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1.
Food Environ Virol ; 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532064

RESUMO

Bat-borne viruses may affect public health and the global economy. These mammals have a wide geographical distribution and unique biological, physiological, and immunogenic characteristics, allowing the dissemination of many known and unknown viruses. Enteric viruses, such as adeno (AdV) and rotaviruses, are recognized as the main causative agents of disease and outbreaks. In the present study, the presence of viruses from Adenoviridae and Reoviridae families was evaluated in molossid, phyllostomid, and vespertilionid bats captured in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, between September 2021 and July 2022. Sixty bat rectal swabs were analyzed by PCR. Eight (13.3%) samples were positive for adenovirus and classified as human mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C) (three samples) and HAdV-E (five samples) by sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. All samples were negative in rotavirus specific RT-PCR. This is the first study to describe the presence of HAdV in samples of Glossophaga soricina, Eptesicus brasiliensis, and Histiotus velatus. Furthermore, the presence of HAdV-E in bats was reported, which is unusual and may suggest that other HAdV genotypes, in addition to HAdV-C, may also be harbored by wild animals. The data generated in the present study reinforces the importance of eco-surveillance of viral agents related to diseases in humans and wild animals. In addition, it is essential to identify possible new hosts or reservoirs that increase the risk of spillover and dissemination of infectious pathogens, helping to prevent and control zoonotic diseases.

2.
Respir Res ; 25(1): 71, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317218

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Since the worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2, different strategies have been followed to combat the pandemic and limit virus transmission. In the meantime, other respiratory viruses continued to circulate, though at decreased rates. METHODS: This study was conducted between June and July 2022, in a hospital in the metropolitan region of Rio Grande do Sul state, in the southernmost state of Brazil. The 337 hospitalized patients included those with respiratory symptoms without delimitation of age. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detected 15 different respiratory viruses and confirmed coinfections in the samples. Different statistical tests were applied to evaluate the association between associations of clinical characteristics and coinfection. RESULTS: Sampling corresponds to 337 selected and 330 patients analyzed. The principal clinical outcome found was hospital discharge in 309 (94%) cases, while 21 (6%) resulted in death. The principal viral agents related to coinfections were Human rhinovirus, Human enterovirus, and Respiratory syncytial virus. The most frequent viral agent detected was SARS-CoV-2, with 60 (18%) infections, followed by 51 (15%) cases of Respiratory syncytial virus B (15%) and 44 (13%) cases of Human rhinovirus 1. Coinfection was mainly observed in children, while adults and the elderly were more affected by a single infection. Analyzing COVID-19 vaccination, 175 (53%) were unvaccinated while the remainder had at least one dose of the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents information to update the understanding of viral circulation in the region. Furthermore, the findings clarify the behavior of viral infections and possible coinfections in hospitalized patients, considering different ages and clinical profiles. In addition, this knowledge can help to monitor the population's clinical manifestations and prevent future outbreaks of respiratory viruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Vírus , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 193, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Omicron has become the dominant variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) since first reported in November 2021. From the initially detected Wuhan lineage, sublineages BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, BQ, XAG, and XBB have emerged over time and are dominant in many countries. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate which variants are circulating and the clinical characteristics of inpatients infected with the Omicron variant. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study selected hospitalized patients admitted with respiratory symptoms to a hospital in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between June and July 2022. SARS-CoV-2 results were analyzed together with clinical outcomes and vaccination status. A viral genome library was prepared and forwarded to the Illumina MiSeq Platform for sequencing. RESULTS: In total, 37 genomes were sequenced. Concerning the Omicron sublineages, our study detected: BA.1 (21 K), BA.2 (21 L), BA.4 (22A), BA.5 (22B), BA.2.12.1 (22C), BQ.1 (22E), XBB (22F), and XAG recombinant. Omicron BA.5 (30%), BA.2 (19%), and BQ.1 (19%) were the most frequent sublineages, respectively. In total, 38% of patients present hypertension, and the most common symptoms were coughing (62%). Analyzing the COVID-19 vaccination, 30% of patients were fully vaccinated, 49% had a partial vaccination status, and 21% were unvaccinated (no dose). CONCLUSIONS: BA.5 was the most prevalent sublineage in our study and surpassed the predominance of BA.2, as reported by the national genomic surveillance program. BQ.1 was diagnosed earlier in this study than it was officially reported in the state. Current data have demonstrated that the Omicron variant causes less severe infections, with the high rate of transmissibility and mutational landscape causing the rapid emergence of new sublineages.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Pacientes Internados , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tosse
4.
Toxicol Res (Camb) ; 13(1): tfad117, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178995

RESUMO

Urbanization and agricultural activities increased environmental contaminants. Integrated analysis of water parameters and bioassays represents an essential approach to evaluating aquatic resource quality. This study aimed to assess water quality by microbiological and physicochemical parameters as well as the toxicological effects of water samples on the Ames test and Caenorhabditis elegans model. Samples were collected during (collection 1) and after (collection 2) pesticide application in the upper (S1), middle (S2), and lower (S3) sections of the Rolante River, southern Brazil. Metals were determined by GFAAS and pesticides by UPLC-MS/MS. Bioassays using the Ames test and the nematode C. elegans were performed. Levels of microbiological parameters, as well as Mn and Cu were higher than the maximum allowed limits established by legislation in collection 2 compared to collection 1. The presence of pesticide was observed in both collections; higher levels were found in collection 1. No mutagenic effect was detected. Significant inhibition of body length of C. elegans was found in collection 1 at S2 (P < 0.001) and S3 (P < 0.001) and in collection 2 at S2 (P = 0.004). Comparing the same sampling site between collections, a significant difference was found between the site of collection (F(3,6)=8.75, P = 0.01) and the time of collection (F(1,2)=28.61, P = 0.03), for the S2 and S3 samples. C. elegans model was useful for assessing surface water quality/toxicity. Results suggest that an integrated analysis for the surface water status could be beneficial for future approaches.

5.
J Clin Virol ; 168: 105599, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37751628

RESUMO

Even though Brazil is a country where the dengue virus (DENV) is endemic, until recently, Southern states did not have significant viral circulation, such as Rio Grande do Sul (RS), and some municipalities were even considered dengue-free. During 2022, these places have shown a sharp increase in the incidence of the disease, apparently following a worldwide growth pattern. Therefore, in this study, we monitor and characterize the genetic diversity of DENV circulating in southern Brazil through next-generation sequencing during an outbreak in 2022. We generated 70 DENV-1 genome sequences, all characterized as genotype V, divided into two clade clusters in the L1 lineage. Furthermore, unique mutations have been described in each clade of L1 lineage. Our results are essential in managing outbreaks since these data provide important information during the emergence of DENV circulation in RS. Since the south of Brazil has a lower viral circulation when compared to other Brazilian states, RS still lacks data that can help in understanding the transmission, dissemination, and evolution of the dengue virus. Hence, genomic surveillance efforts are essential to increase the accuracy of preventive actions and to control viral dissemination.

6.
Braz J Microbiol ; 54(3): 1847-1851, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37269428

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, studies on the variants and sublineages stand out, mainly in the cases of reinfection in a short period. In this study, we describe a case of infection by BA.1.1 sublineage in an individual from Southern Brazil. The same patient acquired reinfection with sublineage BA.2 within 16 days after the first detection. The viral extraction and RT-qPCR were performed on the samples LMM72045 (collected in May 2022) and LMM72044 (collected in June 2022). After the confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we conducted the sequencing and viral genome analysis. This case of reinfection affected a 52-year-old male patient, without comorbidities, with three doses of vaccines against COVID-19, showing symptoms on May 19. These symptoms lasted for approximately six days. The patient returned to work activities on May 30. However, on June 4, the patient felt a new round of clinical signs that lasted for approximately seven days. Analysis of the viral genomes recovered from patients' clinical samples revealed that the two COVID-19 episodes were related to two divergent VOC Omicron sublineages, namely, BA.1.1 for the first round of symptoms and BA.2 for the second infection. Based on our findings, we can say that the present case of reinfection is the shortest described so far.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Reinfecção , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Brasil/epidemiologia
7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(3): 212-217, 2023 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36728777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the progression of the Coronavirus disease pandemic, the number of mutations in the viral genome has increased, showing the adaptive evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in humans and intensification in transmissibility. Long-term infections also allow the development of viral diversity. In this study, we report the case of a child with severe combined immu presenting a prolonged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. We aimed to analyze 3 naso-oropharyngeal swab samples collected between August and December 2021 to describe the amino acid changes present in the sequence reads that may have a role in the emergence of new viral variants. METHODS: The whole genome from clinical samples was sequenced through high throughput sequencing and analyzed using a workflow to map reads and then find variations/single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In addition, the samples were isolated in cell culture, and a plaque forming units assay was performed, which indicates the presence of viable viral particles. RESULTS: The results obtained showed that the virus present in all samples is infectious. Also, there were 20 common mutations among the 3 sequence reads, found in the ORF1ab and ORF10 proteins. As well, a considerable number of uncommon mutations were found. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we emphasize that genomic surveillance can be a useful tool to assess possible evolution signals in long-term patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Criança , COVID-19/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Mutação , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(12): 3510-3514, 2022 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The HIV-1 genetic diversity and the presence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRMs) against integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) were assessed sequencing samples of antiretroviral (ARV)-naive HIV-1-infected individuals from South Brazil. METHODS: Viral RNA from 42 ART-naive individuals was submitted to complete HIV-1 integrase gene amplification by RT-PCR and sequencing. RESULTS: Viral strains carrying TDRMs against INSTIs were not detected in the present study. However, the polymorphisms L74M and L74I were each observed in 4.8% of the individuals. These accessory mutations have been reported as putative causes of TDRMs in ART with raltegravir, but only when associated with additional major mutations. When submitted to HIV-1 subtyping, 50% were classified as subtype C, 21% as recombinant BC, 19% as subtype B, 4.8% as subtype F1 and 4.8% as recombinant CF1. CONCLUSIONS: All 42 ARV-naive individuals were apparently susceptible to INSTIs, included in the Brazilian therapeutic guideline since 2009. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate TDRMs against INSTIs in Brazil. The most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes were subtype C, followed by the recombinant BC and subtype B, which is in agreement with previous studies. However, the presence of subtype F1 and recombinant CF1 reported herein was not observed in previous studies.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV , Integrase de HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Adulto , Humanos , HIV-1/genética , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/farmacologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Integrase de HIV/genética , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Mutação , Genótipo
9.
Pharmacol Rep ; 74(5): 969-981, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vortioxetine hydrobromide (VXT), a new therapeutic option in the treatment of major depressive disorder, is a poorly soluble drug, and instability under stress conditions has been reported. The aim of the present study was to prepare VXT liposomes (VXT-Ls) with an antidepressant-like effect, to improve drug stability and reduce toxicity of the free drug. METHODS: Liposomes were prepared using the thin lipid film hydration method and properly characterized. Forced degradation studies were conducted in photolytic and oxidative conditions. The cytotoxicity was evaluated in VERO cells through MTT assay and in vivo toxicity was assessed in mice. The antidepressant-like effect in mice was confirmed using the open-field test paradigm and tail suspension test. RESULTS: The optimized VXT-Ls have multilamellar vesicles with an average size of 176.74 nm ± 2.43. The liposomal formulation increased the stability of VXT. VERO cell viability was maintained at around 40% when the VXT-Ls were tested at higher concentrations and no signs of acute toxicity were observed in mice. The antidepressant-like effect was effective, for VXT-Ls, at doses ranging from 2.5 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg, measured by the tail suspension test in mice. The non-liposomal formulation was effective at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The open field test was performed and any unspecific changes in locomotor activity were revealed. CONCLUSIONS: Liposomes seem to be a promising alternative for an oral VXT formulation at lower doses (2.5 mg/kg).


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Lipossomos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Camundongos , Animais , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Vortioxetina , Células Vero , Antidepressivos/toxicidade , Lipídeos
10.
Virus Res ; 321: 198907, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055471

RESUMO

Recently, SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) was first identified in Botswana in November 2021. In a short period of time, this highly mutated variant replaced the previous dominant Delta variant, causing an exponential increase in the number of COVID-19 cases, resulting in a new wave of pandemic. This current research article aims to analyze and summarize information about the genetic characteristics, amino acid mutations and epidemiological data providing scientific findings to enrich the SARS-CoV-2 knowledge. More importantly, we describe here, for the first time, the identification of a new Omicron variant of concern: Omicron-L452R in Brazil.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aminoácidos , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Genômica , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética
11.
Braz J Microbiol ; 53(3): 1313-1319, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778549

RESUMO

Different approaches are in use to improve our knowledge about the causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Cell culture-based methods are the better way to perform viral isolation, evaluate viral infectivity, and amplify the virus. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing (NGS) have been essential to analyze a complete genome and to describe new viral species and lineages that have arisen over time. Four naso-oropharyngeal swab samples, collected from April to July of 2020, were isolated and sequenced aiming to produce viral stocks and analyze the mutational profile of the found lineage. B.1.1.33 was the lineage detected in all sequences. Although the samples belong to the same lineage, it was possible to evaluate different mutations found including some that were first described in these sequences, like the S:H655Y and T63N. The results described here can help to elicit how the pandemic started to spread and how it has been evolving in south Brazil.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brasil , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Mutação , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
12.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 49: 102390, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is constantly mutating, leading to new variants that culminate in a temporal lineages fluctuation. B.1.1.28 lineage has been evolving in Brazil since February 2020 and originated P.1 (VOC), P.2 (VOI) and other P.Xs proposed as new variants. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, through the Illumina platform, we performed the whole-genome sequencing of 26 positive samples of SARS-CoV-2. Employing variant calling analysis on FASTQ reads and phylogenetic inference, we report a brief dispersion of a potentially new B.1.1.28-derived variant detected between 2021 May and June in individuals crossing the border between Brazil and Argentina, and local spread to inpatients from hospitals at the Rio Grande do Sul state capital (Porto Alegre). Besides, the Rio Grande do Sul State SARS-CoV-2 genomic epidemiological data was analyzed and showed an important B.1.1.28 peak in RS at the same period (May-June), even in the presence of a major Gamma wave. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of a putative B.1.1.28-derived lineage was identified in travelers crossing Brazil-Argentina border representing an important peak of B.1.1.28 in RS State with a decreased in Gamma variant frequency in the same period of time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Argentina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mutação , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
13.
Virus Res ; 311: 198702, 2022 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104582

RESUMO

The emergence of Variants of Concern (VOC) presenting an unusual number of new mutations is one of the most remarkable features of SARS-CoV-2. The Delta variant, since its appearance, replaced the VOC Gamma, which was responsible for the major COVID-19 wave in Brazil. In this study, we performed a Delta whole-genome sequencing of 183 samples as part of a major genomic surveillance study performed since the beginning of the pandemic. Here, we showed an emergence, widespread dispersion and consolidation of the Delta variant in Rio Grande do Sul State, completely replacing the Gamma variant in a four to five months period. Performing the phylogenetic and phylodynamic analysis, the majority of the sequences generated herein were classified as AY.99.2, AY.99.2-like and AY.101. AY.99.2 Delta-related lineage has been widely reported in Brazil and in the Americas as well. Altogether, our findings provided a mutational profile of the sequences and presented high substitutions per site in the root-to-tip phylogenetic tree, corroborating studies that show the high mutational rate of SARS-CoV-2 over time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
14.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 102(4): 115636, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219552

RESUMO

We aimed to describe the SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating early pandemic among samples with S gene dropout and characterize the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of viral spike protein. Adults and children older than 2 months with signs and symptoms of COVID-19 were prospectively enrolled from May to October in Porto Alegre, Brazil. All participants performed RT-PCR assay, and samples with S gene dropout and cycle threshold < 30 were submitted to high-throughput sequencing (HTS). 484 out of 1,557 participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The S gene dropout was detected in 7.4% (36/484) and a peak was observed in August. The B.1.1.28, B.1.91 and B.1.1.33 lineages were circulating in early pandemic. The RBD novel mutation (Y380Q) was found in one sample occurring simultaneously with C379W and V395A, and the B.1.91 lineage in the spike protein. The Y380Q and C379W may interfere with the binding of neutralizing antibodies (CR3022, EY6A, H014, S304).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 96: 105134, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763050

RESUMO

Recently, the highest wave of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic occurred since the beginning of the pandemic in Brazil was registered in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Southern Brazil, considering the number of cases, deaths and hospitalization per day caused by COVID-19. In this study we described which lineages were circulating in the first quarter of 2021 in Southern Brazil to better understand the viral factors involved in the health crisis caused by SARS-CoV-2 in the region, searching also for possible additional SARS-CoV-2 sequence mutations. A total of 70 positive SARS-CoV-2 samples collected between January 28th, 2021 until April 23rd, 2021, were selected to sequencing. Whole genome sequencing of 70 SARS-CoV-2 samples showed a predominance of Gamma lineage (67%, 47/70), followed by P.2 lineage (27%, 19/70) and B.1.1.28 (6%, 4/70). Two Gamma lineage consensus sequences presented a new S:D614A mutation. Newly mutations could be emerging due the quick SARS-CoV-2 spreading. Thus, the greater understanding about immune protection and variants vigilance is essential to the better management of the health SARS-CoV-2 crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Sequência Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
16.
Braz J Microbiol ; 52(4): 1881-1885, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562232

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the pandemic that started in late 2019 and still affects people's lives all over the world. Lack of protective immunity after primary infection has been involved with reported reinfection cases by SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we described two cases of reinfection caused by non-VOC (Variants of Concern) strains in southern Brazil, being one patient a healthcare worker. The four samples previously positive for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were sequenced by a high-performance platform and the genomic analysis confirmed that lineages responsible for infections were B.1.91 and B.1.1.33 (patient 1), and B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28 (patient 2). The interval between the two positive RT-qPCR for patients 1 and 2 was 45 and 61 days, respectively. This data shows that patients may be reinfected even by very closely related SARS-CoV-2 lineages.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Reinfecção/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Reinfecção/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231823

RESUMO

Multiple variants of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) have been constantly reported across the world. The B.1.1.28 lineage has been evolving in Brazil since February 2020 and originated the P.1 variant of concern (VOC), recently named as the Gamma variant by the newly WHO nomenclature proposal, and P.2 as a variant of interest (VOI). Here we describe an early case of P.1 primary infection in Southern Brazil in late November 2020, soon after the emergence of the variant in Manaus, Northern Brazil. The same male patient was reinfected by another B.1.1.28 variant, namely P.2, in March, 2021. The genomic analysis confirmed genetically significant differences between the two viruses recovered in both infections, the P.1 lineage in the first episode and P.2 in the reinfection. Due the very early detection of P.1, we have also investigated the circulation of P.1 in the same region by differential RT-qPCR, showing that this was an isolated case of P.1 at the time of detection, and this variant has disseminated and became prominent from late January to the end of March, 2021. SARS-CoV-2 recent reports of reinfection have raised critical questions on whether and how well a first infection protects against reinfection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brasil , Humanos , Masculino , Reinfecção
18.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 371, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazil is the third country most affected by Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), but viral evolution in municipality resolution is still poorly understood in Brazil and it is crucial to understand the epidemiology of viral spread. We aimed to track molecular evolution and spread of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Esteio (Southern Brazil) using phylogenetics and phylodynamics inferences from 21 new genomes in global and regional context. Importantly, the case fatality rate (CFR) in Esteio (3.26%) is slightly higher compared to the Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state (2.56%) and the entire Brazil (2.74%). RESULTS: We provided a comprehensive view of mutations from a representative sampling from May to October 2020, highlighting two frequent mutations in spike glycoprotein (D614G and V1176F), an emergent mutation (E484K) in spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) characteristic of the B.1.351 and P.1 lineages, and the adjacent replacement of 2 amino acids in Nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (R203K and G204R). E484K was found in two genomes from mid-October, which is the earliest description of this mutation in Southern Brazil. Lineages containing this substitution must be subject of intense surveillance due to its association with immune evasion. We also found two epidemiologically-related clusters, including one from patients of the same neighborhood. Phylogenetics and phylodynamics analysis demonstrates multiple introductions of the Brazilian most prevalent lineages (B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.248) and the establishment of Brazilian lineages ignited from the Southeast to other Brazilian regions. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show the value of correlating clinical, epidemiological and genomic information for the understanding of viral evolution and its spatial distribution over time. This is of paramount importance to better inform policy making strategies to fight COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brasil/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Humanos
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4392-4398, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829531

RESUMO

With the arrival of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil in February 2020, several preventive measures were taken by the population aiming to avoid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection including the use of masks, social distancing, and frequent hand washing then, these measures may have contributed to preventing infection also by other respiratory viruses. Our goal was to determine the frequencies of Influenza A and B viruses (FLUAV/FLUBV), human mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C), Enterovirus 68 (EV-68), and rhinovirus (RV) besides SARS-CoV-2 among hospitalized patients suspect of COVID-19 with cases of acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) in the period of March to December 2020 and to detect possible coinfections among them. Nucleic acid detection was performed using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in respiratory samples using naso-oropharyngeal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage. A total of 418 samples of the 987 analyzed (42.3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 16 (1.62%) samples were positive for FLUAV, no sample was positive for FLUBV or EV-68, 67 (6.78%) samples were positive for HAdV-C, 55 samples were positive for RV 1/2 (26.3%) and 37 for RV 2/2 (13.6%). Coinfections were also detected, including a triple coinfection with SARS-CoV-2, FLUAV, and HAdV-C. In the present work, a very low frequency of FLUV was reported among hospitalized patients with ARDS compared to the past years, probably due to preventive measures taken to avoid COVID-19 and the high influenza vaccination coverage in the region in which this study was performed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Resfriado Comum/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Distanciamento Físico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Resfriado Comum/prevenção & controle , Enterovirus Humano D/genética , Enterovirus Humano D/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Máscaras , Mastadenovirus/genética , Mastadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
20.
Genet Mol Biol ; 44(1 Suppl 1): e20200228, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710254

RESUMO

December 2019 marked the beginning of the current Coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the causative agent of a viral pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The alarming spread levels and clinical severity elevated the status of COVID-19 to the global pandemic by the World Health Organization. In 6 months, more than 25 million cases of infected people and more than 890,000 deaths by COVID-19 had been reported worldwide. The main goal of this review is to shed light upon the current COVID-19 epidemic situation in Brazil with a health approach highlighting some unique environmental, animal and epidemiological aspects.

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