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1.
Ecology ; 100(1): e02542, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341991

RESUMO

This dataset provides the Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database, version 1.2. GloNAF represents a data compendium on the occurrence and identity of naturalized alien vascular plant taxa across geographic regions (e.g. countries, states, provinces, districts, islands) around the globe. The dataset includes 13,939 taxa and covers 1,029 regions (including 381 islands). The dataset is based on 210 data sources. For each taxon-by-region combination, we provide information on whether the taxon is considered to be naturalized in the specific region (i.e. has established self-sustaining populations in the wild). Non-native taxa are marked as "alien", when it is not clear whether they are naturalized. To facilitate alignment with other plant databases, we provide for each taxon the name as given in the original data source and the standardized taxon and family names used by The Plant List Version 1.1 (http://www.theplantlist.org/). We provide an ESRI shapefile including polygons for each region and information on whether it is an island or a mainland region, the country and the Taxonomic Databases Working Group (TDWG) regions it is part of (TDWG levels 1-4). We also provide several variables that can be used to filter the data according to quality and completeness of alien taxon lists, which vary among the combinations of regions and data sources. A previous version of the GloNAF dataset (version 1.1) has already been used in several studies on, for example, historical spatial flows of taxa between continents and geographical patterns and determinants of naturalization across different taxonomic groups. We intend the updated and expanded GloNAF version presented here to be a global resource useful for studying plant invasions and changes in biodiversity from regional to global scales. We release these data into the public domain under a Creative Commons Zero license waiver (https://creativecommons.org/share-your-work/public-domain/cc0/). When you use the data in your publication, we request that you cite this data paper. If GloNAF is a major part of the data analyzed in your study, you should consider inviting the GloNAF core team (see Metadata S1: Originators in the Overall project description) as collaborators. If you plan to use the GloNAF dataset, we encourage you to contact the GloNAF core team to check whether there have been recent updates of the dataset, and whether similar analyses are already ongoing.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(44): 11280-11285, 2018 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322907

RESUMO

Selection and drift are universally accepted as the cornerstones of evolutionary changes. Recent theories extend this view to ecological changes, arguing that any change in species composition is driven by deterministic fitness differences among species (enhancing selection) and/or stochasticity in birth and death rates of individuals within species (enhancing drift). These forces have contrasting effects on the predictability of ecological dynamics, and thus understanding the factors affecting their relative importance is crucial for understanding ecological dynamics. Here we test the hypothesis that dispersal increases the relative importance of ecological selection by increasing the effective size of the community (i.e., the size relevant for competitive interactions and drift). According to our hypothesis, dispersal increases the effective size of the community by mixing individuals from different localities. This effect diminishes the relative importance of demographic stochasticity, thereby reducing drift and increasing the relative importance of selective forces as drivers of species composition. We tested our hypothesis, which we term the "effective community size" hypothesis, using two independent experiments focusing on annual plants: a field experiment in which we manipulated the magnitude of dispersal and a mesocosm experiment in which we directly manipulated the effective size of the communities. Both experiments, as well as related model simulations, were consistent with the hypothesis that increasing dispersal increases the role of selective forces as drivers of species composition. This finding has important implications for our understanding of the fundamental forces affecting community dynamics, as well as the management of species diversity, particularly in patchy and fragmented environments.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 16(1): 261, 2016 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27964727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Naturally growing populations of olive trees are found in the Mediterranean garrigue and maquis in Israel. Here, we used the Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) genetic marker technique to investigate whether these represent wild var. sylvestris. Leaf samples were collected from a total of 205 trees at six sites of naturally growing olive populations in Israel. The genetic analysis included a multi-locus lineage (MLL) analysis, Rousset's genetic distances, Fst values, private alleles, other diversity values and a Structure analysis. The analyses also included scions and suckers of old cultivated olive trees, for which the dominance of one clone in scions (MLL1) and a second in suckers (MLL7) had been shown earlier. RESULTS: The majority of trees from a Judean Mts. population and from one population from the Galilee showed close genetic similarity to scions of old cultivated trees. Different from that, site-specific and a high number of single occurrence MLLs were found in four olive populations from the Galilee and Carmel which also were genetically more distant from old cultivated trees, had relatively high genetic diversity values and higher numbers of private alleles. Whereas in two of these populations MLL7 (and partly MLL1) were found in low frequency, the two other populations did not contain these MLLs and were very similar in their genetic structure to suckers of old cultivated olive trees that originated from sexual reproduction. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic distinctness from old cultivated olive trees, particularly of one population from Galilee and one from Carmel, suggests that trees at these sites might represent wild var. sylvestris. The similarity in genetic structure of these two populations with the suckers of old cultivated trees implies that wild trees were used as rootstocks. Alternatively, trees at these two sites may be remnants of old cultivated trees in which the scion-derived trunk died and was replaced by suckers. However, considering landscape and topographic environment at the two sites this second interpretation is less likely.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Olea/genética , Alelos , Israel , Repetições de Microssatélites , Olea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Árvores
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(7): 2587-92, 2013 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23359700

RESUMO

Sympatric speciation has been controversial since it was first proposed as a mode of speciation. Subterranean blind mole rats (Spalacidae) are considered to speciate allopatrically or peripatrically. Here, we report a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation in Spalax galili (2n = 52). The study microsite (0.04 km(2)) is sharply subdivided geologically, edaphically, and ecologically into abutting barrier-free ecologies divergent in rock, soil, and vegetation types. The Pleistocene Alma basalt abuts the Cretaceous Senonian Kerem Ben Zimra chalk. Only 28% of 112 plant species were shared between the soils. We examined mitochondrial DNA in the control region and ATP6 in 28 mole rats from basalt and in 14 from chalk habitats. We also sequenced the complete mtDNA (16,423 bp) of four animals, two from each soil type. Remarkably, the frequency of all major haplotype clusters (HC) was highly soil-biased. HCI and HCII are chalk biased. HC-III was abundant in basalt (36%) but absent in chalk; HC-IV was prevalent in basalt (46.5%) but was low (20%) in chalk. Up to 40% of the mtDNA diversity was edaphically dependent, suggesting constrained gene flow. We identified a homologous recombinant mtDNA in the basalt/chalk studied area. Phenotypically significant divergences differentiate the two populations, inhabiting different soils, in adaptive oxygen consumption and in the amount of outside-nest activity. This identification of a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation caused by natural selection indirectly refutes the allopatric alternative. Sympatric ecological speciation may be more prevalent in nature because of abundant and sharply abutting divergent ecologies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Solo/análise , Spalax/genética , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Análise de Variância , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Biologia Computacional , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos/genética , Israel , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Spalax/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Ecol Lett ; 15(11): 1276-1282, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22891693

RESUMO

Functional trade-offs have long been recognised as important mechanisms of species coexistence, but direct experimental evidence for such mechanisms is extremely rare. Here, we test the effect of one classical trade-off - a negative correlation between seed size and seed number - by establishing microcosm plant communities with positive, negative and no correlation between seed size and seed number and analysing the effect of the seed size/number correlation on species richness. Consistent with theory, a negative correlation between seed size and seed number led to a higher number of species in the communities and a corresponding wider range of seed size (a measure of functional richness) by promoting coexistence of large- and small-seeded species. Our study provides the first direct evidence that a seed size/number trade-off may contribute to species coexistence, and at a wider context, demonstrates the potential role of functional trade-offs in maintaining species diversity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Plantas , Aptidão Genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução , Sementes
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