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1.
Future Gener Comput Syst ; 127: 334-346, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566221

RESUMO

This study was aimed to discuss the predictive value of infectious disease dynamics model (IDD model) and dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) for scenario deduction of public health emergencies (PHEs). Based on the evolution law of PHEs and the meta-scenario representation of basic knowledge, this study established a DBN scenario deduction model for scenario deduction and evolution path analysis of PHEs. At the same time, based on the average field dynamics model of the SIR network, the dimensionality reduction process was performed to calculate the epidemic scale and epidemic time based on the IDD model, so as to determine the calculation methods of threshold value and epidemic time under emergency measures (quarantine). The Corona Virus Disease (COVID) epidemic was undertaken as an example to analyze the results of DBN scenario deduction, and the infectious disease dynamics model was used to analyze the number of reproductive numbers, peak arrival time, epidemic time, and latency time of the COVID epidemic. It was found that after the M1 measure was used to process the S1 state, the state probability and the probability of being true (T) were the highest, which were 91.05 and 90.21, respectively. In the sixth stage of the development of the epidemic, the epidemic had developed to level 5, the number of infected people was about 26, and the estimated loss was about 220 million yuan. The comprehensive cumulative foreground (CF) values of O1  ∼  O3 schemes were -1.34, -1.21, and -0.77, respectively, and the final CF values were -1.35, 0.01, and -0.08, respectively. The final CF value of O2 was significantly higher than the other two options. The household infection probability was the highest, which was 0.37 and 0.35 in Wuhan and China, respectively. Under the measures of home quarantine, the numbers of confirmed cases of COVID in China and Wuhan were 1.503 (95% confidential interval (CI) = 1.328  ∼  1.518) and 1.729 (95% CI = 1.107  ∼  1.264), respectively, showing good fits with the real data. On the 21st day after the quarantine measures were taken, the number of COVID across the country had an obvious peak, with the confirmed cases of 24495, and the model prediction value was 24085 (95% CI = 23988  ∼  25056). The incubation period 1/q was shortened from 8 days to 3 days, and the number of confirmed cases showed an upward trend. The peak period of confirmed cases was advanced, shortening the overall epidemic time. It showed that the prediction results of scenario deduction based on DBN were basically consistent with the actual development scenario and development status of the epidemic. It could provide corresponding decisions for the prevention and control of COVID based on the relevant parameters of the infectious disease dynamic model, which verified the rationality and feasibility of the scenario deduction method proposed in this study.

2.
Pain Pract ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the capacity of perioperative pupillary variables to predict acute pain in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). METHODS: Patients scheduled to undergo thoracic or abdominal surgery under general anesthesia between April 2021 and June 2021 were enrolled. We measured the pupil diameter, pupillary light reflex (PLR), and pupillary reflex dilatation 5 min before anesthesia induction (T1), 5 min after intubation (T2), at the end of anesthesia (T3), immediately before extubation (T4), and 5 min after extubation (T5). We assessed the early postoperative pain intensity in the PACU using Numeric Rating Scales (NRS) at recovery, 5 min after recovery and 10 min after recovery. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between perioperative pupillary variables and postoperative pain intensity. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients were enrolled, 50 of whom were included in the final analysis. A total of 13 patients (26%) needed remedial analgesia in the PACU. Pupil parameters at T1, T2, T3, and T5 were not associated with NRS in the PACU. Multiple logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated only latency of PLR at T4 can predict postoperative acute pain. The ROC analysis showed the cutoff value for latency of PLR at T4 was 0.29 s to discriminate between no pain and pain, and the area under the curve was 0.778 (95% CI 0.634-0.922, p=0.002) with sensitivity 50.0% and specificity 91.7%. CONCLUSION: The latency of PLR immediately before extubation may be a useful predictor for postoperative acute pain in the PACU.

3.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(6)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651661

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily E member 1 (CYP2E1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family and catalyzes the metabolism of various substrates. CYP2E1 is upregulated in multiple heart diseases and causes damage mainly via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In mice, increased CYP2E1 expression induces cardiac myocyte apoptosis, and knockdown of endogenous CYP2E1 can attenuate the pathological development of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Nevertheless, targeted inhibition of CYP2E1 via the administration of drugs for the treatment of DCM remains elusive. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether diallyl sulfide (DAS), a competitive inhibitor of CYP2E1, can be used to inhibit the development of the pathological process of DCM and identify its possible mechanism. Here, cTnTR141W transgenic mice, which developed typical DCM phenotypes, were used. Following treatment with DAS for 6 weeks, echocardiography, histological analysis and molecular marker detection were conducted to investigate the DAS­induced improvement on myocardial function and morphology. Biochemical analysis, western blotting and TUNEL assays were used to detected ROS production and myocyte apoptosis. It was found that DAS improved the typical DCM phenotypes, including chamber dilation, wall thinning, fibrosis, poor myofibril organization and decreased ventricular blood ejection, as determined using echocardiographic and histopathological analyses. Furthermore, the regulatory mechanisms, including inhibition both of the oxidative stress levels and the mitochondria­dependent apoptosis pathways, were involved in the effects of DAS. In particular, DAS showed advantages in terms of improved chamber dilation and dysfunction in model mice, and the improvement occurred in the early stage of the treatment compared with enalaprilat, an angiotensin­converting enzyme inhibitor that has been widely used in the clinical treatment of DCM and HF. The current results demonstrated that DAS could protect against DCM via inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis. These findings also suggest that inhibition of CYP2E1 may be a valuable therapeutic strategy to control the development of heart diseases, especially those associated with CYP2E1 upregulation. Moreover, the development of DAS analogues with lower cytotoxicity and metabolic rate for CYP2E1 may be beneficial.

4.
Appl Opt ; 60(26): 7989-7994, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613059

RESUMO

Optical displacement detection is widely used in various micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors because of its high sensitivity. The optical accelerometer has a high theoretical resolution. However, due to the small working range of optical detection, the open-loop measuring range of a high-resolution optical accelerometer is usually only tens to hundreds of milligrams. To increase the measurement range, we propose a high-resolution micro-optical accelerometer with electromagnetic force feedback. The optical principle, mechanical structure, and manufacturing process are analyzed. The accelerometer is predicted to work in the first modal with displacement sensitivity at 2.56 µm/g, corresponding to 0th diffraction beam optical sensitivity 1.93%/nm. The designed electromagnetic driver can increase the acceleration measurement range from 0.012 to ±20g. These results provide a theoretical basis for the design and fabrication of a high-resolution micro-optical accelerometer with an electromagnetic driver. The electromagnetic drive scheme introduced effectively improves the dynamic range of high-precision optical accelerometers and can be applied to other optical MEMS sensors.

5.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624371

RESUMO

Resection of an unknown neck mass in a 6-year-old child triggered acute left-sided heart failure and pulmonary edema. The lesion was confirmed as neuroblastoma by postoperative tissue examination. Such tumors regularly synthesize and secrete catecholamines, warranting caution in advance of surgical manipulation.

6.
Oecologia ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647165

RESUMO

A shift to higher temperatures has left the Mediterranean Europe and Northern Africa (MENA) region more vulnerable to drought and land degradation. We used MODIS LAI (leaf area index) and GPP (gross primary production) deficits, the differences between actual and historical-maximum values, to describe vegetation structural and functional changes and consequential landcover change in response to changing climate conditions during 2001-2019 in the area (20° W-45° E, 20° N-45° N). We found that 1) the vegetation responses varied significantly among eight landcover types with the decreasing importance: forests, savannas, a mosaic of cropland and natural vegetation (CNV), croplands, permanent wetlands, urban land, grasslands, and shrublands, each with distinctive yet overlapping signatures over the ranges of the climate conditions considered. 2) Forests, occupying the coolest and wettest niche, showed the strongest response to severe drought with a lag of 1-3 years and a legacy effect for 10 years. Shrubs, occupying the hottest and driest niche, were the most resilient under a hotter and drier climate. 3) The total areas of savannas and CNV increased by 394,994 and 404,592 km2, respectively, while that of forests decreased by 33,091 km2. Shrublands extended by 287,134 km2 while grasslands and croplands retreated by 490,644 and 225,263 km2. The area of wetlands increased by 49,192 km2, and that of urban land increased by 39,570 km2. A total of 57,649 km2 of barren land became vegetated over the years. Along with higher temperature and more extended period of drought, MENA has evolved towards a shrubbier landscape.

7.
Langmuir ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648710

RESUMO

Most researchers focus on the collision of a single droplet with a solid surface, while it is common for a droplet to collide with a sessile droplet on a solid surface in reality. This study performed the head-on collision of two nanodroplets on a solid surface using the molecular dynamics simulation method. The effects of impact velocity, interaction intensity between solid and liquid atoms, and the solid fraction of the surface on the collision process are studied with independent simulation cases. The maximum spreading factor and the dimensionless maximum spreading time are recorded and calculated to describe the collision process quantitatively. The simulation results indicate that the maximum spreading factor depends more on the solid fraction than the interaction intensity since it does not fundamentally change the wetting state of the droplet at its maximum spreading state. Because of two different effects, the maximum dimensionless spreading time decreases first and then increases with the interaction intensity, and both effects weaken with the increase of impact velocity. As the solid fraction increases, the maximum spreading factor increases significantly at high impact velocity, and the maximum dimensionless spreading time first decreases and then increases because the wetting state of the coalescent droplet at the maximum spreading moment gradually changes from the Wenzel state to the Cassie state. In general, the initial wetting state of the sessile droplet and the wetting state of the coalescent droplet at the maximum spreading moment have important effects on the maximum spreading factor and the maximum spreading time. We establish a theoretical prediction model for the maximum spreading factor on a smooth surface based on energy conservation with quite good accuracy. This research has improved our understanding of the head-on collision process of two nanodroplets on a solid surface.

8.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 260, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552057

RESUMO

To maintain genomic stability, the mammalian cells has evolved a coordinated response to DNA damage, including activation of DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint processes. Exonuclease 1 (EXO1)-dependent excision of DNA ends is important for the initiation of homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA breaks, which is thought to play a key role in activating the ATR-CHK1 pathway to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest. But the mechanism is still not fully understood. Here, we report that ZGRF1 forms complexes with EXO1 as well as other repair proteins and promotes DNA repair through HR. ZGRF1 is recruited to DNA damage sites in a MDC1-RNF8-BRCA1 dependent manner. Furthermore, ZGRF1 is important for the recruitment of RPA2 to DNA damage sites and the following ATR-CHK1 mediated G2/M checkpoint in response to irradiation. ZGRF1 null cells show increased sensitivity to many DNA-damaging agents, especially PARPi and irradiation. Collectively,our findings identify ZGRF1 as a novel regulator of DNA end resection and G2/M checkpoint. ZGRF1 is a potential target of radiation and PARPi cancer therapy.

9.
Gland Surg ; 10(8): 2511-2527, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527563

RESUMO

Background: The number of patients with thyroid cancer is increasing. Autophagy is closely related to thyroid cancer. This study conducted a bioinformatics analysis to examine the relationship between autophagy-related genes and the prognosis of thyroid cancer. Methods: Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, the standardized ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing data and corresponding clinical records of 497 patients were obtained. The gene set of autophagy-related genes was obtained from reactom [https://reactome.org/; gene set identification: (R-HSA-1632852)]. Based on the completeness of the sequencing and prognostic data, 135 effective genes were screened to form a gene set. A cluster analysis of the genetic expression of the whole genome was conducted. Different groups and subgroups were defined according to the clustering situation. The relationship between the expression levels of different autophagy-related genes and the clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer were analyzed. Results: Patients were divided into 2 clusters and 4 subclusters. A comparison of the clinical parameters of the 2 clusters showed that there were differences in node (N)-stage, and a comparison of the 4 subclusters showed that there were differences in age and 4 other characteristics. In relation to the survival comparison, there was a difference in the disease-free survival (DFS) between the 2 clusters, and there was a difference in overall survival (OS) and DFS between subclusters. The 2 clusters had 114 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and the 4 subclusters had 131 DEGs. In relation to the 5 different factors in each group, there were differences in the distribution of N0N1NX in clusters and subclusters, there were differences in the distribution of M0M1MX in subclusters, and there were differences in the distribution of age and the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage in subclusters. In relation to the stage/N stage/Metastasis (M) stage-related DEGs, 5 common genes were identified: EPAS1, ATG4A, BECN1, ATG4C, and PLIN3. In relation to the stage/N stage/M stage-related DEGs and age-related DEGs 1 common gene was identified: EPAS1. Conclusions: Autophagy-related genes are related to the staging of thyroid cancer, but have no clear relationship with long-term prognosis.

10.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 5615-5620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548813

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the distribution of high frequency mutant genes and the expression of PDL1 in different types of lung cancer. Methods: This retrospective analysis was conducted on 330 patients who were diagnosed with primary lung cancer and treated in our hospital from October 2018 to October 2020. The patients were listed into non-small cell carcinoma group (101 cases), squamous carcinoma group (28 cases) and adenocarcinoma group (201 cases) according to their pathological results. The gene mutations were detected using EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF gene mutation detection kits, and the expression of PDL1 was detected by immunostaining. The mutation of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF genes and PDL1 expression in patients with different types of lung cancer were compared. Results: The patients in the adenocarcinoma group had the highest incidence of EGFR gene mutation, the mutation rate of the gene whose mutation location was exon 18 was significantly higher, and the difference between each group was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The patients in the adenocarcinoma group had the highest incidence of KRAS gene mutation, the mutation rate of the gene whose mutation location was exon 2 was obviously the highest, exon 15 was the lowest, and the difference between each group was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the distribution of BRAF gene mutations among groups, and all mutations occurred on exon 15, with no statistically significant difference between each group (P > 0.05). PD-L1 expression in NSCLC patients was significantly higher than that in other lung cancer patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion: EGFR and KRAS genes showed obvious specific expressions in patients with different types of lung cancer and they were more common in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Gene mutation and PDL1 expression are high in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1015293, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485508

RESUMO

This article is aimed at exploring the relationship between the phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit Cα (PP2Acα, encoded by PPP2CA) and methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) in the malignant progression of gastric cancer (GC). Through analyzing the bioinformatics database and clinical tissue immunohistochemistry results, we found that abnormal PP2Acα and METTL3 levels were closely related to the malignant progression of GC. To explore the internal connection between PP2Acα and METTL3 in the progression of GC, we carried out cellular and molecular experiments and finally proved that PP2Acα inhibition can upregulate METTL3 levels by activating ATM activity, thereby promoting the malignant progression of GC.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Metiltransferases/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Fosforilação , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(77): 9862-9865, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490870

RESUMO

A simple thermal aptasensing platform was devised for the sensitive detection of organophosphate pesticides (using malathion as a model target) based on the efficient self-heating reaction of a warming pad with a switchable target responsive enzyme-encapsulated three-dimensional (3D) DNA hydrogel using a portable thermometer as a signal readout in this work. The existence of the target malathion would open the catalase-3D network and lots of catalase was released from the hydrogel, which could efficiently convert H2O2 to an O2 molecule. The product O2 is the critical condition for the self-heating of the warming pad. Thereafter, the temperature was enhanced with the increasing amount of O2. The strategy displays outstanding specificity, reproducibility and stability. Moreover, this method can be easily extended to monitor other molecules using different aptamer sequences in practical applications.

13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4497-4503, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581055

RESUMO

This study aimed to observe the inhibitory effect of icariin against oxidative stress-induced calcification in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) and elucidate the molecular mechanism of icariin in inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS)-mediated atherosclerotic calcification, so as to provide new ideas for exploring the anti-atherosclerotic mechanism of Epimedii Folium. The VSMCs in rat thoracic aorta were subjected to adherent culture and then treated with the complete calcification DMEM containing high glucose and hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2) for three weeks. The resulting calcified VSMCs were divided into different treatment groups. Icariin was added one week after calcification induction for protecting the VSMCs, whose viability was then detected using cell counting kit-8(CCK-8). Alizarin red-S staining was conducted to observe the calcification degree. The activity of alkaline phosphatase(ALP) in VSMCs was measured using the disodium phenyl phosphate substrate and the calcium content was measured by arsenazo Ⅲ method. The mRNA expression levels of ossification-related factors including osteocalcin(OC), osteopontin(OPN), Runt-related transcription factor 2(Runx2), and type Ⅰ collagen(Col Ⅰa) were detected by real-time PCR. Western blot was carried out to determine the protein expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), Runx2, activating transcription factor 4(ATF4), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor(eIF)-2α. The results showed that H_2O_2 significantly induced the calcification of VSMCs, increased the ALP activity and calcium content in VSMCs, promoted OC, OPN, Runx2, and Col Ⅰa mRNA expression and Runx2 protein expression, and reduced α-SMA protein expression. The ATF4 protein expression and eIF2α phosphorylation were also elevated significantly. Icariin reversed the calcification of VSMCs induced by H_2O_2, inhibited ALP activity and calcium content in VSMCs, down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of OC, OPN, Runx2 and Col Ⅰa and Runx2 protein expression, and relatively up-regulated the expression of α-SMA. The expression of ATF4 and phosphorylation of eIF2α also declined significantly. All these have demonstrated that icariin inhibited VSMCs calcification by down-regulating the ossification-related factors and lowering ALP activity and calcium content in VSMCs. Besides, the down-regulation of Runx2 expression and the inhibition of ATF4 and eIF2α-mediated cellular calcification pathway in ERS might also be involved in such calcification-suppressing process.


Assuntos
Músculo Liso Vascular , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
14.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528721

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The S protein is the key viral protein for associating with ACE2, the receptor for SARS-CoV-2. There are many kinds of posttranslational modifications in S protein. However, the detailed mechanism of palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S remains to be elucidated. In our current study, we characterized the palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S. Both the C15 and cytoplasmic tail of SARS-CoV-2 S were palmitoylated. Fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75 and zinc finger DHHC domain-containing palmitoyltransferase (ZDHHC) inhibitor 2-BP reduced the palmitoylation of S. Interestingly, palmitoylation of SARS-CoV-2 S was not required for plasma membrane targeting of S but was critical for S-mediated syncytia formation and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus particle entry. Overexpression of ZDHHC2, ZDHHC3, ZDHHC4, ZDHHC5, ZDHHC8, ZDHHC9, ZDHHC11, ZDHHC14, ZDHHC16, ZDHHC19, and ZDHHC20 promoted the palmitoylation of S. Furthermore, those ZDHHCs were identified to associate with SARS-CoV-2 S. Our study not only reveals the mechanism of S palmitoylation but also will shed important light into the role of S palmitoylation in syncytia formation and virus entry.

15.
Int J Surg ; 94: 106080, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of controlled low central venous pressure(CLCVP)induced by milrinone during hepatectomy, and its influence on perioperative hemodynamics, blood loss and patients' recovery, comparing with the traditional method by nitroglycerin. METHODS: 52 patients who underwent elective open hepatectomy were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into two groups: milrinone (M) group and nitroglycerin (NG) group. Milrinone was infused with the rate of 0.5 µg/kg/min in group M, while nitroglycerin was given 0.2-0.5 µg/kg/min in group NG to maintain CVP≤ 5 mmHg during liver resection. The demographic variables, data of the operative procedure and intraoperative hemodynamics were recorded. The postoperative recovery profiles and pre- and post-operative haematological markers of vital organs were also collected and compared. RESULTS: 1. The blood loss of group M, no matter during liver resection or in the whole procedure, was both less than that of group NG (P < 0.05), so did the hemoglobin detected by blood gas analysis (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, time of hepatectomy and hepatic hilum occlusion were shorter in group M (P < 0.05). 2. Compared with the NG group, cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume index (SVR) were higher in group M in the operation. The norepinephrine dosage necessary in the operation was of no difference in two groups (P > 0.05). 3. Drainage indwelling time and postoperative hospital stay of group M were shorter than that of group NG (P < 0.05). Most of the blood biomarkers increased on postoperative day (POD)-1, and returned to the preoperative level on POD-7 without inter-group difference (P > 0.05). Brain natriuretic peptide precursor (Pro-BNP) in group M was higher than NG group on POD-1 (P < 0.05), and the statistical difference disappeared on POD-7. CONCLUSION: Milrinone can effectively maintain a controlled low central venous pressure during hepatectomy. Compared with nitroglycerin, milrinone can reduce the amount of blood loss, with the benefit of better manifestation of hemodynamics and enhanced postoperative recovery.

16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17574, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475474

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that humans have a left spatial attention bias in cognition and behaviour. However, whether there exists a leftward perception bias of gaze direction has not been investigated. To address this gap, we conducted three behavioural experiments using a forced-choice gaze direction judgment task. The point of subjective equality (PSE) was employed to measure whether there was a leftward perception bias of gaze direction, and if there was, whether this bias was modulated by face emotion. The results of experiment 1 showed that the PSE of fearful faces was significantly positive as compared to zero and this effect was not found in angry, happy, and neutral faces, indicating that participants were more likely to judge the gaze direction of fearful faces as directed to their left-side space, namely a leftward perception bias. With the response keys counterbalanced between participants, experiment 2a replicated the findings in experiment 1. To further investigate whether the gaze direction perception variation was contributed by emotional or low-level features of faces, experiment 2b and 3 used inverted faces and inverted eyes, respectively. The results revealed similar leftward perception biases of gaze direction in all types of faces, indicating that gaze direction perception was biased by emotional information in faces rather than low-level facial features. Overall, our study demonstrates that there a fear-specific leftward perception bias in processing gaze direction. These findings shed new light on the cerebral lateralization in humans.

17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257898, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555121

RESUMO

In pan Pamir Plateau countries, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) has brought huge losses to the livestock industry and threaten the endangered wildlife. In unknown regions, revealing PPRV transmission among countries is the premise of effective prevention and control, therefore calls for quantified monitoring on disease communication among countries. In this paper, a MaxEnt model was built for the first time to predict the PPR risk within the research area. The least cost path (LCP) for PPR transboundary communication were calculated and referred to as the maximum available paths (MAP). The results show that there are many places with high-risk in the research area, and the domestic risk in China is lower than that in foreign countries and is mainly determined by human activities. Five LCPs representing corridors among Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, India and China were obtained. This study proves for the first time that there is the possibility of cross-border transmission of diseases by wild and domestic animals. In the future, it will play an important role in monitoring the PPR epidemic and blocking-up its cross-border transmission.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257094, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506571

RESUMO

Although the Trans-Himalayan region (THR) is an important endemic and rendezvous area of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), monitoring and prevention measurements are difficult to execute because of the rough geographical conditions. Besides, a heterogeneous breeding system and the poor veterinary service of susceptible animals compound the existing problems. Here, we propose a forecasting system to define the key points of PPR prevention and aid the countries in saving time, labor, and products to achieve the goal of the global eradication project of PPR. The spatial distribution of PPR was predicted in the THR for the first time using a niche model that was constructed with a combination of eco-geographical, anthropoid, meteorological, and host variables. The transboundary least-cost paths (LCPs) of small ruminants in the THR were also calculated. Our results reveal that the low-elevation area of the THR had a higher PPR risk and was mainly dominated by human variables. The high-elevation area had lower risk and was mainly dominated by natural variables. Eight LCPs representing corridors among India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and China were obtained. This confirmed the potential risk of transboundary communication by relying on PPR contamination on the grasslands for the first time. The predicted potential risk communication between the two livestock systems and landscapes (high and low elevation) might play a role in driving PPR transboundary transmission.

19.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(8): 2265-2285, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522587

RESUMO

The administration of nanoparticles (NPs) first faces the challenges of evading renal filtration and clearance of reticuloendothelial system (RES). After that, NPs infiltrate through the expanded endothelial space and penetrated the dense stroma of tumor microenvironment to tumor cells. As long as possible to prolong the time of NPs remaining in tumor tissue, NPs release active agent and induce pharmacological action. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the physical and chemical properties of NPs and the influence of various biological factors in tumor microenvironment, and discusses how to improve the final efficacy through adjusting the characteristics and structure of NPs. Perspectives and future directions are also provided.

20.
Photosynth Res ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468919

RESUMO

Photosynthetic organisms have evolved photoprotective mechanisms to acclimate to light intensity fluctuations in their natural growth environments. Photosystem (PS) II subunit S (PsbS) and light-harvesting complex (LHC) stress-related proteins (LhcSR) are essential for triggering photoprotection in vascular plants and green algae, respectively. The activity of both proteins is strongly enhanced in the moss Physcomitrella patens under high-light conditions. However, their role in regulating photosynthesis acclimation in P. patens under fluctuating light (FL) conditions is still unknown. Here, we compare the responses of wild-type (WT) P. patens and mutants lacking PsbS (psbs KO) or LhcSR1 and 2 (lhcsr KO) to FL conditions in which the low-light phases were periodically interrupted with high-light pulses. lhcsr KO mutant showed a strong reduction in growth with respect to WT and psbs KO under FL conditions. The lack of LhcSR not only decreased the level of non-photochemical quenching, resulting in an over-reduced plastoquinone pool, but also significantly increased the PSI acceptor limitation values with respect to WT and psbs KO under FL conditions. Moreover, in lhcsr KO mutant, the abundance of PSI core and PSI-LHCI complex decreased greatly under FL conditions compared with the WT and psbs KO. We proposed that LhcSR in P. patens play a crucial role in moss acclimation to dynamic light changes.

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