , Aminoácidos/química , Açúcares , Estereoisomerismo
8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(30): 13696-13703, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867847

RESUMO

The design of a spin imbalance within the crystallographic unit cell of bottom-up engineered 1D graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) gives rise to nonzero magnetic moments within each cell. Here, we demonstrate the bottom-up assembly and spectroscopic characterization of a one-dimensional Kondo spin chain formed by a chevron-type GNR (cGNR) physisorbed on Au(111). Substitutional nitrogen core doping introduces a pair of low-lying occupied states per monomer within the semiconducting gap of cGNRs. Charging resulting from the interaction with the gold substrate quenches one electronic state for each monomer, leaving behind a 1D chain of radical cations commensurate with the unit cell of the ribbon. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) reveal the signature of a Kondo resonance emerging from the interaction of S = 1/2 spin centers in each monomer core with itinerant electrons in the Au substrate. STM tip lift-off experiments locally reduce the effective screening of the unpaired radical cation being lifted, revealing a robust exchange coupling between neighboring spin centers. First-principles DFT-LSDA calculations support the presence of magnetic moments in the core of this GNR when it is placed on Au.

9.
Chemistry ; 28(8): e202104108, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882848

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) offer vast structural and chemical diversity enabling a wide and growing range of applications. While COFs are well-established as heterogeneous catalysts, so far, their high and ordered porosity has scarcely been utilized to its full potential when it comes to spatially confined reactions in COF pores to alter the outcome of reactions. Here, we present a highly porous and crystalline, large-pore COF as catalytic support in α,ω-diene ring-closing metathesis reactions, leading to increased macrocyclization selectivity. COF pore-wall modification by immobilization of a Grubbs-Hoveyda-type catalyst via a mild silylation reaction provides a molecularly precise heterogeneous olefin metathesis catalyst. An increased macro(mono)cyclization (MMC) selectivity over oligomerization (O) for the heterogeneous COF-catalyst (MMC:O=1.35) of up to 51 % compared to the homogeneous catalyst (MMC:O=0.90) was observed along with a substrate-size dependency in selectivity, pointing to diffusion limitations induced by the pore confinement.


Assuntos
Alcenos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Catálise , Ciclização , Porosidade
10.
Nature ; 600(7890): 647-652, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937899

RESUMO

Spin-ordered electronic states in hydrogen-terminated zigzag nanographene give rise to magnetic quantum phenomena1,2 that have sparked renewed interest in carbon-based spintronics3,4. Zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs)-quasi one-dimensional semiconducting strips of graphene bounded by parallel zigzag edges-host intrinsic electronic edge states that are ferromagnetically ordered along the edges of the ribbon and antiferromagnetically coupled across its width1,2,5. Despite recent advances in the bottom-up synthesis of GNRs featuring symmetry protected topological phases6-8 and even metallic zero mode bands9, the unique magnetic edge structure of ZGNRs has long been obscured from direct observation by a strong hybridization of the zigzag edge states with the surface states of the underlying support10-15. Here, we present a general technique to thermodynamically stabilize and electronically decouple the highly reactive spin-polarized edge states by introducing a superlattice of substitutional N-atom dopants along the edges of a ZGNR. First-principles GW calculations and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy reveal a giant spin splitting of low-lying nitrogen lone-pair flat bands by an exchange field (~850 tesla) induced by the ferromagnetically ordered edge states of ZGNRs. Our findings directly corroborate the nature of the predicted emergent magnetic order in ZGNRs and provide a robust platform for their exploration and functional integration into nanoscale sensing and logic devices15-21.

11.
ACS Nano ; 15(12): 20633-20642, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842409

RESUMO

Bottom-up graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have recently been shown to host nontrivial topological phases. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of deterministic GNR quantum dots whose orbital character is defined by zero-mode states arising from nontrivial topological interfaces. Topological control was achieved through the synthesis and on-surface assembly of three distinct molecular precursors designed to exhibit structurally derived topological electronic states. Using a combination of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we have characterized two GNR topological quantum dot arrangements synthesized under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Our results are supported by density-functional theory and tight-binding calculations, revealing that the magnitude and sign of orbital hopping between topological zero-mode states can be tuned based on the bonding geometry of the interconnecting region. These results demonstrate the utility of topological zero modes as components for designer quantum dots and advanced electronic devices.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2542, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953174

RESUMO

Lateral heterojunctions of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold promise for applications in nanotechnology, yet their charge transport and most of the spectroscopic properties have not been investigated. Here, we synthesize a monolayer of multiple aligned heterojunctions consisting of quasi-metallic and wide-bandgap GNRs, and report characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, Raman spectroscopy, and charge transport. Comprehensive transport measurements as a function of bias and gate voltages, channel length, and temperature reveal that charge transport is dictated by tunneling through the potential barriers formed by wide-bandgap GNR segments. The current-voltage characteristics are in agreement with calculations of tunneling conductance through asymmetric barriers. We fabricate a GNR heterojunctions based sensor and demonstrate greatly improved sensitivity to adsorbates compared to graphene based sensors. This is achieved via modulation of the GNR heterojunction tunneling barriers by adsorbates.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(11): 4174-4178, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710887

RESUMO

The scope of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) structures accessible through bottom-up approaches is defined by the intrinsic limitations of either all-on-surface or all-solution-based synthesis. Here, we report a hybrid bottom-up synthesis of GNRs based on a Matrix-Assisted Direct (MAD) transfer technique that successfully leverages technical advantages inherent to both solution-based and on-surface synthesis while sidestepping their drawbacks. Critical structural parameters tightly controlled in solution-based polymerization reactions can seamlessly be translated into the structure of the corresponding GNRs. The transformative potential of the synergetic bottom-up approaches facilitated by the MAD transfer techniques is highlighted by the synthesis of chevron-type GNRs (cGNRs) featuring narrow length distributions and a nitrogen core-doped armchair GNR (N4-7-ANGR) that remains inaccessible using either a solution-based or an on-surface bottom-up approach alone.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(10): 5740-5749, 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595573

RESUMO

Fullerenes (C60, C70) detected in planetary nebulae and carbonaceous chondrites have been implicated to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium. However, the formation mechanism of even their simplest molecular building block-the corannulene molecule (C20H10)-has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate via a combined molecular beams and ab initio investigation that corannulene can be synthesized in the gas phase through the reactions of 7-fluoranthenyl (C16H9˙) and benzo[ghi]fluoranthen-5-yl (C18H9˙) radicals with acetylene (C2H2) mimicking conditions in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. This reaction sequence reveals a reaction class in which a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) radical undergoes ring expansion while simultaneously forming an out-of-plane carbon backbone central to 3D nanostructures such as buckybowls and buckyballs. These fundamental reaction mechanisms are critical in facilitating an intimate understanding of the origin and evolution of the molecular universe and, in particular, of carbon in our galaxy.

15.
J Phys Chem A ; 125(6): 1384-1390, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560124

RESUMO

Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), a technique that records the change in the tunneling current as a function of the bias (dI/dV) across the gap between a tip and the sample, is a powerful tool to characterize the electronic structure of single molecules and nanomaterials. While performing STS, the structure and condition of the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) tips are critical for reliably obtaining high quality point spectra. Here, we present an automated program based on machine learning models that can identify the Au(111) Shockley surface state in dI/dV point spectra and perform tip conditioning on clean or sparsely covered gold surfaces with minimal user intervention. We employed a straightforward height-based segmentation algorithm to analyze STM topographic images to identify tip conditioning positions and used 1789 archived dI/dV spectra to train machine learning models that can ascertain the condition of the tip by evaluating the quality of the spectroscopic data. Decision tree based ensemble and boosting models and deep neural networks (DNNs) have been shown to reliably identify tips in suitable conditions for STS. We expect the automated program to reduce operational costs and time, increase reproducibility in surface science studies, and accelerate the discovery and characterization of novel nanomaterials by STM. The strategies presented in this paper can readily be adapted to STM tip conditioning on a wide variety of other common substrates.

16.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 2635-2642, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492120

RESUMO

The rational bottom-up synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) provides atomically precise control of widths and edges that give rise to a wide range of electronic properties promising for electronic devices such as field-effect transistors (FETs). Since the bottom-up synthesis commonly takes place on catalytic metallic surfaces, the integration of GNRs into such devices requires their transfer onto insulating substrates, which remains one of the bottlenecks in the development of GNR-based electronics. Herein, we report on a method for the transfer-free placement of GNRs on insulators. This involves growing GNRs on a gold film deposited onto an insulating layer followed by gentle wet etching of the gold, which leaves the nanoribbons to settle in place on the underlying insulating substrate. Scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirm that atomically precise GNRs of high density uniformly grow on the gold films deposited onto SiO2/Si substrates and remain structurally intact after the etching process. We have also demonstrated transfer-free fabrication of ultrashort channel GNR FETs using this process. A very important aspect of the present work is that the method can scale up well to 12 in. wafers, which is extremely difficult for previous techniques. Our work here thus represents an important step toward large-scale integration of GNRs into electronic devices.

17.
Science ; 369(6511): 1597-1603, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973025

RESUMO

The design and fabrication of robust metallic states in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are challenging because lateral quantum confinement and many-electron interactions induce electronic band gaps when graphene is patterned at nanometer length scales. Recent developments in bottom-up synthesis have enabled the design and characterization of atomically precise GNRs, but strategies for realizing GNR metallicity have been elusive. Here we demonstrate a general technique for inducing metallicity in GNRs by inserting a symmetric superlattice of zero-energy modes into otherwise semiconducting GNRs. We verify the resulting metallicity using scanning tunneling spectroscopy as well as first-principles density-functional theory and tight-binding calculations. Our results reveal that the metallic bandwidth in GNRs can be tuned over a wide range by controlling the overlap of zero-mode wave functions through intentional sublattice symmetry breaking.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(31): 13507-13514, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640790

RESUMO

The incorporation of nanoscale pores into a sheet of graphene allows it to switch from an impermeable semimetal to a semiconducting nanosieve. Nanoporous graphenes are desirable for applications ranging from high-performance semiconductor device channels to atomically thin molecular sieve membranes, and their performance is highly dependent on the periodicity and reproducibility of pores at the atomic level. Achieving precise nanopore topologies in graphene using top-down lithographic approaches has proven to be challenging due to poor structural control at the atomic level. Alternatively, atomically precise nanometer-sized pores can be fabricated via lateral fusion of bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons. This technique, however, typically requires an additional high temperature cross-coupling step following the nanoribbon formation that inherently yields poor lateral conjugation, resulting in 2D materials that are weakly connected both mechanically and electronically. Here, we demonstrate a novel bottom-up approach for forming fully conjugated nanoporous graphene through a single, mild annealing step following the initial polymer formation. We find emergent interface-localized electronic states within the bulk band gap of the graphene nanoribbon that hybridize to yield a dispersive two-dimensional low-energy band of states. We show that this low-energy band can be rationalized in terms of edge states of the constituent single-strand nanoribbons. The localization of these 2D states around pores makes this material particularly attractive for applications requiring electronically sensitive molecular sieves.

19.
Nano Lett ; 20(7): 4761-4767, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510961

RESUMO

We present laser-induced photothermal synthesis of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The kinetics of photothermal bottom-up GNR growth are unravelled by in situ Raman spectroscopy carried out in ultrahigh vacuum. We photothermally drive the reaction steps by short periods of laser irradiation and subsequently analyze the Raman spectra of the reactants in the irradiated area. Growth kinetics of chevron GNRs (CGNRs) and seven atoms wide armchair GNRs (7-AGNRs) is investigated. The reaction rate constants for polymerization, cyclodehydrogenation, and interribbon fusion are experimentally determined. We find that the limiting rate constants for CGNR growth are several hundred times smaller than for 7-AGNR growth and that interribbon fusion is an important elementary reaction occurring during 7-AGNR growth. Our work highlights that photothermal synthesis and in situ Raman spectroscopy are a powerful tandem for the investigation of on-surface reactions.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(8): 3696-3700, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043869

RESUMO

The integration of substitutional dopants at predetermined positions along the hexagonal lattice of graphene-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a critical tool in the design of functional electronic materials. Here, we report the unusually mild thermally induced oxidative cyclodehydrogenation of dianthryl pyrazino[2,3-g]quinoxalines to form the four covalent C-N bonds in tetraazateranthene on Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces. Bond-resolved scanning probe microscopy, differential conductance spectroscopy, along with first-principles calculations unambiguously confirm the structural assignment. Detailed mechanistic analysis based on ab initio density functional theory calculations reveals a stepwise mechanism featuring a rate determining barrier of only ΔE⧧ = 0.6 eV, consistent with the experimentally observed reaction conditions.

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