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1.
Front Vet Sci ; 11: 1325211, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328260

RESUMO

Introduction: Spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs is predominantly caused by the rupture of air-filled lesions, such as bullae or blebs. The efficacy of Computed Tomography (CT) in detecting these lesions has been deemed limited due to its reportedly low sensitivity. This retrospective, cross-sectional study investigates the utility of CT in eight dogs diagnosed with recurrent pneumothorax, all of which had surgical confirmation of the cause of the pneumothorax. Materials and methods: Thoracic radiographs were obtained before and the day following the CT studies. Initially, a CT study was conducted without positive pressure ventilation (pre-PPV CT). Subsequent CT studies were performed post-evacuation of pneumothorax and with positive pressure ventilation of 15 cmH2O until lung atelectasis was resolved (post-PPV CT). The pre-PPV CT and post-PPV CT images were anonymized and reviewed by two board-certified radiologists. The presence and morphology of air-filled lesions were evaluated on all images. Surgical findings were recorded and compared to the CT findings. Results: Air-filled lesions were detected in 5 out of 8 dogs in the pre-PPV CT studies and in all 8 dogs in the post-PPV CT studies. The CT findings of air-filled lesions were consistent with surgical findings. None of the dogs showed increased severity of pneumothorax in radiographs taken the day following the CT studies. Discussions: The study concludes that the resolution of lung atelectasis by evacuation of pneumothorax and positive pressure ventilation during CT studies is feasible and enhances the detection of air-filled lesions in dogs with recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. This could potentially aid in improving surgical planning.

2.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38041417

RESUMO

An 8-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair cat was presented for acute weight loss, hyporexia, intermittent vomiting, and loose stools. A caudal abdominal mass and thickened intestinal loops were palpated on initial examination. An abdominal ultrasound identified a circumferential intramural jejunal mass with complete loss of wall layering, diffuse thickening of the jejunal muscularis, and jejunal and ileocecal lymphadenomegaly. Initial routine bloodwork revealed mild monocytosis and minimal lymphopenia with reactive lymphocytes. Cytologic evaluation of the jejunal mass and enlarged lymph nodes was consistent with lymphoma (intermediate cell size), and PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement revealed a clonal T-cell receptor rearrangement consistent with T-cell lymphoma. Chemotherapy (CHOP protocol) was initiated, but despite initial improvement of clinical signs, a repeat ultrasound examination 5 weeks after initiation of treatment revealed no improvement in the lymphadenomegaly or reduction in the size of the jejunal mass. At this visit, the cat also developed a marked basophilia (basophils 12.28 × 103 /µL, RI 0.00-0.10) with low numbers of circulating atypical lymphocytes; no concurrent eosinophilia was noted. Heartworm disease, ectoparasites, and allergic diseases were evaluated for and considered unlikely. The chemotherapy protocol was changed to L-asparaginase, followed by lomustine. The basophilia was significantly reduced 2 days after the initial dose of L-asparaginase and remained within the reference interval for 40 days before an eventual decline in the cat's health. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of paraneoplastic basophilia without concurrent eosinophilia in a cat with T-cell lymphoma.

3.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 64(3): 537-545, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36867397

RESUMO

Ultrasonography is the most commonly used diagnostic imaging tool for gallbladder disease in veterinary medicine. Primary gallbladder neoplasia is an uncommon finding with variable prognosis for which no studies have been published describing their ultrasonographic appearance and diagnosis. This retrospective, multicenter, case series study examines the ultrasonographic appearance of gallbladder neoplasia with histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnoses. A total of 14 dogs and 1 cat were analyzed. All discrete masses were sessile in shape and varied in size, echogenicity, location, and gallbladder wall thickening. All studies with images showing Doppler interrogation exhibited vascularity. Cholecystoliths were an uncommon finding, being present in only one case in this study, unlike in humans. The final diagnosis of the gallbladder neoplasia was neuroendocrine carcinoma (8), leiomyoma (3), lymphoma (1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (1), extrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma (1), and adenoma (1). Findings from this study indicate that primary gallbladder neoplasms have variable sonographic appearances and cytologic and histologic diagnoses.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar , Leiomioma , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/veterinária , Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/veterinária , Leiomioma/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/patologia
4.
Vet Pathol ; 59(5): 787-791, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400242

RESUMO

Three dogs under 12 months old were diagnosed with atypical multiple myeloma (MM), having an aggressive multifocal anaplastic round cell sarcoma in bone marrow, viscera, and/or peripheral blood, which were confirmed by cytology and immunohistochemistry to be of plasma cell origin. The intramedullary sarcomas caused myelophthisis, osteolysis, and hypercalcemia. Complete or free light chain monoclonal gammopathy in the serum and/or urine was demonstrated by protein electrophoresis and immunofixation. The polymerase chain reaction for antigen receptor rearrangement assay performed on 2 cases identified a clonally rearranged immunoglobulin gene. Neoplastic cells lacked expression of CD45, CD3, CD18, CD21, CD34, and MHCII by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry revealed MUM1 immunoreactivity of the neoplastic cells. Combining all data, the diagnosis was MM. An aggressive form of MM in young dogs should be a differential diagnosis for patients with an immunoglobulin-productive, B cell-clonal, CD45-negative, MUM1-positive discrete cell neoplasm arising from the bone marrow.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Mieloma Múltiplo , Animais , Linfócitos B , Medula Óssea , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/veterinária , Plasmócitos
5.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 63(5): 513-517, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347820

RESUMO

Subungual keratoacanthoma (SKA) is a rare benign nail bed tumor in dogs, and its radiographic characteristics have not been reported based on the authors' review of the literature. The purpose of this multicenter, retrospective, observational, descriptive study was to describe the radiographic features of SKA in dogs. Twelve dogs for a total of 12 digits with histologically confirmed SKA met the inclusion criteria. The radiographs of the manus or pes were reviewed by two veterinary radiologists and one veterinarian. The radiology reports were interpreted based on a consensus. In six dogs, there was lysis of both the middle phalanx (P2) and the distal phalanx (P3), whereas in the other six dogs, there was only lysis of P3. In all dogs with osteolysis of P2, the lysis involved the distal articular surface. Osteolysis of P3 was more severe in the ungual process than in the ungual crest in all dogs. The margins of the lytic regions of P2 and P3 were well defined and smoothly marginated in most dogs. Expansile changes in the P3 crest were observed in 83.3% (10/12 dogs), and the nail of the affected digit was enlarged and deformed in 91.6% (11/12 dogs). In summary, the radiographic features of canine SKA include severe pressure resorption of the P3 ungual process, expansile change of the P3 ungual crest, and nail enlargement and deformation. With these radiographic features, SKA should be considered as a differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Ceratoacantoma , Doenças da Unha , Osteólise , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Ceratoacantoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ceratoacantoma/veterinária , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Doenças da Unha/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Unha/veterinária , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Osteólise/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(S2): 1-3, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349478

RESUMO

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists.


Assuntos
Patologia Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Humanos , Estados Unidos
7.
Can Vet J ; 62(12): 1289-1291, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34857963

RESUMO

A 2-month-old intact female Rottweiler was presented for investigation of coughing and respiratory distress 9 d after an exploratory laparotomy for intestinal foreign body removal. Tracheal stenosis was suspected by radiography and confirmed with computed tomography (CT) and tracheoscopy. After 1 wk of medical management, clinical signs had resolved and the severity of the tracheal narrowing was markedly improved, as confirmed by radiography and tracheoscopy. Tracheal stenosis is a considerable complication of endotracheal intubation in veterinary medicine and may be medically managed, depending on the severity of the tracheal injury. Key clinical message: To our knowledge, this is the first clinical case report of tracheal stenosis resulting from endotracheal intubation in a dog and its resolution after medical management.


Sténose trachéale après intubation endotrachéale chez un chien. Une femelle Rottweiler intacte âgée de deux mois a été présentée pour examen de la toux et de la détresse respiratoire neuf jours après une laparotomie exploratrice pour le retrait d'un corps étranger intestinal. Une sténose trachéale a été suspectée par radiographie et confirmée par tomodensitométrie et trachéoscopie. Après une semaine de prise en charge médicale, les signes cliniques avaient disparu et la sévérité du rétrécissement trachéal s'était nettement améliorée, tel que confirmés par la radiographie et la trachéoscopie. La sténose trachéale est une complication majeure de l'intubation endotrachéale en médecine vétérinaire et peut être prise en charge médicalement, selon la gravité de la lésion trachéale.Message clinique clé:À notre connaissance, il s'agit du premier cas clinique de sténose trachéale résultant d'une intubation endotrachéale chez un chien et de sa résolution après prise en charge médicale.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Corpos Estranhos , Estenose Traqueal , Animais , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/veterinária , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Traqueia , Estenose Traqueal/etiologia , Estenose Traqueal/terapia , Estenose Traqueal/veterinária
8.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 62(6): e25-e28, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448284

RESUMO

A 13-year-old male neutered mixed-breed dog with a history of gallbladder mucocele and urolithiasis was evaluated by ultrasound. Two hyperechoic, linear foreign bodies with no distal acoustic shadowing were detected in the urinary bladder and urethra. Following the ultrasound examination, the patient underwent cystoscopy, and two single hairs were found and successfully retrieved. Considering that urinary bladder foreign bodies may be a source for urinary tract infection and can act as a nidus for urocystolith formation, removal is recommended. This is the first published report describing ultrasonographic diagnosis of a hair foreign body in the canine urinary bladder and urethra.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Corpos Estranhos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Masculino , Pelve , Uretra , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 62(2): 175-180, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236812

RESUMO

Mineral-attenuating material is occasionally seen in the anal sacs of dogs during abdominal CT studies. This retrospective, descriptive study was performed to estimate the prevalence and CT appearance of this mineral-attenuating material. A total of 357 abdominal CTs were reviewed retrospectively. The mineral-attenuating material was most easily identifiable using the brain window setting (window width: 120 HU; window level: 40 HU). In the current study, the prevalence of mineral-attenuating material in the anal sacs was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 5.0-10.8%) with 48.1% bilateral involvement and equal distribution in the right and left in dogs with unilateral involvement. Successful collection and material analysis were performed in three dogs. The material was determined to be 100% dried blood, 100% waxy matter, and a "small amount of fat enmeshed in unidentified noncrystallined material." Given the CT appearance and the Hounsfield unit of these mineral-attenuating material within the anal sacs, the term "anal sacculiths" is proposed. All dogs with anal sacculiths within this study population did not have any reported disease of the anal sacs.


Assuntos
Sacos Anais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Sacos Anais/patologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Vet Surg ; 48(8): 1507-1513, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179565

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of an identifiable tumor plane (ITP) during myelotomy to excise an intramedullary hemangioma in a dog and report the outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. ANIMALS: One 5.5-year-old 42.9-kg spayed female Leonberger dog. METHODS: Clinical signs included progressive proprioceptive deficits of both pelvic limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with a dorsal intramedullary mass at L3-L4. A laminectomy of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae provided access for dorsal myelotomy. A clear surgical ITP was identified between the intramedullary mass and the spinal cord facilitating complete surgical resection. RESULTS: Histopathological examination was consistent with a hemangioma. Postoperative MRI was consistent with complete excision of the mass. No evidence of recurrence was found by MRI at 3 months and at 22 months after surgery. Mild proprioceptive deficits persisted in the right pelvic limb. CONCLUSION: A clear ITP was present, and gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved without significant morbidity. Persistent clinical remission resulted from surgery as the sole therapy. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: For an intramedullary tumor, GTR is the absence of visible tumor on intraoperative inspection combined with the absence of intramedullary contrast enhancement on postoperative MRI. When an ITP is present, GTR and resultant long-term remission may be more likely.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Hemangioma/veterinária , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Hemangioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemangioma/cirurgia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol ; 12: 10-16, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ultrasound (US) is a non-invasive, non-radiographic imaging technique with high spatial and temporal resolution that can be used for localizing soft-tissue structures and tumors in real-time during radiotherapy (RT) (inter- and intra-fraction). A comprehensive approach incorporating an in-house 3D-US system within RT is presented. This system is easier to adopt into existing treatment protocols than current US based systems, with the aim of providing millimeter intra-fraction alignment errors and sensitivity to track intra-fraction bladder movement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in-house integrated US manipulator and platform was designed to relate the computed tomographic (CT) scanner, 3D-US and linear accelerator coordinate systems. An agar-based phantom with measured speed of sound and densities consistent with tissues surrounding the bladder was rotated (0-45°) and translated (up to 55 mm) relative to the US and CT coordinate systems to validate this device. After acquiring and integrating CT and US images into the treatment planning system, US-to-US and US-to-CT images were co-registered to re-align the phantom relative to the linear accelerator. RESULTS: Statistical errors from US-to-US registrations for various patient orientations ranged from 0.1 to 1.7 mm for x, y, and z translation components, and 0.0-1.1° for rotational components. Statistical errors from US-to-CT registrations were 0.3-1.2 mm for the x, y and z translational components and 0.1-2.5° for the rotational components. CONCLUSIONS: An ultrasound-based platform was designed, constructed and tested on a CT/US tissue-equivalent phantom to track bladder displacement with a statistical uncertainty to correct and track inter- and intra-fractional displacements of the bladder during radiation treatments.

13.
Am J Vet Res ; 79(3): 311-316, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal protocol for acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas. ANIMALS 3 healthy adult male alpacas. PROCEDURES Each alpaca was anesthetized with an IM injection of a combination of ketamine, xylazine, and butorphanol and positioned in sternal recumbency on the CT couch with its legs folded in a natural cush position and its head positioned within the isocenter of the gantry of a 64-slice CT scanner. Images were acquired by means of 6 protocols (sequential and helical modes at slice thicknesses of 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mm). Five images (2 molar, 2 premolar, and mandibular incisor teeth) were selected from each protocol for evaluation by 3 veterinary radiologists. For each image, tooth root visibility and sharpness and image noise artifact were subjectively evaluated on a 3-point scoring system. RESULTS Slice thickness significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness but did not affect image noise artifact. Acquisition mode significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness as well as image noise artifact. Tooth root visibility and sharpness did not differ significantly between the helical and sequential images when the slice thickness was 1.25 mm. Image noise artifact was greater for helical images than sequential images but did not differ by slice thickness within either acquisition mode. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that for a 64-slice CT scanner, the optimal protocol for the acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas was a sequential scan with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/anatomia & histologia , Dentição , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Animais , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
14.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 246(7): 785-93, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25794129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical characteristics, clinicopathologic data, and bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results associated with septic arthritis in foals ≤ 180 days old. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: 83 foals with septic arthritis. PROCEDURES: Medical records at 2 teaching hospitals between 1998 and 2013 were searched to identify those for foals ≤ 180 days old with confirmed infection of ≥ 1 synovial structure. Data extracted from the records included signalment, clinicopathologic information, bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results, and outcome. Data were analyzed for all foals as a single population and for foals stratified into 3 age groups (≤ 7 days, 8 to 30 days, and 31 to 180 days). RESULTS: Mean ± SD age of all foals was 18.2 ± 25 days (range, 0 to 180 days). The median number of joints affected per foal was 2 (range, 1 to 10 joints). Forty-seven of 83 (56.6%) foals survived to discharge from the hospital. Seventy antemortem synovial fluid samples underwent bacteriologic culture, of which 60 (85.7%) yielded growth. Of the 72 bacterial isolates identified, 45 (62.5%) were gram negative and 27 (375%) were gram positive. Survival rate was positively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentration and negatively associated with number of affected joints. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated the frequency with which certain bacterial agents were isolated from septic joints, which may be beneficial for the empirical treatment of septic arthritis in foals. Also, the positive association between survival rate and plasma fibrinogen concentration may have prognostic value in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/veterinária , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Artrite Infecciosa/mortalidade , Artrite Infecciosa/terapia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Infecções Bacterianas/terapia , Doenças dos Cavalos/mortalidade , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/terapia , Cavalos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 53(4): 389-93, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22235951

RESUMO

Cerebral microbleeds in people are small foci of hemosiderin-containing macrophages in normal brain parenchyma. They are the remnant of previous hemorrhage and occur with greater frequency in older individuals. Our purpose was to describe the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance of cerebral microbleeds in four dogs. These lesions appeared as round, hypointense foci measuring ≤4 mm on T2*-gradient-recalled echo images. They were less conspicuous or absent on T2-weighting, being iso- or hypointense, and uniformly invisible on T1-weighted images. No contrast enhancement was seen in any of the cerebral microbleeds. Necropsy-derived histopathologic analysis of one brain confirmed these lesions to be chronic cerebrocortical infarcts containing hemosiderin. The MR changes seen in dogs were analogous to what has been described in people and will be helpful in distinguishing cerebral microbleeds from other brain lesions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Animais , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Cães
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