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Pathogens ; 13(2)2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38392852


The role of Mycoplasma bovirhinis in the development of pulmonary disease in cattle is controversial and was never evaluated in cattle from Latin America. This study investigated the respiratory infection dynamics associated with M. bovirhinis in suckling calves from 15 dairy cattle herds in Southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were obtained from asymptomatic (n = 102) and calves with clinical manifestations (n = 103) of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and used in molecular assays to identify the specific genes of viral and bacterial disease pathogens of BRD. Only M. bovirhinis, bovine coronavirus (BCoV), ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvGHV2), Histophilus somni, Pasteurella multocida, and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected. M. bovirhinis was the most frequently diagnosed pathogen in diseased (57.8%; 59/102) and asymptomatic (55.3%; 57/103) calves at all farms. BCoV-related infections were diagnosed in diseased (52%; 53/102) and asymptomatic (51.4%; 53/103) calves and occurred in 93.3% (14/15) of all farms. Similarly, infectious due to OvGHV2 occurred in diseased (37.2%; 38/102) and asymptomatic (27.2%; /28/103) calves and were diagnosed in 80% (12/15) of all farms investigated. Significant statistical differences were not identified when the two groups of calves were compared at most farms, except for infections due to OvGHV2 that affected five calves at one farm. These results demonstrated that the respiratory infection dynamics of M. bovirhinis identified in Southern Brazil are similar to those observed worldwide, suggesting that there is not enough sufficient collected data to consider M. bovirhinis as a pathogen of respiratory infections in cattle. Additionally, the possible roles of BCoV and OvGHV2 in the development of BRD are discussed.

Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5623, 2023 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37024495


This study investigated the cause of an outbreak of an acute respiratory disease syndrome followed by episodes of diarrhea in a dairy cattle herd from Southern Brazil. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from asymptomatic calves, calves with pulmonary discomfort, and diarrheic calves after episodes of respiratory distress were used in molecular assays designed to detect the principal pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Fecal samples were used for the molecular detection of bovine enteric disease agents. Pulmonary tissues from three calves and a cow that died were evaluated by molecular assays to identify 11 agents associated with the development of BRD. The intestinal and pulmonary fragments of one calf and the cow revealed atrophic enteritis and interstitial pneumonia by histopathology, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) identified intralesional antigens of a malignant catarrhal fever virus, genus Macavirus, within epithelial cells of the lungs and intestines. Molecular assays amplified ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvGHV2) from most of the DNS, and the pulmonary and intestinal fragments from the animals that died, confirming that the Macavirus identified by IHC was OvGHV2. Concomitant pulmonary infections of OvGHV2 with bovine gammaherpesvirus 6 and bovine coronavirus were identified. Additionally, bovine viral diarrhea virus 1b and Aichivirus B were detected in the fecal samples. These findings demonstrated that OvGHV2, a Macavirus, was the disease agent most frequently (81.2%; 13/16) associated with singular pulmonary infections during this outbreak of BRD, suggesting that this virus may be another potential agent of respiratory disease of cattle.

Doenças dos Bovinos , Gammaherpesvirinae , Transtornos Respiratórios , Doenças Respiratórias , Feminino , Ovinos , Bovinos , Animais , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária
Microb Pathog ; 161(Pt A): 105220, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606919


Sheep Associated-Malignant Catarrhal Fever (SA-MCF) is severe, frequently lethal, lymphoproliferative disease predominantly of ruminants, that is caused by ovine gammaherpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2), a member of the MCF virus (MCFV) complex. However, SA-MCF in sheep is a rare entity with few demonstrations of natural diseases worldwide. This report documents the clinical, radiographical, pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings of SA-MCF in a sheep. A 4-year-old, female, mixed-breed sheep with progressive emaciation for at least one month was humanely euthanized due to poor prognosis. Clinically, the animal had tachypnea, ruminal hypomotility, productive coughing with bilateral muffling sounds during pulmonary auscultation. Radiographical evaluation revealed alveolar opacity of the cranioventral pulmonary region. Grossly, there were distinct rib impressions on the pleural surface of the lungs, suggestive of interstitial pneumonia. Histopathologic evaluation of the lungs revealed several disease patterns including 1) chronic interstitial pneumonia with vasculitis and proliferating vascular lesions, and thrombosis; 2) pulmonary abscesses associated with embolic dissemination of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from superficial lymph node due to caseous lymphadenitis, CLA; 3) granulomatous pneumonia associated with pulmonary nematodes; and 4) chronic pleuritis, probably due to caseous lymphadenitis. Additional significant histologic findings included widespread lymphocytic vasculitis and proliferating vascular lesions in multiple tissues, atrophic enteritis, segmental degeneration of myocardial fibers with lymphocytic pericarditis, lymphocytic interstitial nephritis, and non-suppurative encephalitis. An immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay, based on the monoclonal antibody 15A (MAb-15A), that is specific to all MCFV known to cause MCF, revealed positive, intracytoplasmic, intralesional immunoreactivity, predominantly within bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells of the lungs and cryptal epithelial cells of the small intestine, followed by the renal tubular epithelium, cardiomyocytes, and with patchy immunolabelling within neurons of the cerebral cortex. Molecular testing done to detect a wide range of bacterial and viral agents of ruminant diseases, only amplified OvHV-2 DNA from fresh tissue fragments of the lungs, kidney, liver, spleen, and cerebrum. Direct sequencing confirmed that the PCR amplicon derived from the pulmonary fragments had 99.2-99.7% nucleotide sequence identity with OvHV-2 reference strains and strains of OvHV-2 from Brazil. The clinical, radiographical, gross, histopathologic, IHC, and molecular findings in the lungs are consistent with chronic interstitial pneumonia associated with infection by OvHV-2. Furthermore, the non-detection of other viral agents associated with pulmonary diseases in ruminants suggest that OvHV-2 was directly associated with the development of chronic pneumonia in this sheep. Additionally, the dental alterations, CLA, and the pulmonary nematode may have contributed towards the reduced immunological statue of the animal and facilitated the occurrence of SA-MCF. These findings may indicate that OvHV-2 may be a major participant in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disease of sheep under special conditions. Moreover, the proliferating vascular lesions identified in multiple tissues are additional evidence of chronic manifestations of OvHV-2 infections as described in chronic SA-MCF of cattle, while the widespread vasculitis is consistent with SA-MCF. Additionally, the IHC findings using the MAb-15A confirmed that this diagnostic approach is efficient to identify intralesional antigens of OvHV-2.

Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Febre Catarral Maligna , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/veterinária , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico