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2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(20): e2400610121, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713623

RESUMO

Chromatin replication is intricately intertwined with the recycling of parental histones to the newly duplicated DNA strands for faithful genetic and epigenetic inheritance. The transfer of parental histones occurs through two distinct pathways: leading strand deposition, mediated by the DNA polymerase ε subunits Dpb3/Dpb4, and lagging strand deposition, facilitated by the MCM helicase subunit Mcm2. However, the mechanism of the facilitation of Mcm2 transferring parental histones to the lagging strand while moving along the leading strand remains unclear. Here, we show that the deletion of Pol32, a nonessential subunit of major lagging-strand DNA polymerase δ, results in a predominant transfer of parental histone H3-H4 to the leading strand during replication. Biochemical analyses further demonstrate that Pol32 can bind histone H3-H4 both in vivo and in vitro. The interaction of Pol32 with parental histone H3-H4 is disrupted through the mutation of the histone H3-H4 binding domain within Mcm2. Our findings identify the DNA polymerase δ subunit Pol32 as a critical histone chaperone downstream of Mcm2, mediating the transfer of parental histones to the lagging strand during DNA replication.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase III , Replicação do DNA , Histonas , Histonas/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase III/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase III/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Componente 2 do Complexo de Manutenção de Minicromossomo/metabolismo , Componente 2 do Complexo de Manutenção de Minicromossomo/genética , Ligação Proteica
3.
Food Chem ; 452: 139355, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733679

RESUMO

Differently colored foxtail millet (Setaria italica) cultivars were compared regarding their amylose, B-complex vitamin, vitamin E, and phenolic compositions, as well as the bioaccessibility of their phenolics in simulated in vitro digestion. Dark-colored foxtail millets contained more thiamine, pyridoxine, and tocopherols, but less riboflavin, than light-colored ones. Phenolics were more abundant in dark-colored cultivars. Insoluble bound fractions accounted for 75%-83% of the total phenolics, with ferulic acid detected as the most plentiful compound. The major bioaccessible phenolic was free ferulic acid, with 100%-120% bioaccessibility, depending on cultivar, followed by p-coumaric acid and isoferulic acid (50%-80%). These relatively high bioaccessibilities were likely due to the release of soluble conjugated or insoluble bound phenolics during digestion. However, the contents of other free phenolics were largely decreased following in vitro digestion, resulting in low bioaccessibility, which also means that the release from the conjugated and bound fractions was poor.

4.
Neoplasia ; 53: 101004, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733769

RESUMO

Thioredoxin reductases are frequently overexpressed in various solid tumors as a protective mechanism against heightened oxidative stress. Inhibitors of this system, such as Auranofin, are effective in eradicating cancer cells. However, the clinical significance of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) in lung cancer, as well as the potential for its antagonist as a treatment option, necessitated further experimental validation. In this study, we observed significant upregulation of TrxR1 specifically in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), rather than small cell lung cancer. Moreover, TrxR1 expression exhibited associations with survival rate, tumor volume, and histological classification. We developed a novel TrxR1 inhibitor named LW-216 and assessed its antitumor efficacy in NSCLC. Our results revealed that LW-216 is effectively bound with intracellular TrxR1 at sites R371 and G442, facilitating TrxR1 ubiquitination and suppressing TrxR1 expression, while not affecting TrxR2 expression. Treatment of LW-216-induced DNA damage and cell apoptosis in NSCLC cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, supplementation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or ectopic TrxR1 expression reversed LW-216-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, LW-216 displayed potent tumor growth inhibition in NSCLC cell-implanted mice, reducing TrxR1 expression in xenografts. Remarkably, LW-216 exhibited superior antitumor activity compared to Auranofin in vivo. Collectively, our research provides compelling evidence supporting the potential of targeting TrxR1 by LW-216 as a promising therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.

5.
FASEB J ; 38(10): e23668, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742811

RESUMO

Podocyte injury plays a critical role in the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understanding. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can disrupt gene expression by inducing translation inhibition and mRNA degradation, and recent evidence has shown that miRNAs may play a key role in many kidney diseases. In this study, we identified miR-4645-3p by global transcriptome expression profiling as one of the major downregulated miRNAs in high glucose-cultured podocytes. Moreover, whether DKD patients or STZ-induced diabetic mice, expression of miR-4645-3p was also significantly decreased in kidney. In the podocytes cultured by normal glucose, inhibition of miR-4645-3p expression promoted mitochondrial damage and podocyte apoptosis. In the podocytes cultured by high glucose (30 mM glucose), overexpression of miR-4645-3p significantly attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction and podocyte apoptosis induced by high glucose. Furthermore, we found that miR-4645-3p exerted protective roles by targeting Cdk5 inhibition. In vitro, miR-4645-3p obviously antagonized podocyte injury by inhibiting overexpression of Cdk5. In vivo of diabetic mice, podocyte injury, proteinuria, and impaired renal function were all effectively ameliorated by treatment with exogenous miR-4645-3p. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that miR-4645-3p can attenuate podocyte injury and mitochondrial dysfunction in DKD by targeting Cdk5. Sustaining the expression of miR-4645-3p in podocytes may be a novel strategy to treat DKD.


Assuntos
Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs , Mitocôndrias , Podócitos , Podócitos/metabolismo , Podócitos/patologia , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Masculino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinase 5 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Apoptose , Glucose
6.
Plant Physiol ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743633

RESUMO

The cultivated apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is a cross-pollinated perennial fruit tree of great economic importance. Previous versions of apple reference genomes were unphased, fragmented, and lacked comprehensive insights into the highly heterozygous genome, which impeded genetic studies and breeding programs in apple. In this study, we assembled a haplotype-resolved telomere-to-telomere reference genome for the diploid apple cultivar Golden Delicious. Subsequently, we constructed a pangenome based on twelve assemblies from wild and cultivated apples to investigate different types of resistance gene analogs (RGAs). Our results revealed the dynamics of the gene gain and loss events during apple domestication. Compared with cultivated species, more gene families in wild species were significantly enriched in oxidative phosphorylation, pentose metabolic process, responses to salt, and abscisic acid biosynthesis process. Interestingly, our analyses demonstrated a higher prevalence of RGAs in cultivated apples than their wild relatives, partially attributed to segmental and tandem duplication events in certain RGAs classes. Other types of structural variations, mainly deletions and insertions, have affected the presence and absence of TIR-NB-ARC-LRR (TNL), NB-ARC-LRR (NL), and CC-NB-ARC-LRR (CNL) genes. Additionally, hybridization/introgression from wild species has also contributed to the expansion of resistance genes in domesticated apples. Our haplotype-resolved T2T genome and pangenome provide important resources for genetic studies of apples, emphasizing the need to study the evolutionary mechanisms of resistance genes in apple breeding programs.

7.
ACS Infect Dis ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743862

RESUMO

Antibiotic abuse leads to increased bacterial resistance, and the surviving planktonic bacteria aggregate and secrete extracellular polymers to form biofilms. Conventional antibacterial agents find it difficult to penetrate the biofilm, remove the bacteria wrapped in it, and produce an excellent therapeutic effect. In this study, a dual pH- and NIR-responsive nanocomposite (A-Ca@PDA) was developed to remove drug-resistant bacteria through a cascade of catalytic nitric oxide (NO) release and photothermal clearance. NO can melt in the outer package of the biofilm, facilitating the nanocomposites to have better permeability. Thermal therapy further inhibits the growth of planktonic bacteria. The locally generated high temperature and the burst release of NO together aggravate the biofilm collapse and bacterial death after NIR irradiation. The nanocomposites achieved a remarkable photothermal conversion efficiency of 47.5%, thereby exhibiting significant advancements in energy conversion. The nanocomposites exhibited remarkable efficacy in inhibiting multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli and MDR Staphylococcus aureus, thus achieving an inhibition rate of >90%. Moreover, these nanocomposites significantly improved the wound-healing process in the MDR S. aureus-infected mice. Thus, this novel nanocomposite offers a novel strategy to combat drug-resistant bacterial infections.

8.
Pharm Res ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744732

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was designed to develop ibuprofen (IBU) sustained-release amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) using polymer composites matrix with drug release plateaus for stable release and to further reveal intrinsic links between polymer' matrix ratios and drug release behaviors. METHODS: Hydrophilic polymers and hydrophobic polymers were combined to form different composite matrices in developing IBU ASD formulations by hot melt extrusion technique. The intrinsic links between the mixed polymer matrix ratio and drug dissolution behaviors was deeply clarified from the dissolution curves of hydrophilic polymers and swelling curves of composite matrices, and intermolecular forces among the components in ASDs. RESULTS: IBU + ammonio methacrylate copolymer type B (RSPO) + poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP VA64) physical mixtures presented unstable release behaviors with large error bars due to inhomogeneities at the micrometer level. However, IBU-RSPO-PVP VA64 ASDs showed a "dissolution plateau phenomenon", i.e., release behaviors of IBU in ASDs were unaffected by polymer ratios when PVP VA64 content was 35% ~ 50%, which could reduce risks of variations in release behaviors due to fluctuations in prescriptions/processes. The release of IBU in ASDs was simultaneously regulated by the PVP VA64-mediated "dissolution" and RSPO-PVP VA64 assembly-mediated "swelling". Radial distribution function suggested that similar intermolecular forces between RSPO and PVP VA64 were key mechanisms for the "dissolution plateau phenomenon" in ASDs at 35% ~ 50% of PVP VA64. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided ideas for developing ASD sustained-release formulations with stable release plateau modulated by polymer combinations, taking full advantages of simple process/prescription, ease of scale-up and favorable release behavior of ASD formulations.

9.
J Neural Eng ; 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder in children. While numerous intelligent methods are applied for its subjective diagnosis, they seldom consider the consistency problem of ADHD biomarkers. In practice, these data-driven approaches lead to varying learned features for ADHD classification across diverse ADHD datasets. This phenomenon significantly undermines the reliability of identified biomarkers and hampers the interpretability of these methods. APPROACH: In this study, we propose a cross-dataset feature selection (FS) module using a grouped SVM-based recursive feature elimination approach (G-SVM-RFE) to enhance biomarker consistency across multiple datasets. Additionally, we employ connectome gradient data for ADHD classification. Specifically, we introduce the G-SVM-RFE method to effectively concentrate gradient components within a limited number of brain regions, thereby increasing the likelihood of identifying these regions as ADHD biomarkers. The cross-dataset FS module is integrated into an existing binary hypothesis testing (BHT) framework. This module utilizes external datasets to identify global regions that yield stable biomarkers, while the local dataset learns its own specific regions to further enhance the performance of ADHD classification. Main results. By employing this module, our experiments achieve an average accuracy of 96.7% on diverse datasets. Importantly, the discriminative gradient components primarily originate from the global regions, providing evidence for the significance of these regions. We further identify regions with the high appearance frequencies as biomarkers. All the used global regions and one local region are recognized, primarily belonging to the limbic system. Significance. These biomarkers align with existing research on impaired working memory and abnormal emotional reactivity in children with ADHD. Thus, our method demonstrates its validity by providing enhanced biological explanations derived from ADHD mechanisms.

10.
ACS Nano ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721835

RESUMO

For most frequent respiratory viruses, there is an urgent need for a universal influenza vaccine to provide cross-protection against intra- and heterosubtypes. We previously developed an Escherichia coli fusion protein expressed extracellular domain of matrix 2 (M2e) and nucleoprotein, named NM2e, and then combined it with an aluminum adjuvant, forming a universal vaccine. Although NM2e has demonstrated a protective effect against the influenza virus in mice to some extent, further improvement is still needed for the induction of immune responses ensuring adequate cross-protection against influenza. Herein, we fabricated a cationic solid lipid nanoadjuvant using poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and dimethyl-dioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB) and loaded NM2e to generate an NM2e@DDAB/PLA nanovaccine (Nv). In vitro experiments suggested that bone marrow-derived dendritic cells incubated with Nv exhibited ∼4-fold higher antigen (Ag) uptake than NM2e at 16 h along with efficient activation by NM2e@DDAB/PLA Nv. In vivo experiments revealed that Ag of the Nv group stayed in lymph nodes (LNs) for more than 14 days after initial immunization and DCs in LNs were evidently activated and matured. Furthermore, the Nv primed T and B cells for robust humoral and cellular immune responses after immunization. It also induced a ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 higher than that of NM2e to a considerable extent. Moreover, NM2e@DDAB/PLA Nv quickly restored body weight and improved survival of homo- and heterosubtype influenza challenged mice, and the cross-protection efficiency was over 90%. Collectively, our study demonstrated that NM2e@DDAB/PLA Nv could offer notable protection against homo- and heterosubtype influenza virus challenges, offering the potential for the development of a universal influenza vaccine.

11.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; : e2400169, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722044

RESUMO

In this contribution, we reported the transformation of polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD) from thermoset into vitrimer. First, two N-coordinated diboronic diols were successfully synthesized via the reaction of N,N,N-tri(2-hydroxyethyl)amine and/or N,N,N",N"-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diamine with 4-(hydroxymethyl) phenylboronic acid and then they were transformed into two N-coordinated cyclic boronic diacrylates. The latter two dienes carrying electron-withdrawing substituents were used for the ring opening insertion metathesis copolymerization (ROIMP) of dicyclopentadiene to afford the crosslinked PDCPD. In the crosslinked PDCPD networks, N-coordinated cyclic boronic bonds were integrated. It was found that the as-obtained PDCPD networks displayed the excellent reprocessing properties. In the meantime, the fracture toughness was significantly improved. Owing to the inclusion of N-coordinated cyclic boronic ester bonds, the modified PDCPDs had the thermal stability much superior to plain PDCPD. The results reported in this work demonstrated that PDCPD can successfully be transformed into the vitrimers via the introduction of N-coordinated cyclic boronic ester bonds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Anal Chem ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722256

RESUMO

Pressure and temperature, as common physical parameters, are important for monitoring human health. In contrast, single-mode monitoring is prone to causing experimental errors. Herein, we innovatively designed a dual-mode flexible sensing platform based on a platinum/zinc-meso-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (Pt/Zn-TCPP) nanozyme for the quantitative monitoring of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in biological fluids with pressure and temperature readouts. The Pt/Zn-TCPP nanozyme with catalytic and photothermal efficiencies was synthesized by means of integrating photosensitizers into porous materials. The flexible sensing system after the antigen-antibody reaction recognized the pressure using a flexible skin-like pressure sensor with a digital multimeter readout, whereas the temperature was acquired via the photoheat conversion system of the Pt/Zn-TCPP nanozyme under 808 nm near-infrared (NIR) irradiation using a portable NIR imaging camera on a smartphone. Meanwhile, the dual-mode flexible sensing system was carried out on a homemade three-dimensional (3D)-printed device. Results revealed that the developed dual-mode immunosensing platform could exhibit good pressure and temperature responses within the dynamic range of 0.5-100 ng mL-1 CEA with the detection limits of 0.24 and 0.13 ng mL-1, respectively. In addition, the pressure and temperature were sensed simultaneously without crosstalk interference. Importantly, the dual-mode flexible immunosensing system can effectively avoid false alarms during the measurement, thus providing great potential for simple and low-cost development for point-of-care testing.

13.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 45(5): 568-573, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early neurologic deterioration (END) often occurs during hospitalization in single small subcortical infarction (SSSI). The objective was to identify imaging predictors of END. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SSSIs in the lenticulostriate artery within 72 hours of stroke onset from January 2015 to June 2021 were consecutively enrolled. The posteriority and laterality indexes were assessed on the second section from the top of the corona radiata section showing the lateral ventricle on DWI. A multivariate logistic analysis was used to explore the predictors of END. RESULTS: A total of 402 patients were included in this study, among whom 93 (23.1%) experienced END. The optimal cutoff points of the posteriority and laterality indexes for predicting END were given by a receiver operating characteristic curve. A multivariate logistic analysis showed that the posteriority index of ≥0.669 (OR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.41-4.56; P = .002) and the laterality index of ≥0.950 (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.03-4.00; P = .042) were independently associated with the risk of END. Accordingly, the SSSIs were further divided into 4 types: anterior lateral type (AL-type), anterior medial type (AM-type), posterior lateral type (PL-type), and posterior medial type (PM-type). After the multivariate analysis, in comparison with the AL-type, the AM-type (OR: 3.26; 95% CI: 1.10-9.65), PL-type (OR: 4.68; 95% CI: 1.41-15.56), and PM-type (OR: 6.77; 95% CI: 2.53-18.04) carried significantly elevated risks of END. The PM-type was associated with the highest risk of END. CONCLUSIONS: The PM-type was found to be associated with the highest risk of END.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doença Cerebrovascular dos Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP) is an alternative to biventricular pacing (BVP) for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, despite the presence of left bundle branch block, whether cardiac substrate may influence the effect between the 2 strategies is unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the association of septal scar on reverse remodeling and clinical outcomes of LBBAP compared with BVP. METHODS: We analyzed patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy who had CRT indications undergoing preprocedure cardiac magnetic resonance examination. Changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and echocardiographic response (ER, ≥5% absolute LVEF increase) were assessed at 6 months. The clinical outcome was the composite of all-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization, or major ventricular arrhythmia. RESULTS: There were 147 patients included (51 LBBAP and 96 BVP). Among patients with low septal scar burden (below median 5.7%, range: 0 to 5.3%), LVEF improvement was higher in the LBBAP than the BVP group (17.5% ± 10.9% vs 12.3% ± 11.8%; P = 0.037), with more than 3-fold increased odds of ER (odds ratio: 4.35; P = 0.033). In high sepal scar subgroups (≥5.7%, range: 5.7% to 65.9%), BVP trended towards higher LVEF improvement (9.2% ± 9.4% vs 6.4% ± 12.4%; P = 0.085). Interaction between septal scar burden and pacing strategy was significant for ER (P = 0.002) and LVEF improvement (P = 0.011) after propensity score adjustment. During median follow-up of 33.7 (Q1-Q3: 19.8 to 42.1) months, the composite clinical outcome occurred in 34.7% (n = 51) of patients. The high-burden subgroups had worse clinical outcomes independent of CRT method. CONCLUSIONS: Remodeling response to LBBAP and BVP among nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients is modified by septal scar burden. High septal scar burden was associated with poor clinical prognosis independent of CRT methods.

15.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 206, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709307

RESUMO

The epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) process of alveolar epithelial cells is recognized as involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Recent evidence has shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced aerobic glycolysis of lung tissue and elevated lactate concentration are associated with the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated pulmonary fibrosis. However, it is uncertain whether LPS promotes the development of sepsis-associated pulmonary fibrosis by promoting lactate accumulation in lung tissue, thereby initiating EMT process. We hypothesized that monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1), as the main protein for lactate transport, may be crucial in the pathogenic process of sepsis-associated pulmonary fibrosis. We found that high concentrations of lactate induced EMT while moderate concentrations did not. Besides, we demonstrated that MCT1 inhibition enhanced EMT process in MLE-12 cells, while MCT1 upregulation could reverse lactate-induced EMT. LPS could promote EMT in MLE-12 cells through MCT1 inhibition and lactate accumulation, while this could be alleviated by upregulating the expression of MCT1. In addition, the overexpression of MCT1 prevented LPS-induced EMT and pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Altogether, this study revealed that LPS could inhibit the expression of MCT1 in mouse alveolar epithelial cells and cause lactate transport disorder, which leads to lactate accumulation, and ultimately promotes the process of EMT and lung fibrosis.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Ácido Láctico , Lipopolissacarídeos , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos , Fibrose Pulmonar , Simportadores , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Simportadores/metabolismo , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linhagem Celular , Masculino , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Cell Discov ; 10(1): 47, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704363

RESUMO

Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells that first respond to insults in circulation. Although associative evidence suggests that differences in neutrophils may be linked to the sex-specific vulnerability of inflammatory diseases, mechanistic links remain elusive. Here, we identified extensive sex-specific heterogeneity in neutrophil composition under normal and auto-inflammatory conditions at single-cell resolution. Using a combination of single-cell RNA sequencing analysis, neutrophil-specific genetic knockouts and transfer experiments, we discovered dysregulation of two unconventional (interferon-α responsive and T cell regulatory) neutrophil subsets leading to male-biased incidence, severity and poor prognosis of auto-inflammatory Behçet's uveitis. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) and exosome study revealed that male-specific negative effects of both genetic factors and circulating exosomes on unconventional neutrophil subsets contributed to male-specific vulnerability to disease. Collectively, our findings identify sex-specifically distinct neutrophil subsets and highlight unconventional neutrophil subsets as sex-specific therapeutic targets to limit inflammatory diseases.

17.
ACS Sens ; 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693685

RESUMO

Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) test protocols offer a viable solution for developing efficient individual health monitoring by converting light and chemical energy into electrical signals. However, slow reaction kinetics and electron-hole complexation at the interface limit their practical application. Here, we reported a triple-engineered CdS nanohierarchical structures (CdS NHs) modification scheme including morphology, defective states, and heterogeneous structure to achieve precise monitoring of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in plasma and noninvasive body fluids. By precisely manipulating the Cd-S precursor, we achieved precise control over ternary CdS NHs and obtained well-defined layered self-assembled CdS NHs through a surface carbon treatment. The integration of defect states and the thin carbon layer effectively established carrier directional transfer pathways, thereby enhancing interface reaction sites and improving the conversion efficiency. The CdS NHs microelectrode fabricated demonstrated a remarkable negative response toward DA, thereby enabling the development of a miniature self-powered PEC device for precise quantification in human saliva. Additionally, the utilization of density functional theory calculations elucidated the structural characteristics of DA and the defect state of CdS, thus establishing crucial theoretical groundwork for optimizing the polymerization process of DA. The present study offers a potential engineering approach for developing high energy conversion efficiency PEC semiconductors as well as proposing a novel concept for designing sensitive testing strategies.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 15: 1373119, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694801

RESUMO

An innovative inbuilt moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was created to protect fish from nitrogen in a household aquarium. During the 90 experimental days, the ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration in the aquarium with the inbuilt MBBR was always below 0.5 mg/L, which would not threaten the fish. Concurrently, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were always below 0.05 mg/L and 4.5 mg/L, respectively. However, the blank contrast aquarium accumulated 1.985 mg/L NH4+-N on the 16th day, which caused the fish to die. The suspended biofilms could achieve the specific NH4+-N removal rate of 45.43 g/m3/d. Biofilms presented sparsely with filamentous structures and showed certain degrees of roughness. The bacterial communities of the suspended biofilms and the sediment were statistically different (p < 0.05), reflected in denitrifying and nitrifying bacteria. In particular, the relative abundance of Nitrospira reached 1.4%, while the genus was barely found in sediments. The suspended biofilms showed potentials for nitrification function with the predicted sequence numbers of ammonia monooxygenase [1.14.99.39] and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase [EC:1.7.2.6] of 220 and 221, while the values of the sediment were only 5 and 1. This study created an efficient NH4+-N removal inbuilt MBBR for household aquariums and explored its mechanism to afford a basis for its utilization.

19.
iScience ; 27(5): 109712, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689643

RESUMO

There are concerns that artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms may create underdiagnosis bias by mislabeling patient individuals with certain attributes (e.g., female and young) as healthy. Addressing this bias is crucial given the urgent need for AI diagnostics facing rapidly spreading infectious diseases like COVID-19. We find the prevalent AI diagnostic models show an underdiagnosis rate among specific patient populations, and the underdiagnosis rate is higher in some intersectional specific patient populations (for example, females aged 20-40 years). Additionally, we find training AI models on heterogeneous datasets (positive and negative samples from different datasets) may lead to poor model generalization. The model's classification performance varies significantly across test sets, with the accuracy of the better performance being over 40% higher than that of the poor performance. In conclusion, we developed an AI bias analysis pipeline to help researchers recognize and address biases that impact medical equality and ethics.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38738578

RESUMO

A collaborative manipulation strategy of proper heat treatment and self-customized hydrofluoroether-based electrolyte design has been proposed for boosting the sodium-ion storage kinetics of Prussian white cathodes. Improved monoclinic phase stability and electrolyte-cathode compatibility are responsible for an impressive discharge capacity of 148.4 mA h g-1 and excellent electrode reversibility.

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