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1.
Nanoscale ; 11(39): 18052-18064, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576876

RESUMO

Nanomaterials hold promise for the delivery of nucleic acids to facilitate gene therapy in cardiac diseases. However, as much of the in vivo study of nanomaterials was conducted via the "trial and error" method, the understanding of the nanomaterial-mediated delivery in cardiac tissue was limited to the gross efficiency in manipulating the gene expression while little was known about the delivery process and mechanism in particular at the cell level. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles formulated with a polyamidoamine (PAMAM) nanomaterial were applied to the injured heart of zebrafish. The distribution of nanoparticles in cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, macrophages and leukocytes was quantitatively analyzed with precision at the cell level by using transgenic models. Based on the distribution characteristics, gene silencing effects in a specific group of cells were analyzed to illustrate how siRNA nanoparticles could get potent gene silencing in different cells in vivo. The results elucidated the heterogeneous distribution of siRNA nanoparticles and how nanoparticles could be efficient despite the significant difference in cellular uptake efficiency in different cells. It demonstrated a paradigm and the need to decouple cellular processes to understand nanoparticle-mediated delivery in complex tissue and the investigation/methodology may lead to important information to guide the design of advanced targeted drug-delivery systems in heart.

2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(11): 2393-2407, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595157

RESUMO

Cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), antimicrobial peptide, was reported to protect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the pathology of diabetic cardiomyopathy, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) results from hyperglycemia-induced endothelial injury, leading to cardiac fibrosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of CRAMP on EndMT and cardiac fibrosis on diabetic mice heart. Mice were subjected to streptozotocin to induce diabetes. CRAMP was administered by intraperitoneal injection (1 or 8 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks from 12 weeks till 16 weeks after final streptozotocin injection. Cardiac dysfunction was observed in diabetic mice. Only 8 mg/kg/d CRAMP treatment proved cardiac function. Increased EndMT and fibrosis level were also observed in diabetic mice heart. 8mg/kg CRAMP inhibited EndMT and fibrosis level in diabetic mice. Mouse heart endothelial cells (MHECs) were treated with CRAMP and exposed to high glucose. Hyperglycemia-induced EndMT in MHECs was also attenuated by CRAMP treatment. Activation of TGFß/Smad signalling was increased in diabetic mice heart tissue and hyperglycemia stimulated MHECs, which was prevented following CRAMP treatment. Activation of AMPKa1/mTOR showed similar changes. AMPKa1 siRNA abrogated the effects of CRAMP in MHECs. TGFß/Smad inhibitor LY2109761 and AMPKa agonist AIRCA mimic the effect of CRAMP. In summary, CRAMP can inhibit EndMT, cardiac fibrosis and protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy by regulating AMPKa1/TGFß signalling.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e949, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variants of the CASQ2 are known to cause the autosomal recessive form of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), an inherited disease that predisposes young individuals to syncope and sudden cardiac death. To date, only about 24 CASQ2 variants have been reported in association with CPVT pathogenesis; furthermore, studies in Asians, especially in the Chinese population, are relatively rare. The aim of this study was to detect CASQ2 variants in Chinese patients with CPVT. METHODS: We used targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify CASQ2 variants in Chinese patients with CPVT. A screening process was performed to prioritize rare variants of potential functional significance. Sanger sequencing was conducted to conform the candidate variants and determine the parental origin. RESULTS: We identified seven different CASQ2 variants, of which three (c.1074_1075delinsC, c.1175_1178delACAG, and c.838+1G>A) have not been previously reported. The variants exhibited autosomal recessive inheritance, and were detected in four unrelated Chinese families with CPVT. They included a nonsense variant c.97C>T (p.R33*) and a missense variant c.748C>T (p.R250C) in Family 1 with three CPVT patients; two heterozygous frameshift variants, c.1074_1075delinsC (p.G359Afs*12) and c.1175_1178delACAG (p.D392Vfs*84), in Family 2 with one CPVT patient; one pathogenic homozygous variant c.98G>A (p.R33Q) of CASQ2 in the CPVT patient of Family 3; and two heterozygous splicing variants, (c.532+1G>A) and (c.838+1G>A), in Family 4 with one CPVT patient. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study of Chinese children with CASQ2 variants. Our work further expands the genetic spectrum of CASQ2-associated CPVT.

4.
J Emerg Med ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pain is the most common complaint in Emergency Department (ED) admissions, and options for analgesia are limited. Nitrous oxide/oxygen possesses many properties showing it may be an ideal analgesic in the ED. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and analgesic effect of the fixed nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture for trauma patients in the ED. METHODS: We enrolled 60 patients in this double-blind, randomized study. The treatment group received conventional pain treatment plus a mixture of 65% nitrous oxide/oxygen. The control group received the conventional pain treatment plus oxygen. Primary outcome was the reduction in pain intensity at 5 and 15 min after the start of intervention. Secondary outcomes include adverse events, physiological parameters, and satisfaction from both patients and health care professionals. RESULTS: Initial pain scores for the nitrous oxide/oxygen group (6.0 [5.0-8.0]) and the oxygen group (6.75 [5.0-9.0]) were comparable (p = 0.57). The mean numerical rating scale scores at 5 min were 3.4 ± 1.8 and 7.0 ± 1.8 for nitrous oxide/oxygen and oxygen, respectively (p < 0.01). The mean pain intensity at 15 min in the treatment group was 3.0 ± 1.9, compared with 6.3 ± 2.2 in the control group (p < 0.01). Both patients' (8.0 [7.0-9.0] vs. 4.0 [2.0-6.0], p < 0.01) and physicians' (8.5 [8.0-9.0] vs. 4.0 [3.0-6.0], p < 0.01) satisfaction scores in the treatment group were significantly higher than the oxygen group. No serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study gives supporting evidence for the safety and effectiveness of using self-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture in the ED for moderate-to-severe traumatic pain.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557004

RESUMO

A novel metal-organic framework (MOF), formulated as [Cd2(TTVTC)Cl2(H2O)3]·2H2O (1), was synthesized from a tetracarboxylate ligand ([TTVTC]2-) functionalized with the thiazolothiazole extended viologen (TTV2+) fluorophore. The MOF features three-dimensional (10,3)-d frameworks with 6-fold interpenetration. The MOF exhibits reversible photochromism, due to photoinduced electron transfer from carboxylate to TTV2+. The photoactivity benefits from the electron donor-acceptor contacts enabled by mutual interpenetration of the frameworks. This is the first demonstration of photochromism in TTV2+ derivatives. In addition, the fluorescence arising from the TTV2+ fluorophore can be reversibly modulated during the photochromic process. The work demonstrates the great potential of extended viologen based ligands in the construction of MOFs with dual photomodulable optical properties, which could find future applications in photoelectronics.

6.
Endocr Pathol ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529211

RESUMO

BRAF V600E mutations are common in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and some de-differentiated thyroid cancers. In this study, we summarize AUS/FLUS diagnosed cases from thyroid fine needle aspirations in our center from 2015 to 2017 to explore the impact of BRAF V600E detection on the cytopathological diagnosis of PTC. BRAF V600E detection could significantly reduce the AUS/FLUS diagnosis rates from 11.59 to 8.42% when all BRAF V600E-mutated AUS/FLUS cases were diagnosed as conforming to PTC (20.01 to 19.13% in 2016 and 10.92 to 7.93% in 2017, respectively). The AUS/M rates decreased from 0.67 to 0.64 in 2016 and from 0.33 to 0.23 in 2017. We further discuss a case with a single BRAF V600E cytological mutant lacking a postoperative PTC diagnosis and discuss the limitations of BRAF V600E detection using puncture elution fluid. Our findings support the notion that BRAF V600E detection can effectively reduce the diagnostic rates of AUS/FLUS and help clinicians decide both treatment strategies and patient prognosis.

7.
J Pain ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494272

RESUMO

Orofacial pain is characterized by its easy spread to adjacent areas, thus presenting with primary hyperalgesia (hypersensitivity at the site of injury) and secondary hyperalgesia (extra-territorial hypersensitivity outside the injured zone). However, the mechanisms behind the secondary hyperalgesia are poorly understood. In the present study, we used a mouse model of partial transection of the infraorbital nerve (pT-ION) to study whether calcium channel subunit α2δ1 (Cavα2δ1) and its downstream signaling contributes to the development of secondary hyperalgesia in the orofacial area. pT-ION caused primary (V2 skin) and secondary (V3 skin) hyperalgesia, which was reversed by the Cavα2δ1 antagonist gabapentin and by the expression of Cavα2δ1-targeting interfering RNA in trigeminal ganglion (TG)-V3 neurons. pT-ION induced increased expression of PKC and TRPA1, which was reversed by Cavα2δ1-targeting interfering RNA, and PKC inhibition reversed the upregulation of TRPA1 and gap junction (GJ) proteins induced by pT-ION. Cavα2δ1 overexpression in TG-V2 neurons induced the upregulation of PKC, TRPA1, and the GJ proteins in the TG and trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and induced hypersensitivity in the V3 skin area, which was reversed by TRPA1, GJ, or PKC blockade. Thus, we conclude that Cavα2δ1 contributes to the development of secondary hyperalgesia through its downstream PKC-TRPA1/GJ signaling pathways. Perspective: This study demonstrates that the activation of Cavα2δ1 and the downstream PKC-TRPA1/GJ signaling pathway contributes greatly to trigeminal nerve injury-induced secondary mechanical and cold hyperalgesia. This suggests that inhibitors of Cavα2δ1, TRPA1, or GJs might be effective treatments for nerve injury-induced spreading of orofacial pain.

8.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108629, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554132

RESUMO

Quinolone-resistant foodborne pathogens have become an important public health concern, however, little is known about the molecular mechanism of ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistance among Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates. This study aimed to explore new genes implicated in resistance to CIP in genome-wide. CIP susceptibility of six V. parahaemolyticus isolates was analyzed by disk diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods. To establish a model for CIP-resistant V. parahaemolyticus, in vitro continuous subcultures in drug gradient medium were adopted, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was eventually increased by 64-128 times. Quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) genes were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and it was demonstrated that there were mutations of gyrA at position 83 and parC at position 85. In addition, whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis showed that an emergence of joint variations was found in ten genes, and the expression of those was detected by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Collectively, these results suggest that the mutation of these novel gene sequences and the increase of expression of those genes may be related to CIP resistance in V. parahaemolyticus, which provide insights into the molecular basis for the phenotypic variations in bacterial antibiotic resistance, and thus may help clinicians develop more efficient strategies for antibiotic therapies.

9.
J Org Chem ; 84(19): 12583-12595, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499002

RESUMO

Twofold unsymmetrical C-Si bond bifunctionalization of 2,6-di(trimethylsilyl) benzyl alcohols has been achieved in one pot via sequential [1,4]-Csp2 to O-silyl migration. The hydroxyl group functions as an "on-off-on" switch to control two successive silyl migrations, and 4,7-dimethyl-o-phenanthroline ligand favors cleavage of the endocyclic C-Si bond. Diverse Csp3/Csp3 or Csp2/Csp3 electrophiles can be installed at the 2- and 6-positions. This approach was used to chemoselectively functionalize the three C-Si bonds of 2,4,6-tri(trimethylsilyl) benzyl alcohol, transforming it into isochroman derivatives. The approach even works as a five-component reaction to construct complex symmetric structures.

10.
Bioorg Chem ; 92: 103226, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491566

RESUMO

Six new compounds, including a new compound with an unusual 2, 4, 6-cycloheptatrien ketone skeleton (1), two new diphenylpropanoid ethers (2, 3), a new protostane-type triterpenoid (4), two new norsesquiterpene (5a, 5b), and two new natural products (6, 7), together with eleven known compounds (8-18) were isolated from the aqueous extract of Alismatis Rhizoma (AR). Their structures were elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR (1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY), HRESIMS spectroscopic data, experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Some of the compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Two protostane-type triterpenoids, compounds 4 and 17, exhibited potent inhibitory activities with the IC50 values of 39.3 and 63.9 µM compared with indomethacin. In the meanwhile, their anti-inflammatory effects were also confirmed by acute inflammation model induced by CuSO4 in zebrafish.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 139: 342-351, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377292

RESUMO

Oligosaccharides from green algae Ulva lactuca (ULO) and Enteromorpha prolifera (EPO) were used for investigation of anti-ageing effects and the underlying mechanism in SAMP8 mice. The structural properties of ULO and EPO were analyzed by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and agarose gel electrophoresis. These oligosaccharides enhanced the glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and telomerase levels and total antioxidant capicity, and decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and advanced glycation end products. After ULO and EPO treatment, the levels of inflammatory factors, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6, decreased; the BDNF and ChAT levels increased; and hippocampal neurons were protected. Downregulation of the p53 and FOXO1 genes and upregulation of the Sirt1 gene indicated that ULO and EPO have potential therapeutic effects in the prevention of ageing in SAMP8 mice. By 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, the abundance of Desulfovibrio was discovered to be markedly different in mice treated with ULO and EPO. The abundances of Verrucomicrobiaceae, Odoribacteraceae, Mogibacteriaceae, Planococcaceae, and Coriobacteriaceae were positively correlated with age-related indicators. These results demonstrated that oligosaccharides from U. lactuca and E. prolifera are ideal candidate compounds that can be used in functional foods and pharmaceuticals to prevent ageing.

12.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(8): 1230-1239, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370111

RESUMO

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi has been widely used in China for treatment of various diseases. This study investigated the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extracts (SBE) against Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, Hela cells and primary myocardial cells were infected with CVB3 and treated with SBE (50-800 µg/ml) and ribavirin (200 µM) for 48 h and then determined by CCK8 assay. Real-time PCR and western blotting assays were performed. In vivo, a myocarditis model was induced in male BALB/c mice by injecting CVB3 suspension intraperitoneally for three times, followed by treatment with SBE (400 and 200 mg/kg) and ribavirin (100 mg/kg) for 28 days. SBE ameliorated the cytotoxicity of CVB3 in Hela cells, especially at 400 µg/ml (39.93% vs 65.67%, p < 0.05) without influencing cell growth and also significantly reduced CVB3 replication in primary myocardial cells. The levels of AKT, ERK, and p38 were increased after CVB3 infection. SBE could downregulate the expressions of AKT and p38. In vivo, the mortality rate from CVB3 reached to 66.67%, while 10.00% and 23.33% of this came after 400 and 200 mg/kg SBE treatment, respectively (p < 0.05). The CVB3 replication was obviously reduced after SBE administration from day 5. Similarly, the levels of AKT, ERK, and p38 mRNAs and proteins were increased, and SBE suppressed the expression of AKT and p38. Our study indicates that SBE is a promising potent antiviral agent against CVB3-induced myocarditis by inhibition of virus replication via depressing AKT and p38 expressions.

13.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(9): 624, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423010

RESUMO

Recent findings demonstrate that aberrant downregulation of the iron-exporter protein, ferroportin (FPN1), is associated with poor prognosis and osteoclast differentiation in multiple myeloma (MM). Here, we show that FPN1 was downregulated in MM and that clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-mediated FPN1 knockout promoted MM cell growth and survival. Using a microRNA target-scan algorithm, we identified miR-17-5p as an FPN1 regulator that promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, and inhibited apoptosis-both in vitro and in vivo. miR-17-5p inhibited retarded tumor growth in a MM xenograft model. Moreover, restoring FPN1 expression at least partially abrogated the biological effects of miR-17-5p in MM cells. The cellular iron concentration regulated the expression of the iron-regulatory protein (IRP) via the 5'-untranslated region of IRP messenger RNA and modulated the post-transcriptional stability of FPN1. Bioinformatics analysis with subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation-polymerase chain reaction and luciferase activity experiments revealed that the transcription factor Nrf2 drove FPN1 transcription through promoter binding and suppressed miR-17-5p (which also increased FPN1 expression). Nrf2-mediated FPN1 downregulation promoted intracellular iron accumulation and reactive oxygen species. Our study links FPN1 transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation with MM cell growth and survival, and validates the prognostic value of FPN1 and its utility as a novel therapeutic target in MM.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(34): 13635-13642, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362505

RESUMO

We use canonical variational theory (CVT) with small-curvature tunneling (SCT) contributions to investigate quantum effects on the H2 diffusion process in the pure-silica zeolite RHO. At low temperature we find an inverse kinetic isotopic sieving effect in that the heavier isotopic species diffuses faster than the lighter one. Three quantum effects contribute to this kinetic isotope effect (KIE). The first one is quantum mechanical tunneling; this-on its own-would lead to a normal kinetic isotopic sieving effect, in which lighter diprotium diffuses faster than dideuterium. The second factor, which we find to dominate in the present case, is zero-point energy (ZPE). Deuterium has a lower ZPE, which leads to a smaller effective barrier for tunneling because the transition state has a larger ZPE than the precursor stable state; this results in an inverse KIE. The third factor, the thermal vibrational energy (computed from the quantized vibrational partition function), also favors a normal KIE, but it is outweighed by the ZPE effect. The vibrations of the zeolite host framework are found to play an important role at low temperatures, and our calculations consider up to 7296 degrees of freedom at the equilibrium structure and the saddle point and up to 221 degrees of freedom along the reaction path. The importance of quantum considerations on the dynamics is elucidated by comparison to a purely classical treatment.

15.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421015

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the characteristics of choroid thickness (CT) of the optic disc and macula in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without visual impairment and diabetic retinopathy (DR) and analyse associated factors. METHODS: A square area of 6 × 6 mm around the centre of the optic disc and macula was scanned. The indices analysed mainly included CT at the macular centre (1 mm), and temporal, superior, nasal or inferior aspect of the inner ring (1-3 mm) and outer ring of (3-6 mm) optic disc and macula. Independent risk factors were analysed using multifactor linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 44 children with T1DM and 48 healthy subjects were enrolled. The diabetic group showed significant increase in the inferior inner ring of parapapillary CT (100.99 ± 30.42 µm versus 89.41 ± 34.00 µm, p = 0.04) and nasal outer ring of parapapillary CT (157.02 ± 47.35 µm versus 131.15 ± 35.17 µm, p = 0.01) as compared to those values in the healthy controls. Spherical equivalent refraction and family history of hypertension are independent factors of both peripappillary choroid thickness (PPCT) and macular choroid thickness (PMCT). Spherical equivalent refraction (p = 0.01) and serum cholesterol (p = 0.03) were independent factors of the inferior inner ring of parapapillary CT, whereas family history of hypertension was an independent factor of the nasal outer ring of parapapillary CT (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In children with diabetes without DR or visual impairment, the CT increase in nasal outer ring of parapapillary (PPNO) and the inferior inner ring of parapapillary (PPII) may be the characteristic pre-DR alteration at the early stage of DM. For children with higher serum cholesterol and family history of hypertension, the change of the nasal outer ring of parapapillary CT and the inferior inner ring of parapapillary CT may be more advanced.

16.
Cell Microbiol ; : e13092, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376233

RESUMO

Previous studies identified that the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have two sphingolipid synthesis-related proteins, Orm1p and Orm2p, that negatively regulate the activities of SPT, which is a key rate-limiting enzyme in sphingolipid synthesis. However, little is known about whether sphingolipids in the cell membrane, which are closely related to ergosterols, could affect the efficacy of azole drugs, which target to the ergosterol biosynthesis. In this study, through genome-wide homologue search analysis, we found that the Aspergillus fumigatus genome only contains one Orm homologue, referred to as OrmA for which the protein expression could be induced by azole antifungals in a dose-dependent manner. Deletion of ormA caused hypersensitivity to azoles, and adding the sphingolipid synthesis inhibitor myriocin rescued the azole susceptibility induced by lack of ormA. In contrast, overexpression of OrmA resulted in azole resistance, indicating that OrmA is a positive azole-response regulator. Further mechanism analysis verified that OrmA is related to drug susceptibility by affecting endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in an unfolded protein response pathway-HacA-dependent manner. Lack of ormA led to an abnormal profile of sphingolipid ceramide components accompanied by hypersensitivity to low temperatures. Furthermore, deletion of OrmA significantly reduced virulence in an immunosuppressed mouse model. The findings in this study collectively suggest that the sphingolipid metabolism pathway in A. fumigatus plays a critical role in azole susceptibility and fungal virulence.

17.
Theranostics ; 9(18): 5122-5133, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410205

RESUMO

Controlling bilirubin to a low level is necessary in physiology because of its severe neurotoxicity. Therefore, it is of great interest to understand the regulatory mechanisms for bilirubin homeostasis. In this study, we uncover a critical role for circadian clock in regulation of bilirubin detoxification and homeostasis. Methods: The mRNA and protein levels of Bmal1 (a core clock gene), metabolic enzymes and transporters were measured by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Luciferase reporter, mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to investigate transcriptional gene regulation. Experimental hyperbilirubinemia was induced by injection of bilirubin or phenylhydrazine. Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) and conjugated bilirubin were assessed by ELISA. Results: We first demonstrated diurnal variations in plasma UCB levels and in main bilirubin-detoxifying genes Ugt1a1 and Mrp2. Of note, the circadian UCB levels were antiphase to the circadian expressions of Ugt1a1 and Mrp2. Bmal1 ablation abrogated the circadian rhythms of UCB and bilirubin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Bmal1 ablation also decreased mRNA and protein expressions of both Ugt1a1 and Mrp2 in mouse livers, and blunted their circadian rhythms. A combination of luciferase reporter, mobility shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Bmal1 trans-activated Ugt1a1 and Mrp2 through specific binding to the E-boxes in the promoter region. Further, Bmal1 ablation caused a loss of circadian time-dependency in bilirubin clearance and sensitized mice to chemical induced-hyperbilirubinemia. Moreover, bilirubin stimulated Bmal1 expression through antagonism of Rev-erbα, constituting a feedback mechanism in bilirubin detoxification. Conclusion: These data supported a dual role for circadian clock in regulation of bilirubin detoxification, generating circadian variations in bilirubin level via direct transactivation of detoxifying genes Ugt1a1 and Mrp2, and defending the body against hyperbilirubinemia via Rev-erbα antagonism. Thereby, our study provided a potential mechanism for management of bilirubin related diseases.

18.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389030

RESUMO

miR-222 participates in many cardiovascular diseases, but its effect on cardiac remodeling induced by diabetes is unclear. This study evaluated the functional role of miR-222 in cardiac fibrosis in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to establish a type 1 diabetic mouse model. After 10 weeks of STZ injection, mice were intravenously injected with Ad-miR-222 to induce the overexpression of miR-222. miR-222 overexpression reduced cardiac fibrosis and improved cardiac function in diabetic mice. Mechanistically, miR-222 inhibited the endothelium to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in diabetic mouse hearts. Mouse heart fibroblasts and endothelial cells were isolated and cultured with high glucose (HG). An miR-222 mimic did not affect HG-induced fibroblast activation and function but did suppress the HG-induced EndMT process. The antagonism of miR-222 by antagomir inhibited HG-induced EndMT. miR-222 regulated the promoter region of ß-catenin, thus negatively regulating the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, which was confirmed by ß-catenin siRNA. Taken together, our results indicated that miR-222 inhibited cardiac fibrosis in diabetic mice via negatively regulating Wnt/ß-catenin-mediated EndMT.

19.
Trials ; 20(1): 399, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The morbidity of knee arthritis is increasing among aged people and total knee arthroplasty has been its mainstream treatment to date. Postoperative rehabilitation is an important part of the procedure. However, the intense pain during the functional exercise involved has always been a challenge for both patients and health care professionals. The aim of this study is to test the analgesic effect of a mixture of nitrous oxide/oxygeb (1:1) inhalation for patients who are doing functional exercise 1 month after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS/DESIGN: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study will be implemented in the Rehabilitation Department in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. Patients aged between 50 and 75 years who underwent a primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty are eligible for inclusion. The key exclusion criteria include: epilepsy, pulmonary embolism, intestinal obstruction, aerothorax. The treatment group (A) will receive a pre-prepared nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture plus conventional treatment (no analgesics), and the control group (B) will receive oxygen plus conventional treatment (no analgesics). Patients, physicians, therapists, and data collectors are all blind to the experiment. Assessments will be taken immediately after functional exercise begins (T0), 5 min (T1) after functional exercise begins, and 5 min after functional exercise has finished (T2). Patients will be randomly allocated between a treatment group (A) and a control group (B) in a ratio of 1:1. Primary outcome, including pain severity in the procedure, will be taken for each group. Secondary outcomes include blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, side effects, knee joint range of motion, Knee Society Score (KSS), rescue analgesia need, and satisfaction from both therapists and patients. DISCUSSION: This study will focus on exploring a fast and efficient analgesic for patients who are doing functional exercise after total knee arthroplasty. Our previous studies suggested that the prefixed nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture was an efficacious analgesic for the management of burn-dressing pain and breakthrough cancer pain. The results of this study should provide a more in-depth insight into the effects of this analgesic method. If this treatment proves successful, it could be implemented widely for patients doing functional exercise in the rehabilitation department. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-INR-17012891 . Registered on 6 October 2017.

20.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 3206542, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354905

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrated that Bailcalin (BAI) prevented cardiac injuries under different disease models. Whether BAI protected against type 2 diabetes mellitus- (T2DM-) associated cardiomyopathy was investigated in this study. T2DM was established by the combination of streptozotocin injection and high-fat diet in mice. BAI was administered daily for 6 months. After evaluating cardiac functions, mice hearts were removed and processed for morphological, biochemical, and molecular mechanism analyses. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) were isolated and treated with high glucose and palmitate (HG/Pal) for in vitro investigation. BAI significantly ameliorated T2DM-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and lipid accumulation accompanied by markedly improved cardiac functions in diabetic mice. Mechanically, BAI restored decreased phosphorylation of AMPK and enhanced expression and nuclei translocation of Nrf2. In in vitro experiments, BAI also prevented NRCM from HG/Pal-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress injuries by increasing p-AMPK and Nrf2 accumulation. The means by which BAI restored p-AMPK seemed to be related to the antioxidative effects of Nrf2 after silencing AMPK or Nrf2 in NRCM. Furthermore, BAI regulated Nrf2 by inhibiting Nrf2 ubiquitination and consequent degradation mediated by Keap1. This study showed that BAI alleviated diabetes-associated cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte injuries in vivo and in vitro via Keap1/Nrf2/AMPK-mediated antioxidation and lipid-lowering effects. BAI might be a potential adjuvant drug for diabetes cardiomyopathy treatment.

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