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1.
Talanta ; 207: 120312, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594569

RESUMO

Transmembrane glycoprotein Trop2 is related to many epithelial carcinomas. It not only plays roles in promoting fetal lung growth but also participates in tumor genesis, malignant transformation, and tumor dissemination. However, the detailed distribution of Trop2 at the molecular level remains unknown. Herein, we used direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy to reveal the spatial organization of Trop2 on the membranes of cultured and primary lung cancer cells and normal cells. All types of cancer cells presented more localizations of Trop2 than normal cells. By SR-Teseller cluster analysis, we found that Trop2 existed in the form of clusters on all the membranes; however, cancer cells generated more and larger clusters consisting of more molecules than normal cells. Our findings shed light on the heterogeneous distribution of membrane Trop2 and highlighted the significant differences of its clustering characteristics between lung cancer cells and normal cells, which laid the basis for further studying the mechanism and functions of Trop2 clustering in lung cancer.

2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112809, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541942

RESUMO

A simple and specific, rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for determination of chlorogenic acid in human plasma using neochlorogenic acid as the internal standard. Plasma samples were precipitated with methanol and separated on a Zorbax C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, i.d. 1.8 µm) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min using a gradient mobile phase of methanol-water containing 0.1% formic acid (v/v). The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring in negative ESI mode. The method was fully validated over the concentration range of 10-2000 ng/mL. The indicators of inter- and intra-day precision (RSD%) were all within 10.7%, and the accuracy (RE%) was ranged from -3.0% to 10.6%. Moreover, we evaluated this bioanalytical method by re-analysis of incurred samples as an additional measure of assay reproducibility. This method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of CGA in Chinese subjects with advanced solid tumor after intramuscular injection administration of Chlorogenic acid for injection (CAFI).

3.
Microvasc Res ; 127: 103913, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449822

RESUMO

The "metabolic memory", a phenomenon that the target cell remembers the early hyperglycemia, has been reported to be a critical issue in diabetes pathogenesis. Here, we confirmed the inducible effects of high glucose (HG) and HG followed by normal glucose (HN) upon the proliferation and the tube formation capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as well as the suppressive effects of HG and HN on HUVEC apoptosis. In the meantime, the miR-320 expression could be dramatically downregulated (** and ## P < 0.01), whereas VEGFA expression (** and ## P < 0.01) and VEGFA, PKC, and RAGE protein levels could be remarkably induced via HG and HN stimulation. More importantly, the effects of HG and HN were not significantly different, suggesting the existence of high glucose-induced metabolic memory and the involvement of miR-320 and VEGFA in high glucose-induced metabolic memory in HUVECs. Consistently, miR-320 overexpression significantly reversed the effects of HG and HN on HUVECs (* and # P < 0.05, ** and ## P < 0.01). miR-320 suppressed the expression of VEGFA via direct binding to the 3'-UTR of VEGFA mRNA, therefore suppressing high glucose-induced metabolic memory (** P < 0.01); the effects of miR-320 overexpression on HUVECs could be reversed by VEGFA overexpression (# P < 0.05, ## P < 0.01), indicating that miR-320/VEGFA axis modulates the proliferation, apoptosis, and the angiogenesis capacity of HUVECs. In conclusion, we demonstrate that miR-320/VEGFA axis is crucial to high glucose-induced metabolic memory during HUVEC dysfunction and may be involved in the pathology of diabetes.

4.
Nano Lett ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793787

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) capable of eliciting a robust antitumor immune response has been considered an attractive therapeutic approach. However, adaptive immune resistance in PDT underlines the need to develop alternative strategies. The exquisite power of checkpoint blockade can be harnessed to reinvigorate antitumor immune response. Here, we demonstrate that PDT-triggered adaptive immune resistance can be overcome by inactivating indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1). We rationally designed a tumor-microenvironment-sheddable prodrug vesicle by integrating a PEGylated photosensitizer (PS) and a reduction-sensitive prodrug of IDO-1 inhibitor. The prodrug vesicles were inert during the blood circulation, whereas they specifically accumulated and penetrated at the tumor site through matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-mediated cleavage of the PEG corona to achieve fluorescence-imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). Compared to PDT alone, the prodrug-vesicle-mediated combination immunotherapy provoked augmented antitumor immunity to eradicate the tumor in both CT26 colorectal and 4T1 breast immunocompetent mouse models. The prodrug vesicles dramatically suppressed tumor reoccurrence, particularly in overexpressing IDO-1 tumor models, i.e., CT26. This study might provide novel insight into the development of new nanomedicine to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic immunotherapy while addressing the adaptive immune resistance.

5.
J Endocrinol ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693486

RESUMO

Osteocalcin is a bone-derived hormone that in its uncarboxylated form (GluOC) plays an important role in glucose and energy metabolism by stimulating insulin secretion and pancreatic ß-cell proliferation through its putative receptor GPRC6A. We previously showed that the effect of GluOC on insulin secretion is mediated predominantly by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from intestinal endocrine cells in response to GluOC stimulation. Moreover, oral administration of GluOC was found to reduce the fasting blood glucose level, to improve glucose tolerance, and to increase the fasting serum insulin concentration and ß-cell area in the pancreas in wild-type mice. We have now examined the effects of oral GluOC administration for at least 4 weeks in GLP-1 receptor knockout mice. Such administration of GluOC in the mutant mice triggered glucose intolerance, enhanced gluconeogenesis, and promoted both lipid accumulation in the liver as well as adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation in adipose tissue. Furthermore, inactivation of GLP-1 receptor signaling in association with GluOC administration induced activation of the transcription factor FoxO1 and expression of its transcriptional coactivator PGC1α in the liver, likely accounting for the observed up-regulation of gluconeogenic gene expression. Our results thus indicate that the beneficial metabolic effects of GluOC are dependent on GLP-1 receptor signaling.

6.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(6): 6298-6318, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698563

RESUMO

The regenerative hydraulic electric suspension (RHES) is a new type of energy regeneration damper system based on the principle of vibration energy harvesting. This system can recover the vibration energy of suspension dissipated in the form of thermal energy when vehicle travels on the road. In previous studies about RHES system, the vehicle suspension displacement is defined as varieties of periodic waves, such as sinusoidal and so on. The energy harvesting performance of damper system can be explained and evaluated to some extent, but the influence of the actual excitation condition of the road is not fully considered when studying the RHES. This paper builds models of road profiles, quarter car and power regeneration based on the proposed RHES system. Furthermore, the change laws of performance with the varies of road class, motor displacement, accumulator capacity and electrical load are summarized and the corresponding optimization suggestions are proposed, which realize the prediction and evaluation of RHES system performance under the excitation of different road profiles. Simulation suggests that this system can recover 100-400 W of power under road excitation. The findings of system analysis indicate that the component design can satisfy the damping characteristics and power performance required for specific application. The results also show that adjusting the electrical load and accumulator capacity is highly beneficial for controlling suspension behaviours, improving system reliability and increasing power regeneration.

7.
Food Chem ; 309: 125672, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671374

RESUMO

Shrimp waste containing a substantial amount of valuable nutrients presents a challenge for food industry. In this work, extraction of astaxanthin from shrimp waste via aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) and potassiumphosphate (K3PO4) was investigated. The influence of phosphonium- and ammonium-based ILs and temperature on the phase behavior and astaxanthin extraction was evaluated. The hydrogen-bond basicity of each IL studied shows a negative linear correlation with tie-line lengths of ABS and a positive linear correlation with extraction efficiency (EEAst). In general, lower temperature are favourable for astaxanthin extraction. Tributyloctylphosphonium bromide ([P4448]Br) resulted in the strongest ABS formation ability and bonding interactions between the anion and astaxanthin. Compared with organic solvents, [P4448]Br + K3PO4 ABS achieved higher EEAst of 93.08% at 308 K. The chemical properties provide the possibility of prescreening appropriate ILs for ABS formation and predicting the partition of a target molecule.

8.
Food Chem ; : 125824, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732245

RESUMO

In this work, a home-made portable dielectric barrier discharge-atomic emission spectrometer (DBD-AES) was explored to the determination of heavy metal in foodstuffs. A rapid and simple method was developed for Cd determination in rice based on this instrument. Rice was pretreated with diluted acid dissolution without complex operations and apparatus. The detection time by DBD-AES is about 3 min and the total analysis time for rice sample is within 11 min. The effects of some key experiment parameters were investigated. The limit of detection was 11.9 µg kg-1 for Cd in rice, much lower than the maximum allowable level established by EC (200 µg kg-1). The practical performance of this method was demonstrated by analyzing real and CRM rice samples. With the portability of DBD-AES, the method is suitable for rapid and in-field analysis of Cd in rice. It will be a useful tool for the routine analysis of rice.

9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; : 105894, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takotsubo Syndrome(TTS), contrary to historical reports, is now increasingly recognised to be associated with substantial mortality and morbidity, both in the short- and long-term. Although TTS is often precipitated by a catecholamine "pulse", in-hospital hypotension is a common occurrence, increasing the risk of mortality. Furthermore, despite the transient catecholamine stimulus, there is increasing evidence that there are significant long term sequelae, including persistently impaired left ventricular(LV) systolic dysfunction, myocardial oedema with fibrosis, as well as persistent impairment of quality of life. A definitive therapeutic option to limit the extent of initial myocardial injury, and to accelerate recovery in TTS is therefore justified. However to date, there has been a lack of prospective studies in this area. DESIGN AND RATIONALE: NACRAM is a multi-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, sequentially testing early use of intravenous N-acetylcysteine(NAC), followed by/or oral ramipril for 12 weeks. The rationale for utilising these agents is related to their effects on limiting nitrosative stress and expression of the inflammasome activator thioredoxin interacting protein(TXNIP); both processes fundamental to the pathogenesis of TTS. END POINTS: NACRAM is assessing resolution of myocardial oedema on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging(CMR), improvements in LV systolic function as measured by global longitudinal strain(GLS) on echocardiography, quality of life, and inflammatory markers. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, NACRAM will be the first prospective study to help definitively evaluate a therapeutic option in acute attacks of TTS.

10.
Int J Biometeorol ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707493

RESUMO

We aimed to study how seasonal heat stress (i.e., spring vs. summer) influenced microbiota diversity in the dairy cows' feces using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Sixteen dairy cows were experiencing spring thermoneutral conditions (daily mean temperature = 18.8 ± 3.40 °; daily mean THI = 64.29 ± 4.94) and 16 under summer heat stress (daily mean temperature = 27.63 ± 5.34 °; daily mean THI = 82.56 ± 1.74). Fecal samples were collected per cow three times daily from day 18 to day 22 during each experimental period. Results revealed that the microbiota diversity in the feces was significantly lower (P < 0.05) under summer heat stress. At both the phylum and genera levels, significant differences were observed on microbiota composition in cow's feces between spring and summer. The most dominant phylum was Firmicutes, contributing 69.45% and 87.14% of the fecal microbiota in spring and summer, respectively, followed by Bacteroidetes, contributing 25.27% and 4.45%, respectively. Compared with the dairy cows in the spring season, the relative abundance of unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae, Turicibacter, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 (P < 0.05) were greatly increased (P < 0.05), while the significant decrease in the proportion of Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005 and Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group as well as Bacteroides were observed in hot summer. Prediction of microbiota gene function in feces based on PICRUSt method found that different microbiota between spring and summer were mainly concentrated on the function related to membrane transport, infectious diseases, immune system diseases, and lipid metabolism. This study demonstrates that diversity and composition of fecal microbiota in dairy cows varies under different THI condition, and the relationship between fecal microbiota and cows' health needs further research.

11.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782697

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the mortality outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock who were treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) assisted by intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) + invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) with historical controls. From January 1, 2016 to June 1, 2017, 60 patients were retrospectively enrolled at Tianjin Chest Hospital. Out of these, 88.3% of patients achieved thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow 3 after PCI. The all-cause mortality rate in-hospital and at 1 year was 25% (95% CI: 0.14-0.36) and 33.9% (0.22-0.46), respectively. A systematic review followed by meta-analysis was performed with 4 historical studies of patients treated by PCI + IMV with partial IABP, which found an in-hospital mortality rate of 66.0% (95% CI: 0.62-0.71). Recently, a meta-analysis of patients receiving PCI + IABP with partial IMV showed that the 1 year mortality rate was 52.2% (95% CI: 0.47-0.58). In Cox regression analysis of patient data from the current study, lactic acid level ≥4.5 mmol/L, hyperuricemia, and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow <3 were independent predictors of death at 1 year. All-cause mortality, in-hospital and at 1 year, in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock treated with PCI + IABP and IMV was lower than in those treated with PCI + partial IABP or IMV. Larger, longer-term direct comparisons are warranted.

12.
Theranostics ; 9(26): 7981-8000, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754376

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is rapidly maturing towards extensive clinical use. However, it does not work well in large patient populations because of an immunosuppressed microenvironment and limited reinvigoration of antitumor immunity. The tumor microenvironment is a complex milieu in which the principles of physiology and anatomy are defied and which is considered an immune-privileged site promoting T cell exhaustion. Tremendous research interest exists in developing nanoparticle-based approaches to modulate antitumor immune responses. The increasing use of immunotherapies in the clinic requires robust programming of immune cells to boost antitumor immunity. This review summarizes recent advances in the engineering of nanoparticles for improved anticancer immunotherapy. It discusses emerging nanoparticle-based approaches for the modulation of tumor cells and immune cells, such as dendritic cells, T cells and tumor-associated macrophages, with the intention to overcome challenges currently faced in the clinic. Furthermore, this review describes potentially curative combination therapeutic approaches to provoke effective tumor antigen-specific immune responses. We foresee a future in which improvement in patient's surveillance will become a mainstream practice.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(23)2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766356

RESUMO

The detection of water pipeline leakage is important to ensure that water supply networks can operate safely and conserve water resources. To address the lack of intelligent and the low efficiency of conventional leakage detection methods, this paper designs a leakage detection method based on machine learning and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The system employs wireless sensors installed on pipelines to collect data and utilizes the 4G network to perform remote data transmission. A leakage triggered networking method is proposed to reduce the wireless sensor network's energy consumption and prolong the system life cycle effectively. To enhance the precision and intelligence of leakage detection, we propose a leakage identification method that employs the intrinsic mode function, approximate entropy, and principal component analysis to construct a signal feature set and that uses a support vector machine (SVM) as a classifier to perform leakage detection. Simulation analysis and experimental results indicate that the proposed leakage identification method can effectively identify the water pipeline leakage and has lower energy consumption than the networking methods used in conventional wireless sensor networks.

14.
Neurol Sci ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705326

RESUMO

AIM: Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is an inherited rare disease affecting young adults. We present the clinical, imaging, and neuropathological results of our case series, emphasizing biopsy histology combined with clinical information will increase the accuracy of early diagnosis. METHODS: In total, 4 females and 2 male ALSP patients with onset at ages 24-45 years were enrolled. Clinical manifestations, neuroimaging, and histopathology as well as gene mutation were analyzed and compared with literature. RESULTS: Clinical manifestations include cognitive decline with/without psycho-behavior problems and movement disorders including paralysis, hemiplegia, parkinsonism, and pyramidal tract injury, as well as dysarthria, dysphagia, and sensory disturbances. MRI showed multiple periventricular and subcortical white matter lesions, involving the corpus callosum, with no enhancement, but with persistent hyperintensity on diffuse-weighted imaging. Histology showed widespread white matter damage and pale stain, especially destroyed axons with spheroids and funicular axons which were stained with neurofilament and ubiquitin. Foamy and pigmented macrophages were another typical change. CSF1R mutation was found in 4 of them. All of the patients were misdiagnosed and treated for a long time for multiple sclerosis, cerebral infarction, normal pressure hydrocephalus, etc. CONCLUSION: ALSP will cause rapidly progressing dementia with/without movement disorders in young adults. The definite diagnosis should be based on a comprehensive analysis of clinical manifestations, and neuroimaging, histology, and genetic results. Early biopsy will add to the accuracy of the diagnosis.

15.
BMC Surg ; 19(1): 161, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wound-related complications are an inevitable issue faced by spinal surgeons. Negative pressure drainage remains the most commonly used method to prevent postoperative hematoma and related complications. This prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of compression therapy following posterior lumbar interbody fusion, with emphasis on pain, anemia, and inflammation. METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients who have undergone posterior lumbar interbody fusion in the age range 43-78 years, with an average age of 59 years, were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. Factors, such as drainage volume, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score for back pain, white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels assessed on the 1st, 3rd, and 10th days postoperatively, were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The average follow-up was 6 months, ranging from 3 to 11 months. Drainage volume, VAS score, and CRP levels on the 10th day after the surgery were found to be significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group. RBC count and Hb levels on the 3rd and 10th postoperative days were observed to be significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). During discharge, the wounds of the patients of the both groups had healed and neither showed any symptoms of infection, hematoma, or necrosis. CONCLUSION: Compression therapy relieves pain, alleviates anemia, and the inflammatory response following posterior lumbar interbody fusion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1800015825 on chictr.org.cn, April 23, 2018, the trial registry is Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.

16.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 206, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752953

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the short-term outcomes in terms of tumor control and toxicity of patients with skull base or cervical spine chordoma and chondrosarcoma treated with intensity-modulated proton or carbon-ion radiation therapy. METHODS: Between 6/2014 and 7/2018, a total of 91 patients were treated in our Center. The median age was 38 (range, 4-70) years. Forty-six (50.5%) patients were treated definitively for their conditions as initial diagnosis, 45 (49.5%) patients had recurrent tumors including 14 had prior radiotherapy. The median gross tumor volume was 37.0 (range, 1.6-231.7) cc. Eight patients received proton therapy alone, 28 patients received combined proton and carbon ion therapy, 55 patients received carbon-ion therapy alone. RESULTS: With a median follow-up time of 28 (range, 8-59) months, the 2-year local control (LC), progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates was 86.2, 76.8, and 87.2%, respectively. Those rates for patients received definitive proton or carbon-ion therapy were 86.7, 82.8, and 93.8%, respectively. On multivariate analyses, tumor volume of > 60 cc was the only significant factor for predicting PFS (p = 0.045), while re-irradiation (p = 0.012) and tumor volume (> vs < 60 cc) (p = 0.005) were significant prognosticators for OS. Grade 1-2 late toxicities were observed in 11 patients, and one patient developed Grade 3 acute mucositis. CONCLUSIONS: Larger tumor volume and re-irradiation were related to inferior survival for this group of patients. Further follow-up is needed for long-term efficacy and safety.

17.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 73(11): 928-935, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753074

RESUMO

Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide, using the electricity generated from renewable energy sources, has the potential of rendering a carbon-neutral energy economy. Developing selective, efficient and robust electrocatalysts is the key step towards establishing this promising technology. While different nanostructures of Cu have been extensively studied for the formation of C1-C3 alcohols and hydrocarbons, Cu-based bimetallic catalysts showed better activity compared to monometallic Cu. In this review, we will first summarize recent advances in designing Cu-X bimetallic catalysts. We categorized the bimetallic catalysts into different groups based on the CO2 reduction activities of the ' X ' metal, including hydrogen-producing metals, formate-producing metals and CO-producing metals. The key factors in determining the selectivity are discussed. Additionally, representative examples of Cu-free bimetallic catalysts, with appreciable selectivity towards hydrocarbons/alcohols, will also be presented. We will conclude this review with challenges and promising research directions.

18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725274

RESUMO

Flufiprole is an insecticide used in the rice field and may pose a potential threat to aquatic organisms including loach. To investigate the transformation products of flufiprole in loach, the accumulation, elimination, and tissue distribution in vivo as well as the metabolism in vitro at the enantiomeric level were studied. Flufiprole enantiomers rapidly accumulated and were metabolized to flufiprole sulfone, fipronil, and flufiprole amide in the tissues. Enantiomeric fractions showed the preferential accumulation and degradation of S-flufiprole. The residue of the chiral metabolite flufiprole amide was also enantioselective. The individual enantiomer treatment indicated that S-flufiprole was preferentially metabolized to flufiprole sulfone and R-flufiprole to fipronil. The metabolites were more persistent than flufiprole with longer half-lives. The metabolism in liver microsomes also reached consistent conclusions. The dietary risk assessment indicated that flufiprole would not cause unacceptable threats to human health. However, the metabolites of flufiprole should be considered in the risk evaluation.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133941, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756866

RESUMO

Urban dwellers worldwide are increasingly affected by more frequent and intense extreme temperature events, ongoing urbanization, and changes in socioeconomic conditions. Decades of research have shown that vulnerability is a crucial determinant of heat-related risk and mortality in cities, yet assessments of future urban heat-related challenges have largely overlooked the contribution of changes in socioeconomic conditions to future heat-related risk and mortality. The scenario framework for climate change research, made up of socioeconomic scenarios (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways - SSPs) combined with climate scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways - RCPs), facilitates the integration of socioeconomic scenarios into climate risks assessments. In this study, we used Greater Houston (Texas) as a case study to implement the scenario framework at the intra-urban scale. Integrating locally extended SSPs along with a range of sectoral modelling approaches, we combined projections of urban extreme heat - which account for SSP-specific urban heat islands - with projections of future population and vulnerability. We then produced estimates of future heat-related risk and mortality for 2041-2060 (2050s) summers at Census tract level, for multiple combinations of climate and socioeconomic scenarios. Using a scenario matrix, we showed that the projected ~15,738-24,521 future summer excess mortalities compared to 1991-2010 are essentially driven by population growth and changes in vulnerability, with changes in climatic conditions alone being of little influence. We outline methods to apply the new scenario framework at intra-urban scale and to better characterize the contribution of socioeconomic pathways to future urban climate risks. This socio-climatic approach provides comprehensive estimates of future climate risks in urban areas, which are essential for adaptation planning under climatic and socioeconomic uncertainty.

20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 222, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with poor prognosis mainly affecting males. Differences in clinical presentation between genders may be important both for the diagnostic work-up and for follow-up. In the present study, we therefore explored potential gender differences at presentation in a Swedish cohort of IPF-patients. METHODS: We studied patients included in the Swedish IPF- registry over a three-year period from its launch in 2014. A cross-sectional analysis was performed for data concerning demographics, lung function, 6- min walking test (6MWT) and quality of life (QoL) (King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease (K-BILD) score). RESULTS: Three hundred forty- eight patients (250 (72%) males, 98 (28%) females, median age 72 years in both genders) were included in the registry during the study period. Smoking history (N = 169 (68%) vs. N = 53 (54%), p < 0.05), baseline lung function (Forced vital capacity, % of predicted (FVC%): 68.9% ± 14.4 vs. 73.0% ± 17.7, p < 0.05; Total lung capacity, % of predicted (TLC%): 62.2% ± 11.8 vs. 68.6% ± 11.3%, p < 0.001) were significantly different at presentation between males and females, respectively. Comorbidities such as coronary artery disease (OR: 3.5-95% CI: 1.6-7.6) and other cardiovascular diseases (including atrial fibrillation and heart failure) (OR: 3.8-95% CI: 1.9-7.8) also showed significant differences between the genders. The K- BILD showed poor quality of life, but no difference was found between genders in total score (54 ± 11 vs. 54 ± 10, p = 0.61 in males vs. females, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that female patients with IPF have a more preserved lung function than males at inclusion, while males have a significant burden of cardiovascular comorbidities. However, QoL and results on the 6MWT did not differ between the groups. These gender differences may be of importance both at diagnosis and follow- up of patients with IPF.

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