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1.
Food Funct ; 15(10): 5466-5484, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690672

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is difficult to cure, and formulating a dietary plan is an effective means to prevent and treat this disease. Wheat peptide contains a variety of bioactive peptides with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions. The results of this study showed that preventive supplementation with wheat peptide (WP) can significantly alleviate the symptoms of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. WP can increase body weight, alleviate colon shortening, and reduce disease activity index (DAI) scores. In addition, WP improved intestinal microbial disorders in mice with colitis. Based on LC-MS, a total of 313 peptides were identified in WP, 4 of which were predicted to be bioactive peptides. The regulatory effects of WP and four bioactive peptides on the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway were verified in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that WP alleviates DSS-induced colitis by helping maintain gut barrier integrity and targeting the Keap1-Nrf2 axis; these results provided a rationale for adding WP to dietary strategies to prevent IBD.


Assuntos
Colite , Sulfato de Dextrana , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Peptídeos , Transdução de Sinais , Triticum , Animais , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Camundongos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Triticum/química , Células CACO-2 , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Curr Res Food Sci ; 8: 100750, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764979

RESUMO

Lutein possesses various physiological activities but is susceptible to light degradation, thermal degradation, and oxidative degradation. As such, protecting the activity of lutein-based products using natural extracts has become a current research. In this study, lutein was protected by complexing inulin-type fructan (ITF), soybean protein isolate (SPI), and epicatechin (EC), and the protection mechanism of epicatechin-fructan glycosylated soybean protein isolate (EC-GSPI) toward lutein was elucidated comprehensively. The results showed that the addition of EC delayed the degradation of lutein. The results of light stability experiments showed that increased EC significantly enhanced the storage time of the GSPI-Lutein system from 4 to 13 days. Additionally, the effect of EC on glycosylated soybean 7S globulin (G7S) and glycosylated soybean 11S globulin (G11S) was assessed. The light stability of G11S-Lutein and G7S-Lutein after the addition of EC was from G11S > G7S → G7S > G11S. Furthermore, the proteins purified from SPI interacted differently with EC and ITF, with soybean 7S globulin (7S) mainly interacting with EC and soybean 11S globulin (11S) mainly interacting with ITF. EC-GSPI-Lutein exhibited a good protective effect, probably due to the occurrence of hygrothermal Maillard between ITF and 11S, providing a porous structure for lutein storage. At the same time, the binding of EC to 7S significantly enhanced the antioxidant property of the solution and the stability of the protein secondary structure, thereby prolonging the storage time of lutein.

3.
Int J Nurs Sci ; 11(2): 286-294, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707686

RESUMO

Objective: This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of continuous nursing care for the recovery of joint function in older adults with total hip or knee arthroplasty. Methods: Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies of continuous nursing in older patients after joint replacement were searched from the database of Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed, and Embase from their establishment to October 25, 2023. After literature screening, two researchers completed data extraction, and the risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The risk analysis included in cohort studies was based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Results: The study included a total of 15 articles, comprising 34,186 knee and hip replacement patients. In this review, the effects of continuous nursing on the recovery of joint function of knee replacement and hip replacement in older adults were classified and discussed. Continuous nursing interventions targeted for total hip replacement could greatly increase the range of joint mobility, enhance muscle strength during hip movements like flexion, extension, and abduction, maintain joint stability, relieve pain, improve daily activities, and lower the risk of complications. For older patients with knee arthroplasty, continuous nursing programs could markedly improve knee motion range, joint flexion, joint stability, daily activities, and pain management. Despite the implementation of interventions, the incidence of complications caused by total knee replacement did not decrease. Out of all the studies reviewed, only one used a theoretical framework for interventions provided to patients during the postoperative period of hip arthroplasty. The overall quality of the included studies was very high. Conclusion: Continuous nursing can effectively improve the joint function of older patients after joint replacement. However, its effectiveness in terms of clinical outcomes, patient satisfaction, and medical cost of associated continuous nursing needs to be further clarified. In addition, continuous nursing has no significant advantage in the safety of postoperative complications and readmission rates in older adults after knee joint replacement. To enhance the efficacy and safety of continuous nursing effectively, it is crucial to refine the continuous nursing program in the future, thereby elevating the quality of nursing services.

4.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(13): 30-39, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696599

RESUMO

The amygdala undergoes a period of overgrowth in the first year of life, resulting in enlarged volume by 12 months in infants later diagnosed with ASD. The overgrowth of the amygdala may have functional consequences during infancy. We investigated whether amygdala connectivity differs in 12-month-olds at high likelihood (HL) for ASD (defined by having an older sibling with autism), compared to those at low likelihood (LL). We examined seed-based connectivity of left and right amygdalae, hypothesizing that the HL and LL groups would differ in amygdala connectivity, especially with the visual cortex, based on our prior reports demonstrating that components of visual circuitry develop atypically and are linked to genetic liability for autism. We found that HL infants exhibited weaker connectivity between the right amygdala and the left visual cortex, as well as between the left amygdala and the right anterior cingulate, with evidence that these patterns occur in distinct subgroups of the HL sample. Amygdala connectivity strength with the visual cortex was related to motor and communication abilities among HL infants. Findings indicate that aberrant functional connectivity between the amygdala and visual regions is apparent in infants with genetic liability for ASD and may have implications for early differences in adaptive behaviors.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Visual , Humanos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Visual/fisiopatologia , Córtex Visual/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ChangPu YuJin Tang (CPYJT) is a Chinese herbal formula that has been shown to be an effective therapeutic strategy for pediatric patients with Tourette Syndrome (TS). Using an integrated strategy of network pharmacology and animal model, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of CPYJT in the treatment of TS. METHODS: Compound libraries of CPYJT were established using databases, such as the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). The TCMSP database and Swiss Target Prediction database were used to predict the targets. The above results were constructed into a CPYJT-Drug-Component-Target network. Moreover, TS targets were predicted using GeneCards and other databases. The targets corresponding to the potential ingredients in CPYJT and the targets corresponding to TS were taken as the intersections to construct the CPYJT-TS network. The target network was analysed by PPI using the string database. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed on the target network. The whole process was performed using Cytoscape 3.7.2 to make visual network diagrams of the results. CPYJT was characterised by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the structural changes of CPYJT on the neuronal cells of the IDPN model rats. RT-PCR and Western Blot were used to analyse the changes in the mRNA and protein expression levels of BDNF, TrkB, PI3K, and AKT in the cortex, striatum, and thalamus brain regions after CPYJT administration in IDPN model rats. RESULTS: Network pharmacology and UHPLC-MS studies revealed that CPYJT acted on the TS through multiple neurotransmitters and the BDNF/TrkB and PI3K/AKT signalling pathways. CPYJT ameliorated neurocellular structural damage in the cortex, striatum, and thalamus of TS model rats. Additionally, CPYJT up-regulated the levels of BDNF, TrkB, PI3k, and AKT in the cortex, striatum, and thalamus of TS model rats. CONCLUSION: It was found that CPYJT protected neuronal cells from structural damage in multiple brain regions and affected the expression levels of BDNF, TrkB, PI3K, and Akt in the cortex, striatum, and thalamus during TS treatment.

6.
Acad Radiol ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of CT-guided percutaneous cryoablation in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located explicitly in high-risk sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from 685 HCC patients undergoing percutaneous cryoablation at Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital between January 2018 and December 2021. Of these, 106 patients had lesions in high-risk sites, defined as a minimum distance of less than 10 mm from the heart/great vessels, diaphragm, gastrointestinal tract, and gallbladder, as determined by preoperative CT or MRI imaging. Technical success rate, complete ablation rate, and complications at 1, 12, and 24 months post-surgery were evaluated. A statistical analysis of the ablation effect difference between the high-risk site and non-high-risk site groups was conducted, utilizing propensity score matching (PSM) to mitigate patient selection bias. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyzes were performed to identify risk factors for the incidence of coronary heart disease. RESULTS: The study comprised 106 cases in the high-risk group and 218 cases in the non-high-risk group. After PSM analysis until December 2021, 95 matched pairs were included. Both groups demonstrated a 100% intraoperative technical success rate, and no major complications related to cryoablation were observed. Follow-up ranged from 24 to 38 months. The complete ablation rate was 82.1% and 71.7% in the high-risk group and 83.9% and 73.9% in the non-high-risk group at 12 and 24 months, respectively. There was no significant difference in complete ablation rates between the two groups before and after PSM (P > 0.05). Multivariate analysis identified the distance between the tumor edge and high-risk site ≤ 5 mm and preoperative transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment as independent risk factors for cryoablation effect. CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous cryoablation proves to be a safe and effective approach for HCC patients with high-risk sites, serving as an alternative to surgical treatment.

7.
Natl Sci Rev ; 11(6): nwad103, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725935

RESUMO

Non-centrosymmetric topological material has attracted intense attention due to its superior characteristics as compared with the centrosymmetric one, although probing the local quantum geometry in non-centrosymmetric topological material remains challenging. The non-linear Hall (NLH) effect provides an ideal tool to investigate the local quantum geometry. Here, we report a non-centrosymmetric topological phase in ZrTe5, probed by using the NLH effect. The angle-resolved and temperature-dependent NLH measurement reveals the inversion and ab-plane mirror symmetries breaking at <30 K, consistently with our theoretical calculation. Our findings identify a new non-centrosymmetric phase of ZrTe5 and provide a platform to probe and control local quantum geometry via crystal symmetries.

8.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(5): e14729, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pituitary adenoma is one of the most common brain tumors. Most pituitary adenomas are benign and can be cured by surgery and/or medication. However, some pituitary adenomas show aggressive growth with a fast growth rate and are resistant to conventional treatments such as surgery, drug therapy, and radiation therapy. These tumors, referred to as refractory pituitary adenomas, often relapse or regrow in the early postoperative period. The tumor microenvironment (TME) has recently been identified as an important factor affecting the biological manifestations of tumors and acts as the main battlefield between the tumor and the host immune system. MAIN BODY: In this review, we focus on describing TME in pituitary adenomas and refractory pituitary adenomas. Research on the immune microenvironment of pituitary adenomas is currently focused on immune cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes, and extensive research and experimental verifications are still required regarding other components of the TME. In particular, studies are needed to determine the role of the TME in the specific biological behaviors of refractory pituitary adenomas, such as high invasion, fast recurrence rate, and high tolerance to traditional treatments and to identify the mechanisms involved. CONCLUSION: Overall, we summarize the similarities and differences between the TME of pituitary adenomas and refractory pituitary adenomas as well as the changes in the biological behavior of pituitary adenomas that may be caused by the microenvironment. These changes greatly affect the outcome of patients.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Microambiente Tumoral , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Adenoma/terapia , Adenoma/patologia , Animais , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
iScience ; 27(6): 109850, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38779481

RESUMO

Milk fat is an important indicator for evaluating the quality of cow's milk. In this study, we used bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) to investigate the role and molecular mechanism of KLF4 in the regulation of milk fat synthesis. The results showed that KLF4 was more highly expressed in mammary tissues of high-fat cows compared with low-fat cows. KLF4 positively regulated the expression of genes related to milk fat synthesis in BMECs, increasing intracellular triglycerides content, and KLF4 promoted milk fat synthesis by activating the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. Furthermore, the results of animal experiments also confirmed that knockdown of KLF4 inhibited milk fat synthesis. In addition, yeast one-hybrid assays and dual-luciferase reporter gene assays confirmed that KLF4 directly targets and binds to the fatty acid synthase (FASN) promoter region to promote FASN transcription. These results demonstrate that KLF4 is a key transcription factor for milk fat synthesis in BMECs.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; : 173451, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782266

RESUMO

Hydroponic experiment was conducted to explore the effects of two nitrogen (N) levels with five nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) ratios on the growth status and Cd migration patterns of wheat seedlings under Cd5 and Cd30 level. Results showed that higher Cd were detrimental to the growth, absorption of K and Ca, expression of genes mediating NO3--N and NH4+-N transport, which also increased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in shoots and roots of wheat seedlings. Higher N treatment alleviated the inhibitory effects of Cd stress on the biomass, root development, photosynthesis and increased the tolerance index of wheat seedlings. The ratio of NO3--N and NH4+-N was the main factor driving Cd accumulation in wheat seedlings, the combined application of NH4+-N and NO3--N was more conducive for the growth, nitrogen assimilation and Cd tolerance to the Cd stressed wheat seedlings. Increased NO3--N application rates significantly up-regulated the expression levels of TaNPF2.12, TaNRT2.2, increased NH4+-N application rates significantly up-regulated the expression levels of TaAMT1.1. The high proportion of NO3--N promoted the absorption of K, Ca and Cd in the shoots and roots of wheat seedlings, while NH4+-N was the opposite. Under low Cd conditions, the NO3--N to NH4+-N ratio of 1:1 was more conducive to the growth of wheat seedlings, under high Cd stress, the optimal of NO3--N to NH4+-N was 1:2 for inhibiting the accumulation of Cd in wheat seedlings. The results indicated that increasing NH4+-N ratio appropriately could inhibit wheat Cd uptake by increasing NH4+, K+ and Ca2+ for K and Ca channels, and promote wheat growth by promoting N assimilation process.

11.
Environ Pollut ; : 124189, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776995

RESUMO

Currently, headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a widely used method to identify the key odorants of sludge. However, the effect of incubation temperature on the generation and emission of key odorants from sludge was still uncertain. Thus, in this paper, headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and headspace gas chromatography-coupled ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) were carried out to analyze the volatiles emitted from the sludge incubated at different temperatures (30°C, 50°C, 60°C, and 80°C). The results indicated that the total volatile concentration of the sludge increased with temperatures, which affected the identified proportion of sludge key odorants to a certain extent. Differently from the aqueous solutions, the variation of volatile emission from the sludge was inconsistent with temperature changes, suggesting a multifactorial influence of incubation temperature on the identification of sludge odorants. The microbial community structure and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolic activity of the sludge samples were analyzed at the initial state, 30°C, and 80°C. Although no significant effect of incubation temperature on the microbial community structure of the sludge, the incubation at 80°C led to a noticeable decrease in microbial ATP metabolic activity, accompanied by a significant change in the proportion of odor-related microorganisms with low relative abundances. Changes in the composition and activity of these communities jointly contributed to the differences in odor emission from sludge at different temperatures. In summary, the incubation temperature affects the production and emission of volatiles from sludge through physicochemical and biochemical mechanisms, by which the microbial metabolism playing a crucial role. Therefore, when analyzing the key odorants of sludge, these factors should be considered.

12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Garlic polysaccharides (GPs) constitute over 75% of the dry weight of garlic. They are characterized by fructan with a 2,1-ß-d-Fruf backbone and 2,6-ß-d-Fruf branches. Studies have suggested a role for GPs in regulating gut microbiota but whether they possess a comprehensive function in maintaining intestinal well-being and can serve as effective prebiotics remains unknown. To explore this, varied doses of GPs (1.25-5.0 g kg-1 body weight) and inulin (as a positive control) were administered to Kunming mice via gavage, and their effects on the intestinal epithelial, chemical, and biological barriers were assessed. A constipation model was also established using loperamide to investigate the potential effects of GPs on the relief of constipation. RESULTS: Administration of GPs significantly upregulated expression of tight-junction proteins and mucins in Kunming mouse small-intestine tissue. Garlic polysaccharides elevated cecal butyric acid content, reduced the abundance of Desulfobacterota, and decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (the F/B ratio). Garlic polysaccharides also promoted the growth of Bacteroides acidifaciens and Clostridium saccharogumia. Tax4Fun functional predictions suggested the potential of GPs to prevent human diseases, reducing the risk of insulin resistance, infectious diseases, and drug resistance. Garlic polysaccharides also exhibited a beneficial effect in alleviating loperamide-induced constipation symptoms by enhancing small intestinal transit, softening stool consistency, accelerating bowel movements, and promoting the release of excitatory neurotransmitters. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the important role of GPs in maintaining gut fitness by enhancing intestinal barrier function and peristalsis. Garlic polysaccharides are promising prebiotics, potentially contributing to overall intestinal well-being and health. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

13.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 43(1): 144, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is a lethal subset of prostate cancer which is characterized by neuroendocrine differentiation and loss of androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Growing evidence reveals that cell lineage plasticity is crucial in the failure of NEPC therapies. Although studies suggest the involvement of the neural transcription factor PAX6 in drug resistance, its specific role in NEPC remains unclear. METHODS: The expression of PAX6 in NEPC was identified via bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry. CCK8 assay, colony formation assay, tumorsphere formation assay and apoptosis assay were used to illustrate the key role of PAX6 in the progression of in vitro. ChIP and Dual-luciferase reporter assays were conducted to confirm the binding sequences of AR in the promoter region of PAX6, as well as the binding sequences of PAX6 in the promoter regions of STAT5A and MET. For in vivo validation, the xenograft model representing NEPC subtype underwent pathological analysis to verify the significant role of PAX6 in disease progression. Complementary diagnoses were established through public clinical datasets and transcriptome sequencing of specific cell lines. ATAC-seq was used to detect the chromatin accessibility of specific cell lines. RESULTS: PAX6 expression was significantly elevated in NEPC and negatively regulated by AR signaling. Activation of PAX6 in non-NEPC cells led to NE trans-differentiation, while knock-down of PAX6 in NEPC cells inhibited the development and progression of NEPC. Importantly, loss of AR resulted in an enhanced expression of PAX6, which reprogramed the lineage plasticity of prostate cancer cells to develop NE phenotypes through the MET/STAT5A signaling pathway. Through ATAC-seq, we found that a high expression level of PAX6 elicited enhanced chromatin accessibility, mainly through attenuation of H4K20me3, which typically causes chromatin silence in cancer cells. CONCLUSION: This study reveals a novel neural transcription factor PAX6 could drive NEPC progression and suggest that it might serve as a potential therapeutic target for the management of NEPC.


Assuntos
Cromatina , Fator de Transcrição PAX6 , Neoplasias da Próstata , Fator de Transcrição STAT5 , Humanos , Masculino , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Camundongos , Animais , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Fenótipo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica
14.
Bioorg Chem ; 148: 107451, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38759357

RESUMO

Aminothiazolyl coumarins as potentially new antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized in an effort to overcome drug resistance. Biological activity assay revealed that some target compounds exhibited significantly inhibitory efficiencies toward bacteria and fungi including drug-resistant pathogens. Especially, aminothiazolyl 7-propyl coumarin 8b and 4-dichlorobenzyl derivative 11b exhibited bactericidal potential (MBC/MIC = 2) toward clinically drug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis with low cytotoxicity to human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, rapidly bactericidal effects and no obvious bacterial resistance development against E. faecalis. The preliminary antibacterial action mechanism studies suggested that compound 11b was able to disturb E. faecalis membrane effectively, and interact with bacterial DNA isolated from resistant E. faecalis through noncovalent bonds to cleave DNA, thus inhibiting the growth of E. faecalis strain. Further molecular modeling indicated that compounds 8b and 11b could bind with SER-1084 and ASP-1083 residues of gyrase-DNA complex through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, compound 11b showed low hemolysis and in vivo toxicity. These findings of aminothiazolyl coumarins as unique structural scaffolds might hold a large promise for the treatments of drug-resistant bacterial infection.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 932: 172879, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38697529

RESUMO

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA) are central to the growth and reproduction of aquatic consumers. Dissolved nutrients in aquatic ecosystems strongly affect algal taxonomic composition and thus the production and transfer of specific ω3-PUFA to consumers at higher trophic levels. However, most studies were conducted in nutrient-poor, oligotrophic lakes, leading to an insufficient understanding of how water nutrients affect algal ω3-PUFA and their trophic transfer in consumers in highly eutrophic lakes. We conducted a field investigation in a highly eutrophic lake and collected basal food sources (phytoplankton, periphyton and macrophytes) and aquatic consumers (invertebrates, zooplankton and fish), and measured their fatty acid (FA) composition. Our results showed that periphyton and phytoplankton were both important sources of ω3-PUFA supporting the highly eutrophic lake food web. High water nutrient levels led to low ω3-PUFA levels in phytoplankton and periphyton, resulting in decreased nutritional quality. Consequently, ω3-PUFA of invertebrates and zooplankton reflected variations in ω3-PUFA of phytoplankton and periphyton, respectively. The ω3-PUFA levels of fish decreased as phytoplankton and periphyton ω3-PUFA decreased. Among fish, the Redfin Culter (Cultrichthys erythropterus) and Bar Cheek Goby (Rhinogobius giurinus) exhibited significantly higher levels of EPA and DHA compared to the Pond Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), which may have been caused by their different feeding modes. Decreases in the ω3-PUFA levels of basal food sources may be one of the causes leading to the reduction of trophic links in aquatic food webs. Our study elucidated the sources and fate of ω3-PUFA in highly eutrophic lakes, complemented previous studies in oligo- and mesotrophic lakes, and emphasized the role of high-quality food sources. Our results offer new perspectives for the conservation and management of highly eutrophic lake ecosystems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Cadeia Alimentar , Lagos , Fitoplâncton , Lagos/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Animais , Zooplâncton , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Peixes/metabolismo , Invertebrados
16.
Cancer Cell Int ; 24(1): 163, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725047

RESUMO

It is commonly assumed that gastrointestinal cancer is the most common form of cancer across the globe and is the leading contributor to cancer-related death. The intricate mechanisms underlying the growth of GI cancers have been identified. It is worth mentioning that both non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and certain types of RNA, such as circular RNAs (circRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs), can have considerable impact on the development of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. As a tumour suppressor, in the group of short non-coding regulatory RNAs is miR-34a. miR-34a silences multiple proto-oncogenes at the post-transcriptional stage by targeting them, which inhibits all physiologically relevant cell proliferation pathways. However, it has been discovered that deregulation of miR-34a plays important roles in the growth of tumors and the development of cancer, including invasion, metastasis, and the tumor-associated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further understanding of miR-34a's molecular pathways in cancer is also necessary for the development of precise diagnoses and effective treatments. We outlined the most recent research on miR-34a functions in GI cancers in this review. Additionally, we emphasize the significance of exosomal miR-34 in gastrointestinal cancers.

17.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732552

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic intestinal ailment which cannot be completely cured. The occurrence of UC has been on the rise in recent years, which is highly detrimental to patients. The effectiveness of conventional drug treatment is limited. The long-term usage of these agents can lead to substantial adverse effects. Therefore, the development of a safe and efficient dietary supplement is important for the prevention of UC. Echinacea purpurea polysaccharide (EPP) is one of the main bioactive substances in Echinacea purpurea. EPP has many favorable effects, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. However, whether EPP can prevent or alleviate UC is still unclear. This study aims to analyze the effect and mechanism of EPP on UC in mice using a 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC model. The results showed that dietary supplementation with 200 mg/kg EPP significantly alleviated the shortening of colon length, weight loss, and histopathological damage in DSS-induced colitis mice. Mechanistically, EPP significantly inhibits the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway and preserves the intestinal mechanical barrier integrity by enhancing the expression of claudin-1, ZO-1, and occludin and reducing the loss of goblet cells. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that EPP intervention reduced the abundance of Bacteroides, Escherichia-Shigella, and Klebsiella; the abundance of Lactobacillus increased. The results of nontargeted metabonomics showed that EPP reshaped metabolism. In this study, we clarified the effect of EPP on UC, revealed the potential function of EPP, and supported the use of polysaccharide dietary supplements for UC prevention.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Sulfato de Dextrana , Echinacea , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , NF-kappa B , Polissacarídeos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Echinacea/química , Camundongos , Masculino , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Suplementos Nutricionais , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Nutrients ; 16(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732614

RESUMO

The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) is increasing annually, and UC has a serious impact on patients' lives. Polysaccharides have gained attention as potential drug candidates for treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in recent years. Huaier (Trametes robiniophila Murr) is a fungus that has been used clinically for more than 1000 years, and its bioactive polysaccharide components have been reported to possess immunomodulatory effects, antitumour potential, and renoprotective effects. In this study, we aimed to examine the protective effects and mechanisms of Huaier polysaccharide (HP) against UC. Based on the H2O2-induced oxidative stress model in HT-29 cells and the dextran sulphate sodium salt (DSS)-induced UC model, we demonstrated that Huaier polysaccharides significantly alleviated DSS-induced colitis (weight loss, elevated disease activity index (DAI) scores, and colonic shortening). In addition, HP inhibited oxidative stress and inflammation and alleviated DSS-induced intestinal barrier damage. It also significantly promoted the expression of the mucin Muc2. Furthermore, HP reduced the abundance of harmful bacteria Escherichia-Shigella and promoted the abundance of beneficial bacteria Muribaculaceae_unclassified, Anaerotruncus, and Ruminococcaceae_unclassified to regulate the intestinal flora disturbance caused by DSS. Nontargeted metabolomics revealed that HP intervention would modulate metabolism by promoting levels of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). These results demonstrated that HP had the ability to mitigate DSS-induced UC by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation, maintaining the intestinal barrier, and modulating the intestinal flora. These findings will expand our knowledge of how HP functions and offer a theoretical foundation for using HP as a potential prebiotic to prevent UC.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Dextrana , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estresse Oxidativo , Polissacarídeos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Masculino , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Células HT29 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(9)2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732974

RESUMO

Spectrally resolved interferometry utilizing a femtosecond laser is widely employed for absolute distance measurement. However, deviations in the output time pulse of the conventional algorithm through inverse Fourier transform are inevitable. Herein, an improved data processing algorithm employing a time-shifting parameter is proposed to improve the accuracy of spectrally resolved interferometry. The principle of the proposed time-shifting algorithm is analyzed theoretically after clarifying the deviation source of the conventional algorithm. Simulation and experimental work were conducted to indicate the improvement in the accuracy of the output absolute distance. The results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm could reduce the deviation of output distances towards the reference values, reaching 0.58 µm by half compared to the conventional algorithm. Furthermore, the measurement uncertainty was evaluated using the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), resulting in an expanded uncertainty of 0.71 µm with a 95% confidence.

20.
Res Sq ; 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38699356

RESUMO

The brain's white matter connections are thought to provide the structural basis for its functional connections between distant brain regions but how our brain selects the best structural routes for effective functional communications remains poorly understood. In this study, we propose a Unified Structural and Functional Connectivity (USFC) model and use an "economical assumption" to create the brain's first "traffic map" reflecting how frequently each structural connection segment of the brain is used to achieve the global functional communication system. The resulting USFC map highlights regions in the subcortical, default-mode, and salience networks as the most heavily traversed nodes and a midline frontal-caudate-thalamus-posterior cingulate-visual cortex corridor as the backbone of the whole brain connectivity system. Our results further revealed a striking negative association between structural and functional connectivity strengths in routes supporting negative functional connections as well as much higher efficiency metrics in the USFC connectome when compared to structural and functional ones alone. Overall, the proposed USFC model opens up a new window for effective brain connectome modeling and provides a considerable leap forward in brain mapping efforts for a better understanding of the brain's fundamental communication mechanisms.

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