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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056687

RESUMO

The molecular origins of homochirality on Earth is not understood well, particularly how enantiomerically enriched molecules of astrobiological significance like sugars and amino acids might have been synthesized on icy grains in space preceding their delivery to Earth. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) identified in carbonaceous chondrites could have been processed in molecular clouds by circularly polarized light prior to the depletion of enantiomerically enriched helicenes onto carbonaceous grains resulting in chiral islands. However, the fundamental low temperature reaction mechanisms leading to racemic helicenes are still unknown. Here, by exploiting synchrotron based molecular beam photoionization mass spectrometry combined with electronic structure calculations, we provide compelling testimony on barrierless, low temperature pathways leading to racemates of [5] and [6]helicene. Astrochemical modeling advocates that gas-phase reactions in molecular clouds lead to racemates of helicenes suggesting a pathway for future astronomical observation and providing a fundamental understanding for the origin of homochirality on early Earth.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867847

RESUMO

The design of a spin imbalance within the crystallographic unit cell of bottom-up engineered 1D graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) gives rise to nonzero magnetic moments within each cell. Here, we demonstrate the bottom-up assembly and spectroscopic characterization of a one-dimensional Kondo spin chain formed by a chevron-type GNR (cGNR) physisorbed on Au(111). Substitutional nitrogen core doping introduces a pair of low-lying occupied states per monomer within the semiconducting gap of cGNRs. Charging resulting from the interaction with the gold substrate quenches one electronic state for each monomer, leaving behind a 1D chain of radical cations commensurate with the unit cell of the ribbon. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) reveal the signature of a Kondo resonance emerging from the interaction of S = 1/2 spin centers in each monomer core with itinerant electrons in the Au substrate. STM tip lift-off experiments locally reduce the effective screening of the unpaired radical cation being lifted, revealing a robust exchange coupling between neighboring spin centers. First-principles DFT-LSDA calculations support the presence of magnetic moments in the core of this GNR when it is placed on Au.

3.
Chemistry ; 28(8): e202104108, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882848

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) offer vast structural and chemical diversity enabling a wide and growing range of applications. While COFs are well-established as heterogeneous catalysts, so far, their high and ordered porosity has scarcely been utilized to its full potential when it comes to spatially confined reactions in COF pores to alter the outcome of reactions. Here, we present a highly porous and crystalline, large-pore COF as catalytic support in α,ω-diene ring-closing metathesis reactions, leading to increased macrocyclization selectivity. COF pore-wall modification by immobilization of a Grubbs-Hoveyda-type catalyst via a mild silylation reaction provides a molecularly precise heterogeneous olefin metathesis catalyst. An increased macro(mono)cyclization (MMC) selectivity over oligomerization (O) for the heterogeneous COF-catalyst (MMC:O=1.35) of up to 51 % compared to the homogeneous catalyst (MMC:O=0.90) was observed along with a substrate-size dependency in selectivity, pointing to diffusion limitations induced by the pore confinement.


Assuntos
Alcenos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Catálise , Ciclização , Porosidade
4.
Nature ; 600(7890): 647-652, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937899

RESUMO

Spin-ordered electronic states in hydrogen-terminated zigzag nanographene give rise to magnetic quantum phenomena1,2 that have sparked renewed interest in carbon-based spintronics3,4. Zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs)-quasi one-dimensional semiconducting strips of graphene bounded by parallel zigzag edges-host intrinsic electronic edge states that are ferromagnetically ordered along the edges of the ribbon and antiferromagnetically coupled across its width1,2,5. Despite recent advances in the bottom-up synthesis of GNRs featuring symmetry protected topological phases6-8 and even metallic zero mode bands9, the unique magnetic edge structure of ZGNRs has long been obscured from direct observation by a strong hybridization of the zigzag edge states with the surface states of the underlying support10-15. Here, we present a general technique to thermodynamically stabilize and electronically decouple the highly reactive spin-polarized edge states by introducing a superlattice of substitutional N-atom dopants along the edges of a ZGNR. First-principles GW calculations and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy reveal a giant spin splitting of low-lying nitrogen lone-pair flat bands by an exchange field (~850 tesla) induced by the ferromagnetically ordered edge states of ZGNRs. Our findings directly corroborate the nature of the predicted emergent magnetic order in ZGNRs and provide a robust platform for their exploration and functional integration into nanoscale sensing and logic devices15-21.

5.
ACS Nano ; 15(12): 20633-20642, 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842409

RESUMO

Bottom-up graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have recently been shown to host nontrivial topological phases. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of deterministic GNR quantum dots whose orbital character is defined by zero-mode states arising from nontrivial topological interfaces. Topological control was achieved through the synthesis and on-surface assembly of three distinct molecular precursors designed to exhibit structurally derived topological electronic states. Using a combination of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we have characterized two GNR topological quantum dot arrangements synthesized under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Our results are supported by density-functional theory and tight-binding calculations, revealing that the magnitude and sign of orbital hopping between topological zero-mode states can be tuned based on the bonding geometry of the interconnecting region. These results demonstrate the utility of topological zero modes as components for designer quantum dots and advanced electronic devices.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2542, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953174

RESUMO

Lateral heterojunctions of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold promise for applications in nanotechnology, yet their charge transport and most of the spectroscopic properties have not been investigated. Here, we synthesize a monolayer of multiple aligned heterojunctions consisting of quasi-metallic and wide-bandgap GNRs, and report characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, Raman spectroscopy, and charge transport. Comprehensive transport measurements as a function of bias and gate voltages, channel length, and temperature reveal that charge transport is dictated by tunneling through the potential barriers formed by wide-bandgap GNR segments. The current-voltage characteristics are in agreement with calculations of tunneling conductance through asymmetric barriers. We fabricate a GNR heterojunctions based sensor and demonstrate greatly improved sensitivity to adsorbates compared to graphene based sensors. This is achieved via modulation of the GNR heterojunction tunneling barriers by adsorbates.

7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(11): 4174-4178, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710887

RESUMO

The scope of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) structures accessible through bottom-up approaches is defined by the intrinsic limitations of either all-on-surface or all-solution-based synthesis. Here, we report a hybrid bottom-up synthesis of GNRs based on a Matrix-Assisted Direct (MAD) transfer technique that successfully leverages technical advantages inherent to both solution-based and on-surface synthesis while sidestepping their drawbacks. Critical structural parameters tightly controlled in solution-based polymerization reactions can seamlessly be translated into the structure of the corresponding GNRs. The transformative potential of the synergetic bottom-up approaches facilitated by the MAD transfer techniques is highlighted by the synthesis of chevron-type GNRs (cGNRs) featuring narrow length distributions and a nitrogen core-doped armchair GNR (N4-7-ANGR) that remains inaccessible using either a solution-based or an on-surface bottom-up approach alone.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 125(6): 1384-1390, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560124

RESUMO

Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), a technique that records the change in the tunneling current as a function of the bias (dI/dV) across the gap between a tip and the sample, is a powerful tool to characterize the electronic structure of single molecules and nanomaterials. While performing STS, the structure and condition of the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) tips are critical for reliably obtaining high quality point spectra. Here, we present an automated program based on machine learning models that can identify the Au(111) Shockley surface state in dI/dV point spectra and perform tip conditioning on clean or sparsely covered gold surfaces with minimal user intervention. We employed a straightforward height-based segmentation algorithm to analyze STM topographic images to identify tip conditioning positions and used 1789 archived dI/dV spectra to train machine learning models that can ascertain the condition of the tip by evaluating the quality of the spectroscopic data. Decision tree based ensemble and boosting models and deep neural networks (DNNs) have been shown to reliably identify tips in suitable conditions for STS. We expect the automated program to reduce operational costs and time, increase reproducibility in surface science studies, and accelerate the discovery and characterization of novel nanomaterials by STM. The strategies presented in this paper can readily be adapted to STM tip conditioning on a wide variety of other common substrates.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(10): 5740-5749, 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595573

RESUMO

Fullerenes (C60, C70) detected in planetary nebulae and carbonaceous chondrites have been implicated to play a key role in the astrochemical evolution of the interstellar medium. However, the formation mechanism of even their simplest molecular building block-the corannulene molecule (C20H10)-has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate via a combined molecular beams and ab initio investigation that corannulene can be synthesized in the gas phase through the reactions of 7-fluoranthenyl (C16H9˙) and benzo[ghi]fluoranthen-5-yl (C18H9˙) radicals with acetylene (C2H2) mimicking conditions in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes. This reaction sequence reveals a reaction class in which a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) radical undergoes ring expansion while simultaneously forming an out-of-plane carbon backbone central to 3D nanostructures such as buckybowls and buckyballs. These fundamental reaction mechanisms are critical in facilitating an intimate understanding of the origin and evolution of the molecular universe and, in particular, of carbon in our galaxy.

10.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 2635-2642, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492120

RESUMO

The rational bottom-up synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) provides atomically precise control of widths and edges that give rise to a wide range of electronic properties promising for electronic devices such as field-effect transistors (FETs). Since the bottom-up synthesis commonly takes place on catalytic metallic surfaces, the integration of GNRs into such devices requires their transfer onto insulating substrates, which remains one of the bottlenecks in the development of GNR-based electronics. Herein, we report on a method for the transfer-free placement of GNRs on insulators. This involves growing GNRs on a gold film deposited onto an insulating layer followed by gentle wet etching of the gold, which leaves the nanoribbons to settle in place on the underlying insulating substrate. Scanning tunneling microscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirm that atomically precise GNRs of high density uniformly grow on the gold films deposited onto SiO2/Si substrates and remain structurally intact after the etching process. We have also demonstrated transfer-free fabrication of ultrashort channel GNR FETs using this process. A very important aspect of the present work is that the method can scale up well to 12 in. wafers, which is extremely difficult for previous techniques. Our work here thus represents an important step toward large-scale integration of GNRs into electronic devices.

11.
Science ; 369(6511): 1597-1603, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973025

RESUMO

The design and fabrication of robust metallic states in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are challenging because lateral quantum confinement and many-electron interactions induce electronic band gaps when graphene is patterned at nanometer length scales. Recent developments in bottom-up synthesis have enabled the design and characterization of atomically precise GNRs, but strategies for realizing GNR metallicity have been elusive. Here we demonstrate a general technique for inducing metallicity in GNRs by inserting a symmetric superlattice of zero-energy modes into otherwise semiconducting GNRs. We verify the resulting metallicity using scanning tunneling spectroscopy as well as first-principles density-functional theory and tight-binding calculations. Our results reveal that the metallic bandwidth in GNRs can be tuned over a wide range by controlling the overlap of zero-mode wave functions through intentional sublattice symmetry breaking.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(31): 13507-13514, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640790

RESUMO

The incorporation of nanoscale pores into a sheet of graphene allows it to switch from an impermeable semimetal to a semiconducting nanosieve. Nanoporous graphenes are desirable for applications ranging from high-performance semiconductor device channels to atomically thin molecular sieve membranes, and their performance is highly dependent on the periodicity and reproducibility of pores at the atomic level. Achieving precise nanopore topologies in graphene using top-down lithographic approaches has proven to be challenging due to poor structural control at the atomic level. Alternatively, atomically precise nanometer-sized pores can be fabricated via lateral fusion of bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons. This technique, however, typically requires an additional high temperature cross-coupling step following the nanoribbon formation that inherently yields poor lateral conjugation, resulting in 2D materials that are weakly connected both mechanically and electronically. Here, we demonstrate a novel bottom-up approach for forming fully conjugated nanoporous graphene through a single, mild annealing step following the initial polymer formation. We find emergent interface-localized electronic states within the bulk band gap of the graphene nanoribbon that hybridize to yield a dispersive two-dimensional low-energy band of states. We show that this low-energy band can be rationalized in terms of edge states of the constituent single-strand nanoribbons. The localization of these 2D states around pores makes this material particularly attractive for applications requiring electronically sensitive molecular sieves.

13.
Nano Lett ; 20(7): 4761-4767, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510961

RESUMO

We present laser-induced photothermal synthesis of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The kinetics of photothermal bottom-up GNR growth are unravelled by in situ Raman spectroscopy carried out in ultrahigh vacuum. We photothermally drive the reaction steps by short periods of laser irradiation and subsequently analyze the Raman spectra of the reactants in the irradiated area. Growth kinetics of chevron GNRs (CGNRs) and seven atoms wide armchair GNRs (7-AGNRs) is investigated. The reaction rate constants for polymerization, cyclodehydrogenation, and interribbon fusion are experimentally determined. We find that the limiting rate constants for CGNR growth are several hundred times smaller than for 7-AGNR growth and that interribbon fusion is an important elementary reaction occurring during 7-AGNR growth. Our work highlights that photothermal synthesis and in situ Raman spectroscopy are a powerful tandem for the investigation of on-surface reactions.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(8): 3696-3700, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043869

RESUMO

The integration of substitutional dopants at predetermined positions along the hexagonal lattice of graphene-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a critical tool in the design of functional electronic materials. Here, we report the unusually mild thermally induced oxidative cyclodehydrogenation of dianthryl pyrazino[2,3-g]quinoxalines to form the four covalent C-N bonds in tetraazateranthene on Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces. Bond-resolved scanning probe microscopy, differential conductance spectroscopy, along with first-principles calculations unambiguously confirm the structural assignment. Detailed mechanistic analysis based on ab initio density functional theory calculations reveals a stepwise mechanism featuring a rate determining barrier of only ΔE⧧ = 0.6 eV, consistent with the experimentally observed reaction conditions.

15.
Nano Lett ; 20(2): 963-970, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910625

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are molecule-based 2D and 3D materials that possess a wide range of mechanical and electronic properties. We have performed a joint experimental and theoretical study of the electronic structure of boroxine-linked COFs grown under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and characterized using scanning tunneling spectroscopy on Au(111) and hBN/Cu(111) substrates. Our results show that a single hBN layer electronically decouples the COF from the metallic substrate, thus suppressing substrate-induced broadening and revealing new features in the COF electronic local density of states (LDOS). The resulting sharpening of LDOS features allows us to experimentally determine the COF band gap, bandwidths, and the electronic hopping amplitude between adjacent COF bridge sites. These experimental parameters are consistent with the results of first-principles theoretical predictions.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(48): 17442-17450, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482662

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent the link between resonance-stabilized free radicals and carbonaceous nanoparticles generated in incomplete combustion processes and in circumstellar envelopes of carbon rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Although these PAHs resemble building blocks of complex carbonaceous nanostructures, their fundamental formation mechanisms have remained elusive. By exploring these reaction mechanisms of the phenyl radical with biphenyl/naphthalene theoretically and experimentally, we provide compelling evidence on a novel phenyl-addition/dehydrocyclization (PAC) pathway leading to prototype PAHs: triphenylene and fluoranthene. PAC operates efficiently at high temperatures leading through rapid molecular mass growth processes to complex aromatic structures, which are difficult to synthesize by traditional pathways such as hydrogen-abstraction/acetylene-addition. The elucidation of the fundamental reactions leading to PAHs is necessary to facilitate an understanding of the origin and evolution of the molecular universe and of carbon in our galaxy.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(28): 11050-11058, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264864

RESUMO

Atomically precise bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are promising candidates for next-generation electronic materials. The incorporation of these highly tunable semiconductors into complex device architectures requires the development of synthetic tools that provide control over the absolute length, the sequence, and the end groups of GNRs. Here, we report the living chain-growth synthesis of chevron-type GNRs (cGNRs) templated by a poly-(arylene ethynylene) precursor prepared through ring-opening alkyne metathesis polymerization (ROAMP). The strained triple bonds of a macrocyclic monomer serve both as the site of polymerization and the reaction center for an annulation reaction that laterally extends the conjugated backbone to give cGNRs with predetermined lengths and end groups. The structural control provided by a living polymer-templated synthesis of GNRs paves the way for their future integration into hierarchical assemblies, sequence-defined heterojunctions, and well-defined single-GNR transistors via block copolymer templates.


Assuntos
Alcinos/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Polimerização , Polímeros/química
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1510, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944302

RESUMO

A synthetic route to racemic helicenes via a vinylacetylene mediated gas phase chemistry involving elementary reactions with aryl radicals is presented. In contrast to traditional synthetic routes involving solution chemistry and ionic reaction intermediates, the gas phase synthesis involves a targeted ring annulation involving free radical intermediates. Exploiting the simplest helicene as a benchmark, we show that the gas phase reaction of the 4-phenanthrenyl radical ([C14H9]•) with vinylacetylene (C4H4) yields [4]-helicene (C18H12) along with atomic hydrogen via a low-barrier mechanism through a resonance-stabilized free radical intermediate (C18H13). This pathway may represent a versatile mechanism to build up even more complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as [5]- and [6]-helicene via stepwise ring annulation through bimolecular gas phase reactions in circumstellar envelopes of carbon-rich stars, whereas secondary reactions involving hydrogen atom assisted isomerization of thermodynamically less stable isomers of [4]-helicene might be important in combustion flames as well.

19.
Nano Lett ; 19(5): 3221-3228, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002257

RESUMO

The ability to tune the band-edge energies of bottom-up graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) via edge dopants creates new opportunities for designing tailor-made GNR heterojunctions and related nanoscale electronic devices. Here we report the local electronic characterization of type II GNR heterojunctions composed of two different nitrogen edge-doping configurations (carbazole and phenanthridine) that separately exhibit electron-donating and electron-withdrawing behavior. Atomically resolved structural characterization of phenanthridine/carbazole GNR heterojunctions was performed using bond-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and first-principles calculations reveal that carbazole and phenanthridine dopant configurations induce opposite upward and downward orbital energy shifts owing to their different electron affinities. The magnitude of the energy offsets observed in carbazole/phenanthridine heterojunctions is dependent on the length of the GNR segments comprising each heterojunction with longer segments leading to larger heterojunction energy offsets. Using a new on-site energy analysis based on Wannier functions, we find that the origin of this behavior is a charge transfer process that reshapes the electrostatic potential profile over a long distance within the GNR heterojunction.

20.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 7038-7044, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336056

RESUMO

By enhancing the photoluminescence from aligned seven-atom wide armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons using plasmonic nanoantennas, we are able to observe blinking of the emission. The on- and off-times of the blinking follow power law statistics. In time-resolved spectra, we observe spectral diffusion. These findings together are a strong indication of the emission originating from a single quantum emitter. The room temperature photoluminescence displays a narrow spectral width of less than 50 meV, which is significantly smaller than the previously observed ensemble line width of 0.8 eV. From spectral time traces, we identify three optical transitions, which are energetically situated below the lowest bulk excitonic state E11 of the nanoribbons. We attribute the emission to transitions involving Tamm states localized at the end of the nanoribbon. The photoluminescence from a single ribbon is strongly enhanced when its end is in the antenna hot spot resulting in the observed single molecule characteristics of the emission. Our findings illustrate the essential role of the end termination of graphene nanoribbons in light emission and allow us to construct a model for photoluminescence from nanoribbons.

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