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1.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(2): 134-143, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545689

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer address staging and risk assessment after a prostate cancer diagnosis and include management options for localized, regional, and metastatic disease. Recommendations for disease monitoring and treatment of recurrent disease are also included. The NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel meets annually to reevaluate and update their recommendations based on new clinical data and input from within NCCN Member Institutions and from external entities. This article summarizes the panel's discussions for the 2021 update of the guidelines with regard to systemic therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 257: 117623, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541650

RESUMO

Our study on six wheat genotypes has revealed strong interaction between gluten and starch to affect dough stability. To establish gluten-starch interaction and its roles in dough stability, we randomly selected 16 wheat genotypes and investigated the physicochemical properties of gluten and starch. The manner in which the starch granules occupied available space in gluten network was quantitatively analyzed using gluten lacunarity and proportion of different sized A-type and B-type starch granules. Positive correlations were found between the morphological attributes (B/A/Lacunarity, B/Lacunarity) and dough stability. The correlation coefficient between B/A/Lacunarity and dough stability was highest, followed by the percentage of unextractable polymeric protein (UPP%), B/Lacunarity and dough stability. Dough mixing properties were strongly affected by gluten-starch interactions, as indicated by novel parameters. Whereas the effect of gluten on its own did not provide any evidence to suggest its concrete role in dough mixing properties because of the various genetic backgrounds.

3.
Global Spine J ; : 2192568221991107, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525916

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: Although the role of surgery in the management of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) has been well established, elderly patients may still be denied surgery because of higher risk of complications and shorter life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether elderly patients with MSCC could benefit from surgery and discuss the criteria for surgical decision-making in such patients. METHODS: Enrolled in this study were 55 consecutive patients aged 75 years or older who were surgically treated for MSCC in our center. Prognostic factors predicting overall survival (OS) were explored by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. The quality of life (QoL) of the patients was evaluated by the SOSGOQ and compared using Student's t test. Risk factors for postoperative complications were identified by Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Surgical treatment for MSCC substantially improved the neurological function in 55.8% patients and QoL in 88.5% patients with acceptable rates of postoperative complications (16.4%), reoperation (9.1%), and 30-day mortality (1.8%). Postoperative ECOG-PS of 1-2, total en-bloc spondylectomy (TES), and postoperative chemotherapy were favorable prognostic factors for OS, while a high Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and a long operation time were risk factors for postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery should be encouraged for elderly patients with MSCC 1) who are compromised by the current or potential neurological dysfunction; 2) with radioresistant tumors; 3) with spinal instability; and 4) with no comorbidity, ECOG-PS of 0-2, and systemic treatment adherence. In addition, surgery should be performed by a skilled and experienced surgical team.

4.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596654

RESUMO

Safety issues associated with lithium-ion batteries are of major concern, especially with the ever-growing demand for higher-energy-density storage devices. Although flame retardants (FRs) added to electrolytes can reduce fire hazards, large amounts of FRs are required and they severely deteriorate battery performance. Here, we report a feasible method to balance flame retardancy and electrochemical performance by coating an electrolyte-insoluble FR on commercial battery separators. By integrating dual materials via a two-pronged mechanism, the quantity of FR required could be limited to an ultrathin coating layer (4 µm) that rarely influences electrochemical performance. The developed composite separator has a four-times better flame retardancy than conventional polyolefin separators in full pouch cells. Additionally, this separator can be fabricated easily on a large scale for industrial applications. High-energy-density batteries (2 Ah) were assembled to demonstrate the scaling of the composite separator and to confirm its enhanced safety through nail penetration tests.

5.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 46(1): 27-32, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect difference of electroacupuncture (EA) at the sensitized and non-sensitized acupoint "Tianshu" (ST25) on the motility of jejunum in rats. METHODS: Male SD rats were randomly divided into blank control, sensitized ST25 (sensitization), and non-sensitized ST25 (non-sensitization) groups (n=16 in each group). The sensitization and non-sensitization were induced by injection of 15% mustard oil (20 µL) and Paraffin oil (20 µL) into the left ST25 area respectively. The rats' behavior reactions were assessed by recording the numbers and duration of licking the local sensitized skin region. At the end of experiments and after regular trans-cardiac perfusion and fixing with 10% neutral formaldehyde, the skin and muscular tissues of the ST25 region (1 cm×1 cm) were taken for H.E. staining to observe the local histopathologic changes. The intestinal motility was detected by recording the contraction pressure waves of jejunum through a small balloon-connected pressure transducer and an amplifier, followed by calculating the ratios of amplitude and frequency of contraction waves between pre- and post-EA stimulation. EA (2 Hz, 0.2-6.0 mA) was applied to the sensitized and non-sensitized ST25 regions for 20 s for comparing their effects on jejunum motility. RESULTS: Compared with the blank control group, mustard oil injection but not Paraffin oil injection resulted in histological edema and neutrophils infiltration in tissues of ST25 region, and also striking increase of the number and duration of licking (P<0.01), suggesting a sensitization of ST25 area after mustard oil injection. The ratios of spontaneous contraction amplitude and frequency of jejunum were remarkably decreased in mustard oil-treated rats compared to baseline and Paraffin oil group (P<0.001,P<0.01). The maximum inhibitory effect of EA on the intestinal movement amplitude was significantly higher in the sensitization group than in the blank control and non-sensitization groups (P<0.05,P<0.01), and there was a dose-effect relationship between the current intensity of EA (0.5-3.0 mA) and the inhibitory rate 50% of the contraction amplitude (not the frequency) in the sensitization group (P<0.001), but not in the blank control and non-sensitization groups (P>0.05). Additionally, 1.5 mA EA stimulation at the sensitized ST25 (not at the non-sensitized ST25) had an inhibitory effect on the contraction amplitude (P<0.05) rather than on the contraction frequency (P>0.05) in comparison with the blank control group. CONCLUSION: Sensitization of acupoint ST25 can modulate the motility of jejunum and enhances the inhibitory effect of EA on the contraction amplitude of jejunum in rats. The inhibitory effect of sensitized ST25 EA is evidently stronger than that of the non-sensitized ST25 EA.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Eletroacupuntura , Animais , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Jejuno , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Cell Rep ; 34(6): 108684, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567273

RESUMO

The diversity of circulating human B cells is unknown. We use single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to examine the diversity of both antigen-specific and total B cells in healthy subjects and malaria-exposed individuals. This reveals two B cell lineages: a classical lineage of activated and resting memory B cells and an alternative lineage, which includes previously described atypical B cells. Although atypical B cells have previously been associated with disease states, the alternative lineage is common in healthy controls, as well as malaria-exposed individuals. We further track Plasmodium-specific B cells after malaria vaccination in naive volunteers. We find that alternative lineage cells are primed after the initial immunization and respond to booster doses. However, alternative lineage cells develop an atypical phenotype with repeated boosts. The data highlight that atypical cells are part of a wider alternative lineage of B cells that are a normal component of healthy immune responses.

7.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 40, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of antibiotic resistance has become one of the most urgent threats to global health, which is estimated to cause 700,000 deaths each year globally. Its surrogates, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), are highly transmittable between food, water, animal, and human to mitigate the efficacy of antibiotics. Accurately identifying ARGs is thus an indispensable step to understanding the ecology, and transmission of ARGs between environmental and human-associated reservoirs. Unfortunately, the previous computational methods for identifying ARGs are mostly based on sequence alignment, which cannot identify novel ARGs, and their applications are limited by currently incomplete knowledge about ARGs. RESULTS: Here, we propose an end-to-end Hierarchical Multi-task Deep learning framework for ARG annotation (HMD-ARG). Taking raw sequence encoding as input, HMD-ARG can identify, without querying against existing sequence databases, multiple ARG properties simultaneously, including if the input protein sequence is an ARG, and if so, what antibiotic family it is resistant to, what resistant mechanism the ARG takes, and if the ARG is an intrinsic one or acquired one. In addition, if the predicted antibiotic family is beta-lactamase, HMD-ARG further predicts the subclass of beta-lactamase that the ARG is resistant to. Comprehensive experiments, including cross-fold validation, third-party dataset validation in human gut microbiota, wet-experimental functional validation, and structural investigation of predicted conserved sites, demonstrate not only the superior performance of our method over the state-of-art methods, but also the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a hierarchical multi-task method, HMD-ARG, which is based on deep learning and can provide detailed annotations of ARGs from three important aspects: resistant antibiotic class, resistant mechanism, and gene mobility. We believe that HMD-ARG can serve as a powerful tool to identify antibiotic resistance genes and, therefore mitigate their global threat. Our method and the constructed database are available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/HMDARG/ . Video abstract (MP4 50984 kb).

8.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5091, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618435

RESUMO

High-throughputl ipidomics technology was used to explore the potential therapeutic targets and mechanism of gelanxinning capsule on rat model with coronary heart disease, which attempt to provide a novel method to interpret the molecule mechanism of traditional medicine. The lipid markers of coronary heart disease were determined in full-scan analysis based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-high-definition mass spectrometry. Then, the metabolic changes associated with gelanxinning capsule treatment via the modulation of lipid biomarkers and pathway in rats was characterized. After gelanxinning treatment, the metabolic profile tends to recover compared with the model group. A total of twenty-six potential biomarkers was identified to represent the disorders of lipid metabolism in coronary heart disease animal model, which nineteen of them were regulated by gelanxinning capsule administration, and fourmetabolic pathways includingglycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis and glycerolipid metabolism were involved. From the pathway analysis, it was found that glycerophospholipid metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism with significant differences have potential to be regarded as new targets for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Gelanxinning capsule protects against coronary heart diseasewith good therapeutic effect by regulating lipid biomarkers and pathway from lipidomics-guided biochemical analysis.

9.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 526: 111177, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582213

RESUMO

The adrenal cortex plays pivotal roles in the maintenance of blood volume, responsiveness to stress and the development of gender characteristics. Gender differences of human adrenal cortex have been recently reported and attracted increasing interests. Gender differences occur from the developing stage of the adrenal, in which female subjects had more activated stem cells with higher renewal capacity resulting in gender-associated divergent structures and functions of cortical zonations of human adrenal. Female subjects generally have the lower blood pressure with the lower renin levels and ACE activities than male subjects. In addition, HPA axis was more activated in female than male, which could possibly contribute to gender differences in coping with various stressful events in our life. Of particular interest, estrogens were reported to suppress RAAS but activate HPA axis, whereas androgens had opposite effects. In addition, adrenocortical disorders in general occur more frequently in female with more pronounced adrenocortical hormonal abnormalities possibly due to their more activated WNT and PRK signaling pathways with more abundant activated adrenocortical stem cells present in female adrenal glands. Therefore, it has become pivotal to clarify the gender influence on both clinical and biological features of adrenocortical disorders. We herein reviewed recent advances in these fields.

10.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(6): E364-E373, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620180

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 84 patients with spinal metastasis from prostate cancer (SMPCa) was performed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to predict the survival of patients with SMPCa by establishing an effective prognostic nomogram model, associating with the affecting factors and compare its efficacy with the existing scoring models. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most frequently malignant cancer causing death in men, and the spine is the most common site of bone metastatic burden. The aim of this study was to establish a prognostic nomogram for survival prediction of patients with SMPCa, explore associated factors, and compare the effectiveness of the new nomogram prediction model with the existing scoring systems. METHODS: Included in this study were 84 SMPCa patients who were admitted in our spinal tumor center between 2006 and 2018. Their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses to identify independent variables that enabled to predict prognosis. A nomogram, named Changzheng Nomogram for Survival Prediction (CNSP), was established on the basis of preoperative independent variables, and then subjected to bootstrap re-samples for internal validation. The predictive accuracy and discriminative ability were measured by concordance index (C-index). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with the corresponding area under the ROC was used to estimate the prediction efficacy of CNSP and compare it with the four existing prognostic models Tomita, Tokuhashi, Bauer, and Crnalic. RESULTS: A total of seven independent variables including Gleason score (P = 0.001), hormone refractory (P < 0.001), visceral metastasis (P < 0.001), lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (P = 0.009), prostate-specific antigen (P = 0.018), fPSA/tPSA (P = 0.029), Karnofsky Performance Status (P = 0.039) were identified after accurate analysis, and then entered the nomogram with the C-index of 0.87 (95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.90). The calibration curves for probability of 12-, 24-, and 36-month overall survival (OS) showed good consistency between the predictive risk and the actual risk. Compared with the previous prognostic models, the CNSP model was significantly more effective than the four existing prognostic models in predicting OS of the SMPCa patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The overall performance of the CNSP model was satisfactory and could be used to estimate the survival outcome of individual patients more precisely and thus help clinicians design more specific and individualized therapeutic regimens.Level of Evidence: 4.

11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 808, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547292

RESUMO

Sarcomatoid and rhabdoid (S/R) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are highly aggressive tumors with limited molecular and clinical characterization. Emerging evidence suggests immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are particularly effective for these tumors, although the biological basis for this property is largely unknown. Here, we evaluate multiple clinical trial and real-world cohorts of S/R RCC to characterize their molecular features, clinical outcomes, and immunologic characteristics. We find that S/R RCC tumors harbor distinctive molecular features that may account for their aggressive behavior, including BAP1 mutations, CDKN2A deletions, and increased expression of MYC transcriptional programs. We show that these tumors are highly responsive to ICI and that they exhibit an immune-inflamed phenotype characterized by immune activation, increased cytotoxic immune infiltration, upregulation of antigen presentation machinery genes, and PD-L1 expression. Our findings build on prior work and shed light on the molecular drivers of aggressivity and responsiveness to ICI of S/R RCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , /imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Tumor Rabdoide/imunologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Mutação , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tumor Rabdoide/tratamento farmacológico , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/mortalidade , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/imunologia , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/imunologia
12.
Int J Cardiol ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare genetic variants play a critical role in unprovoked pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the known risk genes only account a small proportion of patients with PE. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the rare variants of gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and the initiation and long-term clinical outcomes of PE. METHODS: The rare variants of MTHFR were detected by whole exome sequencing of DNA from 258 unprovoked PE cases and 11,451 controls. Correlation of genotype and clinical phenotype and outcome were evaluated at baseline and after follow-up. RESULTS: MTHFR rare variants were found in 15 of 258 cases (5.81%) and 241 of 11,451 controls (2.10%), conferring 2.87-fold greater odds of the PE occurrence (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.68-4.91, P = 5.6 × 10-5, chi-square test). The patients with MTHFR rare variants had higher plasma level of homocysteine than those without. During a follow-up of 3.0 years, a total of 84 events were identified. The recurrent PE (two or more events of PE) were significantly higher in patients carrying MTHFR rare variants (8/15, 53.3%) compared with those without (55/239, 23.0%) (P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: We speculate that MTHFR rare variants may increase the occurrence and recurrence of PE.

13.
Int J Pharm ; 597: 120374, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581272

RESUMO

Puerarin (PUE), a bioactive flavonoid from the plant Pueraria lobata, exists in two hydrated forms: monohydrate (PUEMH) and dihydrate (PUEDH). The aim of the present work was to explore the thermodynamic and kinetic mechanism of the polymorphic transformation of PUE, including the solvent-mediated polymorphic transformation (SMPT) of PUEMH to PUEDH and the solid-state polymorphic transformations (SSPTs) of PUEMH and PUEDH. PUEMH and PUEDH were identified as isolated and channel hydrate, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG < 0, ΔH < 0, and ΔS < 0) indicated that the SMPT was a spontaneous, exothermic and entropy-decreased reaction. The facilitating roles of stirring rate and temperature on the SMPT were favored by the primary and secondary nucleation process of PUEDH. In addition, the results of SSPTs suggested that PUEMH and PUEDH would transform to two different anhydrates (PUEAH-I and PUEAH-II) upon heating, respectively. The dehydration rate of PUEMH was slower than that of PUEDH due to the stronger hydrogen bond interactions. The rate-limiting step for the dehydration of PUEMH was the diffusion of water molecules, resulting in the increased dehydration activation during the dehydration process, while the dehydration activation energy of PUEDH showed opposite trend due to the complicated crystallization process of PUEAH-II.

14.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129891, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601208

RESUMO

Soil management and cultivar selection are two strategies to reduce the accumulation risk of heavy metals in crops. However, it is still an open question which of these two strategies is more efficient for the safe utilization of contaminated soil. In this study, the available bio-concentration factors (aBCF) of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) among 39 maize cultivars were determined through a field experiment. The effect of soil management was mimicked by choosing diverse sampling sites having different soil available contents of As and Cd. The aBCF of As and Cd in grain ranged from 0.02 to 0.13 and 1.17 to 42.2, respectively. The accumulation ability of As and Cd was classified among different maize cultivars. Soil pH and total As controlled the level of available As in soils, while soil pH dominated available Cd in soil. A soil pH of 6.5 was recommended to simultaneously minimize soil available As and Cd by managing soil conditions. The quantitative effects of cultivar and soil management on grain As and Cd were expressed as Q [Grain As] = 0.746Q [Cultivar]-0.126Q [pH]+0.276Q [Asavailable] (R2 = 0.648, P = 1.00 × 10-37) and Q [Grain Cd] = 0.913Q [Cultivar]-0.192Q [pH]+0.071Q [SOC] (R2 = 0.782, P = 1.00 × 10-37), respectively. Cultivar selection contributed stronger than soil management to decrease the As and Cd levels in maize grains. A feasible method to seek for a more efficient strategy was proposed for the safe utilization of contaminated soil.

15.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 27, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although thyroid function has been demonstrated to be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in different population, the prevalence and features of NAFLD in hyperthyroidism have not been reported. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and association of thyroid function and NAFLD in hyperthyroidism patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, China. A total 117 patients with hyperthyroidism were consecutively recruited from 2014 to 2015. Thyroid function and other clinical features were measured, liver fat content was measured by color Doppler ultrasonically, NAFLD was defined in patients with liver fat content more than 9.15%. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS software package version 13.0. RESULTS: The prevalence of NAFLD was 11.97% in hyperthyroidism. Patient with NAFLD had lower free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels than patients without NAFLD (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, gender, metabolic parameters and inflammation factors, higher FT3 were associated with lower liver fat content (ß = - 0.072, P = 0.009) and decreased odds ratio of NAFLD (OR = 0.267, 95%CI 0.087-0.817, P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: FT3 level was negatively associated with the liver fat content in this population. These results may provide new evidence in the role of thyroid hormone on the regulation of liver fat content and NAFLD.

16.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body composition has been shown closely related to the outcome in surgical patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether preoperative skeletal muscle condition and postoperative nutrition would affect major complications in patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS: This retrospective study included 265 patients underwent PD. Body composition data was extracted from the L3 level of the preoperative CT scan. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were performed to investigate correlations between body composition data and postoperative complications. Furthermore, a subgroup analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between postoperative nutrition strategy and the outcome. RESULTS: Of all the 265 patients, major complications occurred in 81 patients (30.6%). Cutoff values for skeletal muscle depletion were defined by ROC curve analysis from postoperative complications in skeletal muscle index (SMI) (male 47.32 cm2/m2 and female 40.65 cm2/m2). Univariable analysis and multivariable regression revealed age (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.83, p = 0.026), SMI (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.51-0.94, p = 0.015) and skeletal muscle density (SMD) (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.64-1.03, p = 0.029) were independent predictors for major complications. Subgroup analysis showed the initial parenteral nutrition time (IPNT) (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.43-2.49, p = 0.032) and average protein delivery (APD) (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.53-0.89, p = 0.021) were significantly associated with major complications in patients with lower SMI. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative skeletal muscle index and density were independently associated with major complications in patients underwent PD. In patients with lower SMI, early parenteral nutrition and higher protein delivery were related to better outcome.

17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 256: 117591, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483077

RESUMO

In this study, we report a novel, facile, and green method that was used for creating a new all-cellulose composite (ACC) based on inorganic molten salt solvent. Three representatively native fibers from softwood (Pinus kesiya), hardwood (Eucalyptus globulus), and agricultural straw (Zea mays) were selected to verify the effect of the method. The welded sheets were thoroughly characterized and compared. Cellulose sheets from the pine exhibited excellent mechanical properties (σb 16.94 MPa) and thermal stability (Tmax 265 °C) after the welding process, while the corn stalk sheets displayed more robust and thermostable features than the eucalyptus. The welding technique using inorganic metal salt hydrate provides a promising and convenient route to obtain firm sheet-materials with micro- or nano-structures from nature fibers.

18.
Food Funct ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496707

RESUMO

Urban particulate matter (UPM), an air pollutant-absorbing toxic substance, can access alveoli, leading to pulmonary diseases. Studies have shown that the water-soluble components of UPM (WS-UPM), containing main toxic substances, can induce oxidative damage in lung cells. In this study, the UPM particle size and composition were detected via instrumental analysis. The isoflavones (biochanin A (BCA), formononetin and daidzein) from chickpeas possess biological antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the oxidative damage induced by WS-UPM, and the protective role of isoflavones in human alveolar basal epithelial cells. The antioxidant activity of BCA, formononetin and daidzein was investigated through the total reduction capacity, diphenylpicrylhydrazine radical (DPPH), superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity detection. We also established cell models in vitro to further explore the BCA-protective mechanism. BCA presented a significant protection, and increased the levels of antioxidant makers including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). The effects were also reflected as the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, results obtained from RT-PCR and western blot techniques revealed that MEK5/ERK5 played an indispensable role in regulating the antioxidant effect of BCA, alleviating WS-UPM-induced lung injury. Furthermore, BCA mitigated WS-UPM-exposed damage through upregulating the Nrf2 signaling pathway to enhance the antioxidase expression downstream of Nrf2. In summary, our findings indicated that the WS-UPM-induced pulmonary disease was involved in oxidative stress and the MEK5/ERK5-Nrf2 signaling pathway, and BCA regulated the WS-UPM-induced lung damage via upregulation of the MEK5/ERK5-Nrf2 pathway.

19.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 31, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the most devastating stage of cancer progression and often shows a preference for specific organs. METHODS: To reveal the mechanisms underlying organ-specific metastasis, we systematically analyzed gene expression profiles for three common metastasis sites across all available primary origins. A rank-based method was used to detect differentially expressed genes between metastatic tumor tissues and corresponding control tissues. For each metastasis site, the common differentially expressed genes across all primary origins were identified as organ-specific metastasis genes. RESULTS: Pathways enriched by these genes reveal an interplay between the molecular characteristics of the cancer cells and those of the target organ. Specifically, the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway and HIF-1 signaling pathway were found to have prominent roles in adapting to the target organ environment in brain and liver metastases, respectively. Finally, the identified organ-specific metastasis genes and pathways were validated using a primary breast tumor dataset. Survival and cluster analysis showed that organ-specific metastasis genes and pathways tended to be expressed uniquely by a subgroup of patients having metastasis to the target organ, and were associated with the clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Elucidating the genes and pathways underlying organ-specific metastasis may help to identify drug targets and develop treatment strategies to benefit patients.

20.
Planta ; 253(1): 19, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394122

RESUMO

In flowering plants, pollen germination on the stigma and pollen tube growth in pistil tissues are critical for sexual plant reproduction, which are involved in the interactions between pollen/pollen tube and pistil tissues. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are located on the external surface of the plasma membrane and function in various processes of sexual plant reproduction. The evidences suggest that GPI-APs participate in endosome machinery, Ca2+ oscillations, the development of the transmitting tract, the maintenance of the integrity of pollen tube, the enhancement of interactions of the receptor-like kinase (RLK) and ligand, and guidance of the growth of pollen tube, and so on. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on the roles of GPI-APs in the interactions between pollen/pollen tube and pistil tissues during pollination, such as pollen germination on the stigma, pollen tube growth in the transmitting tract, pollen tube guidance to the ovule, and pollen tube reception in the embryo sac. We will also discuss the future outlook of GPI-APs in the interactions between pollen/pollen tube and pistil tissues.

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