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1.
Cell Signal ; : 110167, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628002

RESUMO

Artesunate (ART), a water-soluble derivative of artemisinin, has been reported to exert antineoplastic effects via diverse mechanisms in various types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the underlying mechanism of action of ART in distinct cancer types is indispensable to optimizing the therapeutic application of ART for different types of cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the antineoplastic effects of ART in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells. Cell proliferation was measured using Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assays. The levels of apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were investigated using flow cytometry. In addition, western blotting was used to analyze the expression levels of ART-induced apoptosis-, autophagy- and ferroptosis-related proteins. Monodansylcadaverine staining was performed to determine the levels of autophagy. Moreover, malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species assays were used to determine the levels of ferroptosis. The results of the present study revealed that ART inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, autophagy and ferroptosis in DLBCL cells. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy and ferroptosis alleviated the increased levels of apoptosis induced by ART. Notably, ART was found to exert its effects via inhibition of STAT3 activation. The genetic knockdown of STAT3 enhanced ART-induced autophagy and ferroptosis, and concomitantly upregulated the expression levels of apoptosis- and cell cycle-related proteins. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggested that ART may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest to inhibit cell proliferation, and regulate autophagy and ferroptosis via impairing the STAT3 signaling pathway in DLBCL cells.

2.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 293, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although transcatheter technology has achieved some success in the field of mitral valves, the feasibility of applying it to patients with degenerated mitral valve bioprostheses (valve-in-valve, ViV), failure of mitral valvuloplasty (valve-in-ring, ViR) and serious mitral annulus calcification (vale-in-MAC, ViMAC) has not been effectively evaluated. METHODS: By searching published literature before December 5, 2020 in four databases, we found all the literature related to the evaluation of feasibility assessment of TMViV, TMViR and TMViMAC. Outcomes focused on all-cause mortality within 30 days, bleeding and LVOT obstruction. RESULTS: A total of six studies were included, and all of them were followed up for at least 30 days. After analysis of the ViV-ViR group, we obtained the following results: the all-cause mortality within 30 days of the ViV group was lower than that of the ViR group. Life-threatening or fatal bleeding was more likely to occur in the ViR group after surgery. At the same time, the ViR group was more prone to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. However, in the ViMAC-ViR group, only the all-cause mortality within 30 days and stroke were statistically significant. In the indirect comparison, we found that TMViV had the best applicability, followed by TMViR. There were few TMViMAC available for analysis, and it requires further studies to improve the accuracy of the results. CONCLUSION: TMViV and TMViR had good applicability and could benefit patients who underwent repeat valve surgery. The feasibility of TMViMAC needs to be further explored and improved.

3.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prevalence, clinical features, and outcomes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) complicated with or without aortic aneurysm (AA) were compared in a Chinese single-center cohort. METHODS: Included in this study were SLE patients who received treatment at Shanghai Changhai Hospital between 2000 and 2020. The prevalence, clinical features, and outcomes of these SLE patients with or without AA were compared by Student's t-tests or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate. Risk factors associated with AA occurrence in SLE were evaluated by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. The survival analysis between SLE patients with or without AA was conducted by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Of the 1843 SLE patients included in this study, 16 (0.86%) were identified as having AA, and 160 of the remaining 1825 SLE patients without AA were selected as a simple random sample for comparison. The SLE patients with AA showed a higher proportion of smoking and hypertension as compared with those with no AA. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a long SLE duration and anti-RNP positivity were two independent risk factors associated with AA occurrence in SLE patients. The log rank test showed that SLE patients with AA had a significantly higher risk of progression to death. Renal disorder was associated with an even poorer outcome in SLE patients with AA. CONCLUSION: The incidence of AA in SLE patients may be underestimated. The association between AA and SLE, especially in patients with multiple risk factors, should not be ignored. Key Points • The risk of SLE patients developing AA may be higher than that previously estimated. • The risk of SLE patients especially with multiple risk factors developing AA should not be ignored. • The diagnosis of AA should not be forgot when SLE patients present with chest, back, or abdominal symptoms with unexplained causes.

4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599025

RESUMO

The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is rising exponentially in numerous cancers, but immune-related adverse events can occur. We report a rare case of high-grade drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome developed stepwise in a patient with gastric cancer after nivolumab treatment. Subclinical myocarditis was sensitively detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance 3 weeks after initiating nivolumab. Eruption, eosinophilia, and interstitial pneumonitis occurred 1 week later. Corticosteroids were started and his condition improved. Four months later, when he was still on steroids tapering off, acute kidney injury and sequential herpes zoster virus activation developed. Severe acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATN) with an intense infiltration of lymphocytes was observed on renal biopsy. In blood, a substantial shift to Th2 response, an increase of Th17 cells, and strikingly enriched granzyme B+ and perforin+ CD8+ T cells were detected at ATN onset. Serum interleukin (IL)-5, IL-17, interferon gamma, and IL-6 levels were consistently elevated. Further molecular profiling identified a DRESS risk allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*31:01 in this patient. His ATN responded favorably to a high dose of corticosteroids. In parallel, complete antitumor response was observed during the clinical course of DRESS. This is the first ever case report of nivolumab-associated DRESS syndrome with exploration of the mechanisms from the histopathological, cellular and molecular aspects. Nivolumab-induced DRESS may result from type IV hypersensitivity-related 'off-target effect' and PD-1 block-mediated 'on-target effect'. HLA risk alleles may constitute the genetic susceptible basis. HLA typing assay has the potential to screen susceptible individuals to avoid ICI-induced DRESS.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638946

RESUMO

Floccularia luteovirens is a rare wild edible and medicinal fungus endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In this study, the hollow fiber membranes with molecular weights of 50 kDa, 6 kDa and 3 kDa were used to extract different fractions of F. luteovirens, which were named as #1, #2 and #3. Then the antitumor activity of these fractions on NSCLC cell lines, PC9 and NCI-H460, were investigated by using MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis and Western blot assay. The results indicated that the #2 and #3 fractions showed obviously inhibitory activities on PC9 and NCI-H460 tumor cells and proved that these small molecule fractions induced apoptosis of NSCLC cells by activating caspase-3. Finally, a total of 15 components, including six amino acids, two nucleosides, two glycosides, two terpenoids, one phenylpropanoid, one ester and one alkaloid, were identified in #2 and #3 fractions. This is the first evidence that the small molecule components of F. luteovirens were able to inhibit lung cancer by inducing apoptosis in a caspase-3 manner. The present study indicated the benefits of F. luteovirens in lung cancer treatment, which might be a potential resource of functional food and drugs.

6.
Adipocyte ; 10(1): 446-455, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550043

RESUMO

With the increasing obesity prevalence, the rates of obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular diseases, have increased dramatically. Dapagliflozin, one of the sodium glucose cotransporter inhibitors, not only exerts hypoglycaemic effects through increasing urinary glucose excretion but alsoreprograms the metabolic system, leading to benefits in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, pre-established obese mice on a high-fat diet were given dapagliflozin by gavage for fourweeks. It showed that dapagliflozin can enhance fat utilization and browning of adipose tissue and improve local oxidative stress, thus inhibiting fat accumulation and hepatic steatosis without disturbance in body weight or plasma glycolipid level. Overall, our study highlights the potential clinical application of SGLT2 inhibition in the prevention of obesity and related metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, NAFLD, and diabetes.

7.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567957

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread across the globe, posing an enormous threat to public health and safety. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in combination with Western medicine (WM), has made important and lasting contributions in the battle against COVID-19. In this review, updated clinical effects and potential mechanisms of TCM, presented in newly recognized three distinct phases of the disease, are summarized and discussed. By integrating the available clinical and preclinical evidence, the efficacies and underlying mechanisms of TCM on COVID-19, including the highly recommended three Chinese patent medicines and three Chinese medicine formulas, are described in a panorama. We hope that this comprehensive review not only provides a reference for health care professionals and the public to recognize the significant contributions of TCM for COVID-19, but also serves as an evidence-based in-depth summary and analysis to facilitate understanding the true scientific value of TCM.

8.
Cell Rep ; 36(13): 109761, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592151

RESUMO

Drosophila Vago is a small antiviral peptide. Its ortholog in Culex mosquito was found to be an interferon-like cytokine that limits virus replication through activating Jak/Stat signaling. However, this activation is independent of Domeless, the sole homolog of vertebrate type I cytokine receptor. How Vago activates the Jak/Stat pathway remains unknown. Herein, we report this process is dependent on integrin in kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus). Shrimp Vago-like (MjVago-L) plays an antiviral role by activating the Jak/Stat pathway and inducing Stat-regulated Ficolin. Blocking integrin abrogates the role of MjVago-L. The interaction between MjVago-L and integrin ß3 is confirmed. An Asp residue in MjVago-L is found critical for the interaction and MjVago-L's antiviral role. Moreover, Fak, a key adaptor of integrin signaling, mediates MjVago-L-induced Jak/Stat activation. Therefore, this study reveals that integrin, as the receptor of MjVago-L, mediates Jak/Stat activation. The establishment of the MjVago-L/integrin/Fak/Jak/Stat/Ficolin axis provides insights into antiviral cytokine signaling in invertebrates.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257836, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587216

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Efforts are underway to incorporate retinal neurodegeneration in the diabetic retinopathy severity scale. However, there is no established measure to quantify diabetic retinal neurodegeneration (DRN). OBJECTIVE: We compared total retinal, macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL) and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness among participants with and without diabetes (DM) in a population-based cohort. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional analysis, using the UK Biobank data resource. Separate general linear mixed models (GLMM) were created using DM and glycated hemoglobin as predictor variables for retinal thickness. Sub-analyses included comparing thickness measurements for patients with no/mild diabetic retinopathy (DR) and evaluating factors associated with retinal thickness in participants with and without diabetes. Factors found to be significantly associated with DM or thickness were included in a multiple GLMM. EXPOSURE: Diagnosis of DM was determined via self-report of diagnosis, medication use, DM-related complications or glycated hemoglobin level of ≥ 6.5%. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Total retinal, mRNFL and GC-IPL thickness. RESULTS: 74,422 participants (69,985 with no DM; 4,437 with DM) were included. Median age was 59 years, 46% were men and 92% were white. Participants with DM had lower total retinal thickness (-4.57 µm, 95% CI: -5.00, -4.14; p<0.001), GC-IPL thickness (-1.73 µm, 95% CI: -1.86, -1.59; p<0.001) and mRNFL thickness (-0.68 µm, 95% CI: -0.81, -0.54; p<0.001) compared to those without DM. After adjusting for co-variates, in the GLMM, total retinal thickness was 1.99 um lower (95% CI: -2.47, -1.50; p<0.001) and GC-IPL was 1.02 µm lower (95% CI: -1.18, -0.87; p<0.001) among those with DM compared to without. mRNFL was no longer significantly different (p = 0.369). GC-IPL remained significantly lower, after adjusting for co-variates, among those with DM compared to those without DM when including only participants with no/mild DR (-0.80 µm, 95% CI: -0.98, -0.62; p<0.001). Total retinal thickness decreased 0.40 µm (95% CI: -0.61, -0.20; p<0.001), mRNFL thickness increased 0.20 µm (95% CI: 0.14, 0.27; p<0.001) and GC-IPL decreased 0.26 µm (95% CI: -0.33, -0.20; p<0.001) per unit increase in A1c after adjusting for co-variates. Among participants with diabetes, age, DR grade, ethnicity, body mass index, glaucoma, spherical equivalent, and visual acuity were significantly associated with GC-IPL thickness. CONCLUSION: GC-IPL was thinner among participants with DM, compared to without DM. This difference persisted after adjusting for confounding variables and when considering only those with no/mild DR. This confirms that GC-IPL thinning occurs early in DM and can serve as a useful marker of DRN.

10.
Part Fibre Toxicol ; 18(1): 36, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the inevitability for humans to be frequently exposed to nanoparticles (NPs), understanding the biosafety of NPs is important for rational usage. As an important part of the innate immune system, macrophages are widely distributed in vital tissues and are also a dominant cell type that engulfs particles. Mitochondria are one of the most sensitive organelles when macrophages are exposed to NPs. However, previous studies have mainly reported the mitochondrial response upon high-dose NP treatment. Herein, with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a model, we investigated the mitochondrial alterations induced by NPs at a sublethal concentration. RESULTS: At a similar internal exposure dose, different AuNPs showed distinct degrees of effects on mitochondrial alterations, including reduced tubular mitochondria, damaged mitochondria, increased reactive oxygen species, and decreased adenosine triphosphate. Cluster analysis, two-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression suggested that the surface properties of AuNPs were the dominant determinants of the mitochondrial response. Based on the correlation analysis, the mitochondrial response was increased with the change in zeta potential from negative to positive. The alterations in mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins indicated that complex V was an indicator of the mitochondrial response to low-dose NPs. CONCLUSION: Our current study suggests potential hazards of modified AuNPs on mitochondria even under sublethal dose, indicates the possibility of surface modification in biocompatibility improvement, and provides a new way to better evaluation of nanomaterials biosafety.

11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(10): 4968-4976, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581141

RESUMO

Wetlands are an important global source and sink of methane. However, human activities and climatic conditions are causing serious degradation of wetlands in China. In response to this, the relevant departments have progressively carried out wetland restoration projects over the past few years. To investigate the response of microbial communities of bacteria, methanogens, and methanotrophs during degradation and restoration of wetlands, soil samples were collected from undegraded reed wetlands, degraded reed wetlands, and restored reed wetlands in the Songnen Plain. Microbial diversity and community composition were studied by high-throughput sequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria, the mcrA gene of methanogens, and the pmoA gene of methanotrophs. The results indicate that the degradation of reed wetlands results in a decrease in bacterial and methanogenic α-diversity and an increase in methanotrophic α-diversity. Bacterial α-diversity and methanogenic α-diversity were both significantly positively correlated with soil water content. At different taxonomic levels, higher relative abundances of Rhizobiales and Methanobacteriaceae were detected in the undegraded wetland soils. Wetland degradation decreased the relative abundance of Rhizobiales but increased that of the pathogenic bacteria Burkholderiaceae and microorganisms resistant to harsh and extreme environments including Sphingomonas, Rubrobacter, Methylobacter, Methylomonas, and Methylococcus. In the restored wetland soils, the relative abundances of Bacillus, Methanosarcinaceae, Methanomicrobiaceae, and the type Ⅱ methanotroph Methylocystis were higher. Therefore, different wetland conditions can indirectly change soil properties and, consequently, change the community structure of methanogens and methanotrophs.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Áreas Alagadas , Humanos , Metano , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
12.
J Med Chem ; 64(18): 13410-13428, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499493

RESUMO

Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γ (RORc, RORγ, or NR1F3) is the nuclear receptor master transcription factor that drives the function and development of IL-17-producing T helper cells (Th17), cytotoxic T cells (Tc17), and subsets of innate lymphoid cells. Activation of RORγ+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment is hypothesized to render immune infiltrates more effective at countering tumor growth. To test this hypothesis, a family of benzoxazines was optimized to provide LYC-55716 (37c), a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable small-molecule RORγ agonist. LYC-55716 decreases tumor growth and enhances survival in preclinical tumor models and was nominated as a clinical development candidate for evaluation in patients with solid tumors.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27130, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477158

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab (BV) plus chemotherapy is broadly used in advanced ovarian cancer (OC). However, the efficacy of BV-based regimens for advanced OC patients is not satisfactory. Therefore, it is urgent to explore the predictive genetic biomarkers for BV.Tumor tissues from advanced OC patients receiving BV-based regimens were analyzed with a 150-gene targeted panel for next generation sequencing. The associations between gene alterations or clinicopathology features and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves or Cox regression. The association of the genetic alteration in potential predictive genes and expressions of 11 vascular endothelial growth factor-related genes were analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort using 292 OC cases.Sixty two Chinese advanced OC patients treated with BV-based therapy were included. The median PFS of was 6.9 months, and objective response rate was 14.5%. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the status of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) (hazard ratio = 6.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.25-18.13, P < .001) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (hazard ratio = 3.58, 95% CI 1.27-10.08, P = .016) were significantly correlated with PFS. MYC Proto-Oncogene amplification seemed to have a positive trend (hazard ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-1.02, P = .052). Moreover, EGFR and HER2 alterations were not prognostic factors of overall survival for OC in The Cancer Genome Atlas OC cohort. The vascular endothelial growth factor-related signature analysis indicated vascular endothelial factor A expression was upregulated with EGFR alterations (P = .034) which may be involved in BV resistance, and HER2 alterations were associated with hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha overexpression significantly (P = .029).EGFR or HER2 alterations are negative predictors of PFS for OC patient treated with BV plus chemotherapy. Therefore, the clinicians may consider to use alternative regimens such as anti-EGFR or anti-HER2 targeted therapy instead of BV-based regimens on these patients when standard care fail.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Genes erbB-1 , Genes erbB-2 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
14.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 17(10): 6458-6471, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491058

RESUMO

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations play a vital role in revealing the mechanism of amyloid aggregation that is crucial to the therapeutic agent development for Alzheimer's Disease. However, the accuracy of MD simulation results strongly depends on the force field employed. In our previous benchmark for 17 all-atom force fields on modeling of amyloid aggregation using the Aß16-22 dimer, we showed that AMBER14SB and CHARMM36m are suitable force fields for amyloid aggregation simulation, while GROMOS54a7 and OPLSAA are not good for the task. In this work, we continue assessing the applicability of atomistic force fields on amyloid aggregation using the VQIVYK (PHF6) peptide which is essential for tau-protein aggregation. Although, both Aß16-22 and PHF6 peptides formed fibrils in vitro, the PHF6 fibrils are parallel ß-sheets, while the Aß16-22 fibrils are antiparallel ß-sheets. We performed an all-atom large-scale MD simulation in explicit water on the PHF6 dimer and octa-peptides systems using five mainstream force fields, including AMBER99SB-disp, AMBER14SB, CHARMM36m, GROMOS54a7, and OPLSAA. The accumulated simulation time is 0.2 ms. Our result showed that the ß-sheet structures of PHF6 peptides sampled by AMBER99SB-disp, AMBER14SB, GROMOS54a7, and OPLSAA are in favor of the antiparallel ß-sheets, while the dominant type of ß-sheet structures is parallel ß-sheet by using CHARMM36m. Among the five force fields, CHARMM36m provides the strongest CH-π interaction that was observed in an NMR study. The comparison between our results and experimental observation indicates that CHARMM36m achieved the best performance on modeling the aggregation of PHF6 peptides. In summary, CHARMM36m is currently the most suitable force field for studying the aggregation of both amyloid-ß and Tau through MD simulations.

15.
Neurochem Int ; 150: 105180, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509561

RESUMO

The identity of the mechanism that controls aggressive behavior in rodents is unclear. Serotonin (5-HT) and GABA are associated with aggressive behavior in rodents. However, the regulatory relationship between these chemicals in the different brain regions of rats has not been fully defined. This study aimed to clarify the role of GABABR1 in DRN-mediated GABA to regulate 5-HT expression in multiple brain regions in male rats with high and low aggressive behavior. Rat models of highly and less aggressive behavior were established through social isolation plus resident intruder. On this basis, GABA content in the DRN and 5-HT contents in the PFC, hypothalamus, hippocampus and DRN were detected using ELISA. Co-expression of 5-HT and GB1 in the DRN was detected by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy at the tissue and subcellular levels, respectively. GB1-specific agonist baclofen and GB1-specific inhibitor CGP35348 were injected into the DRN by stereotaxic injection. Changes in 5-HT levels in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus were detected afterward. After modeling, rats with highly aggressive behavior exhibited higher aggressive behavior scores, shorter latencies of aggression, and higher total distances in the open field test than rats with less aggressive behavior. The contents of 5-HT in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats with high and low aggressive behavior (no difference between the two groups) were significantly decreased, but the change in GABA content in the DRN was the opposite. GB1 granules could be found on synaptic membranes containing 5-HT granules, which indicated that 5-HT neurons in the DRN co-expressed with GB1, which also occurred in double immunofluorescence results. At the same time, we found that the expression of GB1 in the DRN of rats with high and low aggressive behavior was significantly increased, and the expression of GB1 in the DRN of rats with low aggressive behavior was significantly higher than that in rats with high aggressive behavior. Nevertheless, the expression of 5-HT in DRN was opposite in these two groups. After microinjection of baclofen into the DRN, the 5-HT contents in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats in each group decreased significantly. In contrast, the 5-HT contents in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats in each group increased significantly after injection with CGP35348. The significant increase in GABA in the DRN combined with the significant increase in GB1 in the DRN further mediated the synaptic inhibition effect, which reduced the 5-HT level of 5-HT neurons in the DRN, resulting in a significant decrease in 5-HT levels in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus. Therefore, GB1-mediated GABA regulation of 5-HT levels in the PFC, hypothalamus and hippocampus is one of the mechanisms of highly and less aggressive behavior originating in the DRN. The increased GB1 level in the DRN of LA-behavior rats exhibited a greater degree of change than in the HA-group rats, which indicated that differently decreased 5-HT levels in the DRN may be the internal mechanisms of high and low aggression behaviors.

16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(12): 106103, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587576

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the relationship between plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) concentration and plaque characteristics in patients with intracranial artery stenosis and their clinical relevance in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (66 males, 21 females) were retrospectively enrolled. Plasma Lp-PLA2 concentration was measured, and vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (VW-MRI) was used to determine intracranial vascular stenosis and plaque characteristics, including plaque enhancement, surface morphology, and T1 hyperintensity. Binary logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between Lp-PLA2 concentration and plaque characteristics of intracranial artery after adjusting for demographic and confounding factors and to assess their diagnostic efficacy for the risk of acute ischemic stroke. RESULTS: After adjustment for demographic, medication and related lipid factors, Lp-PLA2 elevation was associated with plaque enhancement (odds ratio [OR]=12.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.51-64.82, P=0.002) and surface irregularity (OR=2.9, 95% CI 1.06-7.98, P=0.038). Both Lp-PLA2 elevation (OR=8.8, 95% CI 1.64-47.72, P=0.011) and plaque enhancement (OR=34.3, 95% CI 5.88-200.4, P=0.001) were associated with acute ischemic stroke. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve for Lp-PLA2 concentration and plaque enhancement combined in the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke was 0.884, significantly higher than that for Lp-PLA2 concentration (0.724) and plaque enhancement (0.794) alone. CONCLUSION: Elevated Lp-PLA2 is associated with plaque enhancement and plaque surface irregularity. Combined assessment of Lp-PLA2 concentration and plaque enhancement is of greater diagnostic value for the risk of acute ischemic stroke in patients with intracranial artery stenosis.

17.
J Food Biochem ; 45(10): e13941, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532863

RESUMO

To improve the quality of salted quail eggs and solve the problem of excessive sodium content in salted eggs, we selected substitutes (K2 CO3 , CaCl2 , MgCl2 , ZnCl2 , and FeC6 H5 O7 ) to partially replace NaCl and study its effect on water migration, physicochemical properties, and textural characteristics. The low-field nuclear magnetic resonance technology (LF-NMR) was used to qualitatively analyze the moisture and proton content of quail eggs during the pickling process. The results showed that the relaxation curves of ZnCl2 and FeC6 H5 O7 groups were significantly different from those of other groups. The bound water content of the ZnCl2 group increased significantly, and FeC6 H5 O7 made the binding degree of water closer. The Na+ of different substitute groups was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; it was found that the permeation rate of NaCl in the curing process was in the following order: K2 CO3 > control group > MgCl2 > FeC6 H5 O7 > CaCl2 > ZnCl2 . Through the electronic tongue study and comparing the ripening period of salted quail eggs, it was found that the flavor and ripening time of salted quail eggs cured by ZnCl2 and FeC6 H5 O7 were not suitable for low-sodium pickling preparation. At the same time, CaCl2 and MgCl2 were suitable for low-sodium pickling and could improve the product quality. When using K2 CO3 , the substitution ratio can be reduced and two or more compound-curing agents can be formed with CaCl2 and MgCl2 , thus reducing the content of sodium salt in salted eggs. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: We simulated the metallic elements contained in the traditional black ash-salted eggs and salt mud coatings. By partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with different metal salts (K2 CO3 , CaCl2 , MgCl2 , ZnCl2 , and FeC6 H5 O7 ), we studied the effects of these metal salts on the physical and chemical properties, texture, and microstructure of quail eggs during the pickling process. Several suitable low-sodium substitutes were screened out to provide a theoretical foundation for the process optimization of low-sodium-salted quail eggs.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19375, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588505

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by persistent inflammatory responses in target tissues and organs, resulting in the destruction of joints. Collagen type II (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) is the most used animal model for human RA. Although BTN2A2 protein has been previously shown to inhibit T cell functions in vitro, its effect on autoimmune arthritis has not been reported. In this study, we investigate the ability of a recombinant BTN2A2-IgG2a Fc (BTN2A2-Ig) fusion protein to treat CIA. We show here that administration of BTN2A2-Ig attenuates established CIA, as compared with control Ig protein treatment. This is associated with reduced activation, proliferation and Th1/Th17 cytokine production of T cells in BTN2A2-Ig-treated CIA mice. BTN2A2-Ig also inhibits CII-specific T cell proliferation and Th1/Th17 cytokine production. Although the percentage of effector T cells is decreased in BTN2A2-Ig-treated CIA mice, the proportions of naive T cells and regulatory T cells is increased. Furthermore, BTN2A2-Ig reduces the percentage of proinflammatory M1 macrophages but increases the percentage of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the CIA mice. Our results suggest that BTN2A2-Ig protein has the potential to be used in the treatment of collagen-induced arthritis models.

19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 711746, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527602

RESUMO

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a clinical syndrome characterized by frequency, urgency, and bladder pain or pelvic pain; however, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and diagnostic markers are unknown. In this study, microbiome and metabolome analysis were used to explain the urine signatures of IC patients. Urine samples from 20 IC patients and 22 control groups were analyzed by using 16S rRNA sequence and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Four opportunistic pathogen genera, including Serratia, Brevibacterium, Porphyromonas, and Citrobacter, were significantly upregulated in IC group. The altered metabolite signatures of the metabolome may be related to sphingosine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Meanwhile, the associations were observed between different metabolites and microbiomes of IC. The present study suggests that the combined signatures of IC in urine microbiome and metabolome may become its prospective diagnostic markers.

20.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the combined anti-inflammatory effect of activating blood circulation and detoxifying Chinese medicines in unstable angina (UA) patients. METHODS: This study was an open-labeled, randomized controlled trial conducted in 5 centers in Beijing. A total of 154 patients were randomized into two groups at a 1:1 ratio by random numbers. Based on the conventional treatment, patients in the activating blood circulation (ABC) group were treated with Guanxin Danshen Droping Pill (, 0.4 g, thrice daily), and patients in the activating blood circulation and detoxifying (ABCD) group were treated with Guanxin Danshen Droping Pill (0.4 g, thrice daily) and Andrographis tablet (0.2 g, thrice daily) for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was the serum level of high sensitive C reaction protein (hs-CRP), and the secondary outcome index included the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), thrombomodulin (TM), the score of angina pectoris, the score of blood stasis syndrome, and the score of Chinese medicine symptoms, observed at week 0 and week 4. RESULTS: A total of 144 patients completed the trial (ABC group, n=70; ABCD group, n=74). There were no significant differences in the clinical baseline characteristics between the two groups. When compared with the ABC group, ABCD group showed better performance in reducing the level of inflammatory factors, especially hs-CRP (P<0.05), IL-6 (P<0.01) and TNF-α (P<0.01). In term of clinical symptoms, ABCD group played a better role in improving the scores of angina pectoris and blood stasis syndrome than ABC group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of Guanxin Danshen Dropping Pill and Andrographis tablet exert significant anti-inflammatory effect on UA patients, which is superior to single Guanxin Danshen Dropping Pill and Andrographis tablet. (Registration No. ChiCTR-TRC-13004072).

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