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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that the prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 was lower than its prevalence in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic lung disease or use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) affects the risk of contracting severe COVID-19. METHODS: In this population cohort study, records from 1205 general practices in England that contribute to the QResearch database were linked to Public Health England's database of SARS-CoV-2 testing and English hospital admissions, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and deaths for COVID-19. All patients aged 20 years and older who were registered with one of the 1205 general practices on Jan 24, 2020, were included in this study. With Cox regression, we examined the risks of COVID-19-related hospitalisation, admission to ICU, and death in relation to respiratory disease and use of ICS, adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic status and comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19. FINDINGS: Between Jan 24 and April 30, 2020, 8 256 161 people were included in the cohort and observed, of whom 14 479 (0·2%) were admitted to hospital with COVID-19, 1542 (<0·1%) were admitted to ICU, and 5956 (0·1%) died. People with some respiratory diseases were at an increased risk of hospitalisation (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] hazard ratio [HR] 1·54 [95% CI 1·45-1·63], asthma 1·18 [1·13-1·24], severe asthma 1·29 [1·22-1·37; people on three or more current asthma medications], bronchiectasis 1·34 [1·20-1·50], sarcoidosis 1·36 [1·10-1·68], extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·35 [0·82-2·21], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·59 [1·30-1·95], other interstitial lung disease 1·66 [1·30-2·12], and lung cancer 2·24 [1·89-2·65]) and death (COPD 1·54 [1·42-1·67], asthma 0·99 [0·91-1·07], severe asthma 1·08 [0·98-1·19], bronchiectasis 1·12 [0·94-1·33], sarcoidosis 1·41 [0·99-1·99), extrinsic allergic alveolitis 1·56 [0·78-3·13], idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis 1·47 [1·12-1·92], other interstitial lung disease 2·05 [1·49-2·81], and lung cancer 1·77 [1·37-2·29]) due to COVID-19 compared with those without these diseases. Admission to ICU was rare, but the HR for people with asthma was 1·08 (0·93-1·25) and severe asthma was 1·30 (1·08-1·58). In a post-hoc analysis, relative risks of severe COVID-19 in people with respiratory disease were similar before and after shielding was introduced on March 23, 2020. In another post-hoc analysis, people with two or more prescriptions for ICS in the 150 days before study start were at a slightly higher risk of severe COVID-19 compared with all other individuals (ie, no or one ICS prescription): HR 1·13 (1·03-1·23) for hospitalisation, 1·63 (1·18-2·24) for ICU admission, and 1·15 (1·01-1·31) for death. INTERPRETATION: The risk of severe COVID-19 in people with asthma is relatively small. People with COPD and interstitial lung disease appear to have a modestly increased risk of severe disease, but their risk of death from COVID-19 at the height of the epidemic was mostly far lower than the ordinary risk of death from any cause. Use of inhaled steroids might be associated with a modestly increased risk of severe COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the Wellcome Trust.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765662

RESUMO

Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a sluggish kinetics process of electrochemical water splitting, which needs efficient non-noble-metal electrocatalysts. The study of CrOOH electrocatalysts for water oxidation is few reported due to its low performance. Herein, in situ synthesis of Fe-doped CrOOH nanosheets on Ni foam (Fe-CrOOH/NF) is designed as electrocatalysts and the OER performance is promoted obviously. The effect of Fe doping amount is also investigated. Experiments revealed that the best performance of Fe-CrOOH/NF demands low overpotentials of 259 mV to reach 20 mA cm-2 together with 0.245 s-1 of turnover frequency in 1.0 M KOH, which may point out a new direction for developing Fe doped OER electrocatalyst.

3.
Eur J Nutr ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768317

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The UK Biobank study collected detailed dietary data using a web-based self-administered 24 h assessment tool, the Oxford WebQ. We aimed to describe a comprehensive food grouping system for this questionnaire and to report dietary intakes and key sources of selected nutrients by sex and education. METHODS: Participants with at least one valid 24-h questionnaire were included (n = 208,200). Dietary data were grouped based on the presence of nutrients as well as culinary use, processing, and plant/animal origin. For each food group, we calculated the contribution to energy intake, key macronutrients, and micronutrients. We also identified the top contributors to energy intake, free sugars and saturated fat by sex and education. RESULTS: From the 93 food groups, the top five contributors to energy intake (in descending order) were: desserts/cakes/pastries; white bread; white pasta/rice; bananas/other fruit; semi-skimmed milk. Wine, beer, and fruit juices were the top beverage contributors to overall energy intake. Biscuits, and desserts/cakes/pastries were the highest contributors to free sugars, total fat, and saturated fat intakes, but also contributed to the calcium and iron intakes. Top contributors to energy, saturated fat, and free sugars were broadly similar by sex and education category, with small differences in average nutrient intakes across the population. CONCLUSION: This new food classification system will support the growing interest in the associations between food groups and health outcomes and the development of food-based dietary guidelines. Food group variables will be available to all users of the UK Biobank WebQ questionnaire.

4.
J Ren Nutr ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between body composition, measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and outcomes in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) receiving kidney replacement therapy (KRT). METHODS: Patients with severe AKI treated with KRT in our hospital between September 2016 and August 2018 were enrolled. These patients were assessed by body composition analysis before KRT, and on the 3rd day and the 7th day after initiation of KRT. The predictors included lean tissue index (LTI), fat tissue index, and body cell mass index (BCMI). The association between all-cause mortality and predictors was analyzed using Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 152 patients were included in this study, with a 28-day mortality of 46.7% and 1-year mortality of 60.5%. LTI (adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation: 0.37; 95% confidence interval = 0.21-0.66, P < .001) and BCMI (adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation: 0.37; 95% confidence interval = 0.21-0.67, P < .001) on day 7 after initiation of KRT, rather than before KRT, were associated with mortality during follow-up. LTI and BCMI before KRT were associated with 28-day mortality rather than 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: LTI and BCMI before KRT were associated with short-term prognosis, and those on day 7 after KRT initiation were associated with intermediate mortality in patients with AKI requiring KRT.

5.
Biosci Rep ; 41(4)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645622

RESUMO

Sepsis is a common cause of deaths of patients in intensive care unit. The study aims to figure out the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 in the myocardial depression in mice with sepsis. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was applied to induce sepsis in mice, and then the heart function, myocardium structure, and the inflammatory response were evaluated. Differentially expressed lncRNAs in mice with sepsis were identified. Then gain- and loss-of-functions of GAS5 were performed in mice to evaluate its role in mouse myocardial depression. The lncRNA-associated microRNA (miRNA)-mRNA network was figured out via an integrative prediction and detection. Myocardial injury was observed by overexpression of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in septic mice with knockdown of GAS5 expression. Activity of NF-κB signaling was evaluated, and NF-κB inhibition was induced in mice with sepsis and overexpression of GAS5. Collectively, CLP resulted in myocardial depression and injury, and increased inflammation in mice. GAS5 was highly expressed in septic mice. GAS5 inhibition reduced myocardial depression, myocardial injury and inflammation responses in septic mice. GAS5 was identified to bind with miR-449b and to elevate HMGB1 expression, thus activating the NF-κB signaling. HMGB1 overexpression or NF-κB inactivation reduced the GAS5-induced myocardial depression and inflammation in septic mice. Our study suggested that GAS5 might promote sepsis-induced myocardial depression via the miR-449b/HMGB1 axis and the following NF-κB activation.

6.
FASEB J ; 35(4): e21184, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715208

RESUMO

Amyloid ß (Aß) is a crucial component of drusen, the hallmark of the early stage of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and can cause retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell damage through activation of the inflammatory response. MicroRNAs play a critical role in inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of microRNAs on the NLRP3 inflammasome induced by Aß remains poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that Aß1-40 -mediated RPE damage by inducing a decrease in endogenous miR-191-5p expression. This led to the upregulation of its target gene, C/EBPß. C/EBPß acts as a transcription factor for NLRP3, promotes its transcription, and upregulates the downstream inflammatory factors Caspase-1 and IL-1ß. Correspondingly, overexpression of miR-191-5p alleviated RPE cell injury by suppressing inflammation. The present study elucidates a novel transcriptional regulatory mechanism of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Our findings suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of miR-191-5p in Aß1-40 -induced RPE impairment, shedding light on novel preventive or therapeutic approaches for AMD-associated RPE impairment.

7.
Chemosphere ; 277: 130248, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773315

RESUMO

The high-efficiency solar evaporation is a potential technique to desalinate hypersaline wastewater and seawater to alleviate the global fresh water shortage. Photo-thermal agent and solar evaporator with low-cost raw materials, high photo-thermal conversion efficiency and simple-fast preparation methods is crucial to realize the industrial application of solar evaporation. Herein, carbon nanomaterial with higher light absorption and photo-thermal conversion efficiency than that of carbon black was obtained by combination treatment of carbon black with oxidation and flash illumination. In order to characterize the evaporation performance of the devices, a floating evaporator was fabricated with the carbon nanomaterial on the top of polyethylene foam wrapped with non-woven fabrics. The evaporation rate and photo-thermal conversion efficiency of evaporators were affected significantly by environmental temperature and humidity. At the environmental temperature of 19.5 °C, the evaporator fabricated with the combined treated carbon nanomaterial as photo-thermal agents presents a stable evaporation rate at 1.27 kg m-2 h-1 and solar evaporation efficiency at 78.7% under 1 kW m-2 simulated sun illumination, which are higher than those of evaporator with carbon black (1.13 kg m-2 h-1 and 68.1%). The distilled water obtained from the solar evaporator met the standards of drinkable water. Overall, the experimental result demonstrates a great promise application of treated carbon nanomaterial as a photo-thermal agent in the field of seawater desalination and solar-energy collector.

8.
IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med ; 9: 1900211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777544

RESUMO

Automatic arrhythmia detection using 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) signal plays a critical role in early prevention and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. In the previous studies on automatic arrhythmia detection, most methods concatenated 12 leads of ECG into a matrix, and then input the matrix to a variety of feature extractors or deep neural networks for extracting useful information. Under such frameworks, these methods had the ability to extract comprehensive features (known as integrity) of 12-lead ECG since the information of each lead interacts with each other during training. However, the diverse lead-specific features (known as diversity) among 12 leads were neglected, causing inadequate information learning for 12-lead ECG. To maximize the information learning of multi-lead ECG, the information fusion of comprehensive features with integrity and lead-specific features with diversity should be taken into account. In this paper, we propose a novel Multi-Lead-Branch Fusion Network (MLBF-Net) architecture for arrhythmia classification by integrating multi-loss optimization to jointly learning diversity and integrity of multi-lead ECG. MLBF-Net is composed of three components: 1) multiple lead-specific branches for learning the diversity of multi-lead ECG; 2) cross-lead features fusion by concatenating the output feature maps of all branches for learning the integrity of multi-lead ECG; 3) multi-loss co-optimization for all the individual branches and the concatenated network. We demonstrate our MLBF-Net on China Physiological Signal Challenge 2018 which is an open 12-lead ECG dataset. The experimental results show that MLBF-Net obtains an average [Formula: see text] score of 0.855, reaching the highest arrhythmia classification performance. The proposed method provides a promising solution for multi-lead ECG analysis from an information fusion perspective.

9.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e043160, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727267

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF) is an end-stage of numerous heart diseases including hypertension, coronary heart disease and arrhythmia, in which the heart is unable to perform its circulatory function with sufficient efficiency due to structural or functional dysfunction (systolic or diastolic alterations). Strategies such as exercise rehabilitation may improve cardiac function, exercise capacity and health-related quality of life and reduce anxiety and depression in patients with HF. However, the relative effectiveness as well as the hierarchy of exercise interventions have not been well established, although various exercise options are available. Therefore, this protocol proposes to conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA) aiming to compare the effectiveness of different types of exercise training in patients with HF. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library will be searched from inception to March 2021 for relevant randomised controlled trials. Other resources, such as Google Scholar and Clinical Trials.gov will also be considered. Studies assessing exercise rehabilitation in patients with HF will be selected. Two independent reviewers will identify eligible trials. The PEDro risk of bias assessment tool will be used to assess the quality of the included studies. Bayesian NMA will be used when possible to determine the comparative effectiveness of the different exercise interventions. The mean ranks and surface will estimate the ranking probabilities for the optimal intervention of various treatments under the cumulative ranking curve. Subgroup, sensitivity and meta-regression will be conducted to explain the included studies' heterogeneity if possible. We will also use the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to assess the strength of evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This systematic review and NMA will synthesise evidence on the effectiveness of the different exercises in patients with HF. The results will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. No ethical approval will be required because the data used for the review will be exclusively extracted from published studies. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020165870.

10.
J BUON ; 26(1): 116-123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721441

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab + cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (PF) induction chemotherapy combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in treating locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS: The clinical data of 126 patients with stage III-IVa nasopharyngeal carcinoma who were admitted to and treated in our department from September 2013 to May 2016 were collected, and the patients were randomly divided into two groups and treated with nimotuzumab combined with PF induction therapy (NPF group, n=65) and induction therapy of docetaxel, cisplatin and fluorouracil (TPF) regimen (TPF group, n=65). After 2 cycles of induction therapy, all the patients received cisplatin combined with concurrent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Moreover, the clinical efficacy, changes in patients' quality of life and incidence of adverse reactions were observed and compared between the two groups, and the survival of the patients was followed up and recorded. RESULTS: The objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were remarkably higher in NPF group than those in TPF group [78.5% (51/65) vs. 58.5% (38/65), 93.8% (61/65) vs. 80.0% (52/65)] (p=0.014, p=0.019). During induction therapy, the patients in NPF group had notably ameliorated leukopenia compared with those in TPF group (p=0.018). Only 8 cases of skin rash (grade I) occurred in NPF group (p=0.004), which subsided spontaneously after treatment with nimotuzumab. In the stage of concurrent chemoradiotherapy, NPF group exhibited better tolerance to treatment, but there were no statistically significant differences in adverse reactions between the two groups (p>0.05). Besides, according to the scores of functional assessment of cancer therapy-head and neck (FACT-H&N) scale for measuring the quality of life of patients with head and neck neoplasms in the two groups after treatment, the quality-of-life scores were improved to different extents in both groups. Besides, the functional status score [(19.85±4.74) points vs. (18.14±4.49) points, p=0.037], head and neck additional items score [(23.95±5.20) points vs. (22.21±4.84) points, p=0.040] and total scale score [(108.55±14.65) points vs. (104.65±13.23) points, p=0.023] in NPF group were markedly superior to those in TPF group. It was shown in the results of follow-up that the median overall survival (OS) was (18.9±3.6) months and (16.3±3.8) months in NPF group and TPF group, respectively. Through log-rank test, it was found that the OS was distinctly longer in NPF group than that in TPF group (p=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with TPF induction chemotherapy, nimotuzumab and PF induction chemotherapy combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy results in better short-term clinical efficacy in treating locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, higher quality of life and long-term survival rate as well as tolerable adverse reactions.

11.
J Ren Nutr ; 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze the association between the ratio of overhydration and extracellular water (OH/ECW) and the ratio of extracellular water and body cell mass (ECW/BCM) measured by bioelectrical impedance and outcomes of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring kidney replacement therapy (KRT). METHODS: Patients with severe AKI treated with KRT in our hospital between September 2016 and August 2018 were enrolled. These patients were assessed using a body composition monitor before KRT, and on the 3rd day and the 7th day after initiation of KRT. The predictors mainly included OH/ECW and ECW/BCM. The association between all-cause mortality and predictors were analyzed using Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 152 patients were included in this study with a median follow-up of 39 (interquartile range 8-742) days. The 28-day mortality, 90-day mortality, and 1-year mortality were 46.7%, 54.6%, and 60.5%, respectively. A high ratio of OH/ECW (adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation, 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.15-1.82, P = .002) and a high ratio of ECW/BCM (adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation, 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.64, P = .009) before KRT were associated with all-cause mortality during follow-up. Higher ECW/BCM rather than OH/ECW at 7th day was associated with poorer outcomes. Furthermore, a reduction of OH/ECW with an increase of ECW/BCM had higher 1-year mortality as compared to others (85.7% vs. 51.2%, P = .004) in patients who survived 7 days after KRT initiation. CONCLUSIONS: ECW/BCM performed better than OH/ECW in assessment of fluid status in AKI patients requiring KRT. This study suggested that a simple reduction of OH/ECW without decreasing ECW/BCM may not improve outcomes.

12.
Pharmacol Res ; 166: 105472, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592272

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now rapidly spread around the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. To develop effective and safe therapies for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 has become the major global public health concern. Traditional medicine (TM)/herbal medicines (HMs) have been used to treat multiple epidemics in human history, which brings hope for the fight against COVID-19 in some areas. For example, in China, India, and South Korea with traditional medication history and theory, the governments issued a series of guidelines to support TM/HMs in the medication of COVID-19. In contrast, other countries e.g. North American and European governments are typically silent on these practices, unless to warn of possible harm and overselling. Such difference is due to the discrepancy in culture, history and philosophical views of health care and medication, as well as unharmonized policies and standards in the regulation and legalization of TM/HMs among different areas. Herein, we reviewed the responses and scientific researches from seven selected countries on the policies and legalization of TM/HMs to treat COVID-19, and also analyzed the major challenges and concerns to utilize the traditional knowledge and resource.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /terapia , Terapias Complementares/legislação & jurisprudência , Aprovação de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Tradicional , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas
13.
Adv Mater ; 33(13): e2007605, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599041

RESUMO

Skin-attachable gas sensors provide a next-generation wearable platform for real-time protection of human health by monitoring environmental and physiological chemicals. However, the creation of skin-like wearable gas sensors, possessing high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and scalability (4S) simultaneously, has been a big challenge. Here, an ionotronic gas-sensing sticker (IGS) is demonstrated, implemented with free-standing polymer electrolyte (ionic thermoplastic polyurethane, i-TPU) as a sensing channel and inkjet-printed stretchable carbon nanotube electrodes, which enables the IGS to exhibit high sensitivity, selectivity, stability (against mechanical stress, humidity, and temperature), and scalable fabrication, simultaneously. The IGS demonstrates reliable sensing capability against nitrogen dioxide molecules under not only harsh mechanical stress (cyclic bending with the radius of curvature of 1 mm and cyclic straining at 50%), but also environmental conditions (thermal aging from -45 to 125 °C for 1000 cycles and humidity aging for 24 h at 85% relative humidity). Further, through systematic experiments and theoretical calculations, a π-hole receptor mechanism is proposed, which can effectively elucidate the origin of the high sensitivity (up to parts per billion level) and selectivity of the ionotronic sensing system. Consequently, this work provides a guideline for the design of ionotronic materials for the achievement of high-performance and skin-attachable gas-sensor platforms.

14.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576456

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common complication of sepsis. The current incidence of sepsis is high (0.3% of total population) worldwide, and septic AKI may cause death in patients. Long non­coding (lnc)RNAs serve important roles in the pathogenesis of AKI. Therefore, the present study investigated the mechanism underlying lncRNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1)­mediated regulation of pyroptosis in septic AKI. Septic kidney injury was induced in mice using the caecal ligation and puncture method, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)­induced HK­2 cell models were also established. Haematoxylin­eosin staining was performed to assess pathological alterations of kidney tissues in the mice. The levels of IL­1ß, IL­18 and lactate dehydrogenase were determined by conducting ELISAs. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression levels of PVT1 and microRNA (miR)­20a­5p. To assess pyroptosis, the protein expression levels of nucleotide­binding oligomerization domain­like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), IL­1ß, IL­18, apoptosis­associated speck­like protein containing a CARD and cleaved caspase­1 were measured via western blotting. Flow cytometry was performed to assess the rate of cell pyroptosis. Dual luciferase reporter assays were used to assess the binding relationships of PVT1/miR­20a­5p and miR­20a­5p/NLRP3. PVT1 expression was significantly increased, whereas miR­20a­5p expression was significantly decreased in sepsis model mice and LPS­induced HK­2 cells compared with sham mice and control HK­2 cells, respectively. PVT1 knockdown significantly suppressed cell pyroptosis and downregulated the expression of inflammatory factors in LPS­induced HK­2 cells. The results also indicated that PVT1 served as a sponge of miR­20a­5p, and miR­20a­5p directly targeted NLRP3. miR­20a­5p knockdown significantly promoted LPS­induced cell pyroptosis. Moreover, PVT1 knockdown inhibited LPS­induced cell pyroptosis by targeting the miR­20a­5p/NLRP3 signalling pathway. The results of the present study suggested that PVT1 modulated NLRP3­mediated pyroptosis in septic AKI by targeting miR­20a­5p, which might suggest significant potential therapeutic targets for septic AKI.

15.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 61, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a kind of potential probiotic, Akkermansia muciniphila abundance in human body is directly causally related to obesity, diabetes, inflammation and abnormal metabolism. In this study, A. muciniphila dynamic cultures using five different media were implemented in an in vitro bionic intestinal reactor for the first time instead of the traditional static culture using brain heart infusion broth (BHI) or BHI + porcine mucin (BPM). RESULTS: The biomass under dynamic culture using BPM reached 1.92 g/L, which improved 44.36% compared with the value under static culture using BPM. The biomass under dynamic culture using human mucin (HM) further increased to the highest level of 2.89 g/L. Under dynamic culture using porcine mucin (PM) and HM, the main metabolites were short-chain fatty acids (acetic acid and butyric acid), while using other media, a considerable amount of branched-chain fatty acids (isobutyric and isovaleric acids) were produced. Under dynamic culture Using HM, the cell diameters reached 999 nm, and the outer membrane protein concentration reached the highest level of 26.26 µg/mg. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a preliminary theoretical basis for the development of A. muciniphila as the next generation probiotic.

16.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419046

RESUMO

The reversible and multi-stimuli responsive insulator-metal transition of VO2, which enables dynamic modulation over the terahertz (THz) regime, has attracted plenty of attention for its potential applications in versatile active THz devices. Moreover, the investigation into the growth mechanism of VO2 films has led to improved film processing, more capable modulation and enhanced device compatibility into diverse THz applications. THz devices with VO2 as the key components exhibit remarkable response to external stimuli, which is not only applicable in THz modulators but also in rewritable optical memories by virtue of the intrinsic hysteresis behaviour of VO2. Depending on the predesigned device structure, the insulator-metal transition (IMT) of VO2 component can be controlled through thermal, electrical or optical methods. Recent research has paid special attention to the ultrafast modulation phenomenon observed in the photoinduced IMT, enabled by an intense femtosecond laser (fs laser) which supports "quasi-simultaneous" IMT within 1 ps. This progress report reviews the current state of the field, focusing on the material nature that gives rise to the modulation-allowed IMT for THz applications. An overview is presented of numerous IMT stimuli approaches with special emphasis on the underlying physical mechanisms. Subsequently, active manipulation of THz waves through pure VO2 film and VO2 hybrid metamaterials is surveyed, highlighting that VO2 can provide active modulation for a wide variety of applications. Finally, the common characteristics and future development directions of VO2-based tuneable THz devices are discussed.

17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(12): 6553-6560, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438257

RESUMO

Although the Turing structures, or stationary reaction-diffusion patterns, have received increasing attention in biology and chemistry, making such unusual patterns on inorganic solids is fundamentally challenging. We report a simple cation exchange approach to produce Turing-type Ag2 Se on CoSe2 nanobelts relied on diffusion-driven instability. The resultant Turing-type Ag2 Se-CoSe2 material is highly effective to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline electrolytes with an 84.5 % anodic energy efficiency. Electrochemical measurements show that the intrinsic OER activity correlates linearly with the length of Ag2 Se-CoSe2 interfaces, determining that such Turing-type interfaces are more active sites for OER. Combing X-ray absorption and computational simulations, we ascribe the excellent OER performance to the optimized adsorption energies for critical oxygen-containing intermediates at the unconventional interfaces.

18.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(2): 347-365, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416075

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is the leading cause of death in sepsis patients. Exosomes participate in the occurrence and development of ALI by regulating endothelial cell inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis, causing serious pulmonary vascular leakage and interstitial edema. The current study investigated the effect of exosomal miRNAs on endothelial cells during sepsis. We found a significant increase in miR-1-3p expression in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) rats exosomes sequencing and sepsis patients' exosomes, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. However, the specific biological function of miR-1-3p in ALI remains unknown. Therefore, mimics or inhibitors of miR-1-3p were transfected to modulate its expression in HUVECs. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, contraction, permeability, and membrane injury were examined via cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry, phalloidin staining, Transwell assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and Western blotting. The miR-1-3p target gene was predicted with miRNA-related databases and validated by luciferase reporter. Target gene expression was blocked by siRNA to explore the underlying mechanisms. The results illustrated increased miR-1-3p and decreased stress-associated endoplasmic reticulum protein 1 (SERP1) expression both in vivo and in vitro. SERP1 was a direct target gene of miR-1-3p. Up-regulated miR-1-3p inhibits cell proliferation, promotes apoptosis and cytoskeleton contraction, increases monolayer endothelial cell permeability and membrane injury by targeting SERP1, which leads to dysfunction of endothelial cells and weakens vascular barrier function involved in the development of ALI. MiR-1-3p and SERP1 may be promising therapeutic candidates for sepsis-induced lung injury.

19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 92: 107350, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444921

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune disease characterized by unresolved colitis and epithelial injury. Intestinal microbiota and its interaction with immune system are critical etiologic factors. In response to gut virome and bacteria derived nucleic acid, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are activated to promote the production of cytokines, including type I interferons (IFN-Is), to help maintain intestinal homeostasis under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. However, derailed IRF/IFN-I pathway other-wisely contributes to the progression of IBD with distinct IRF member exerting differential regulatory effect. Here, we summarize the recent advances regarding the role of IRF/IFN-I pathway in the development of IBD. We emphasize that IFN-I is a double-edged sword in IBD pathogenesis, as IFN-Is are protective in acute colitis while becoming pro-inflammatory during the chronic recovery phase. Besides, the functional outcome of IRFs is diverse and complex, which hinges on the cell types affected and the presence of other immune mediators. All in all, IRF/IFN-I pathway serves as a versatile regulator in IBD pathogenesis and holds the potential for therapeutic interventions.

20.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 118: 104603, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422488

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the association between NF1 and PTEN gene polymorphisms and the risk of soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). This case-control study collected peripheral blood from 136 patients with STSs and 124 healthy controls. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NF1 gene and five SNPs of the PTEN gene were investigated and genotyped using the SNaPshot assay. The association between the polymorphisms and the risk of STSs was estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. The results showed that individuals with the TC/CC genotype for NF1 rs2905789 displayed a significantly increased risk of STSs compared with individuals with wild-type TT (OR = 1.702, 95% CI = 1.002-2.890, P = 0.049). There were no significant differences in the distribution of the genotype or the allele frequencies of the polymorphisms of the NF1 and PTEN genes between the STSs patients and the controls in a Chinese population. Therefore, this study's results suggest that individuals carrying the TC/CC genotype for NF1 rs2905789 may be susceptible to STSs.

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