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1.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips20230028, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369884

RESUMO

Previous evaluations of interventions for borderline personality disorder have focused on psychotherapies. This study (N=42 patients), conducted in Liverpool, United Kingdom, reviewed the effect on out-of-area treatments (OATs) and hospital admissions of establishing a local case management team and a combined day treatment and crisis service for patients who are too dysregulated to access typical office-based psychotherapy. Data from 12, 24, and 36 months postintervention were compared with baseline data. All patients in OATs were repatriated to the local community. No new patients were sent to OATs. Admissions decreased (at 12 months, 49%; 24 months, 64%; 36 months, 74%), achieving savings in hospitalization costs. Moderate increases in the use and costs of some other services were observed.

2.
Child Abuse Negl ; 149: 106661, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38295605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ED literature has focused on the physical forms of childhood abuse with respect to eating disorders, overlooking non-physical abuse even though eating disorder patients report the latter either as primary experiences or as a revival of their childhood experiences. Additionally, there is no literature exploring whether adult eating disorder patients who have experienced childhood non-physical abuse continue to experience abuse as adults, and if they do, how well-being is impacted or linked with eating pathology. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the lived experiences of eating disorders patients who have experienced non-physical childhood abuse in childhood and adulthood. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: Six adult female eating disorder outpatients each took part in a semi-structured interview. METHODS: This study used the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis framework. RESULTS: Three master themes and eleven superordinate themes were drawn from the analysis, addressing the research question: continuation of non-physical abuse across a lifetime, developmental factors and non-physical abuse, and non-physical abuse and eating pathology. CONCLUSIONS: The participants' accounts indicate that childhood non-physical abuse is related to eating disorder onset, and abuse continuation in adulthood contributes to the disorder's maintenance. Moreover, the lifelong consequences of non-physical childhood abuse impact psychological factors, such as self-esteem, attachment and emotion regulation, affecting the individuals' adult lives and keeping participants inside a vicious cycle of trauma re-enactment. Low self-esteem is considered by the participants as the key factor for their disturbed relationship with food.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Autoimagem , Transtornos da Personalidade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
3.
Syst Rev ; 12(1): 194, 2023 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37833785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing and maintaining relationships and ways of connecting and being with others is an important component of health and wellbeing. Harnessing the relational within caring, supportive, educational, or carceral settings as a systems response has been referred to as relational practice. Practitioners, people with lived experience, academics and policy makers, do not yet share a well-defined common understanding of relational practice. Consequently, there is potential for interdisciplinary and interagency miscommunication, as well as the risk of policy and practice being increasingly disconnected. Comprehensive reviews are needed to support the development of a coherent shared understanding of relational practice. METHOD: This study uses a scoping review design providing a scope and synthesis of extant literature relating to relational practice focussing on organisational and systemic practice. The review aimed to map how relational practice is used, defined and understood across health, criminal justice, education and social work, noting any impacts and benefits reported. Searches were conducted on 8 bibliographic databases on 27 October 2021. English language articles were included that involve/discuss practice and/or intervention/s that prioritise interpersonal relationships in service provision, in both external (organisational contexts) and internal (how this is received by workers and service users) aspects. RESULTS: A total of 8010 relevant articles were identified, of which 158 met the eligibility criteria and were included in the synthesis. Most were opinion-based or theoretical argument papers (n = 61, 38.60%), with 6 (3.80%) critical or narrative reviews. A further 27 (17.09%) were categorised as case studies, focussing on explaining relational practice being used in an organisation or a specific intervention and its components, rather than conducting an evaluation or examination of the effectiveness of the service, with only 11 including any empirical data. Of the included empirical studies, 45 were qualitative, 6 were quantitative, and 9 mixed methods studies. There were differences in the use of terminology and definitions of relational practice within and across sectors. CONCLUSION: Although there may be implicit knowledge of what relational practice is the research field lacks coherent and comprehensive models. Despite definitional ambiguities, a number of benefits are attributed to relational practices. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021295958.


Assuntos
Direito Penal , Apoio Social , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Atitude
4.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 31(1): 121-134, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Family dysfunction and self-esteem play an important role in the development of eating disorders (EDs), but this role has not been sufficiently examined regarding eating pathology and psychosocial quality of life (QoL), which often remains unchanged even after ED symptoms reduce. The purpose of this study was to therefore assess the mediating role of self-esteem between family dysfunction and both eating pathology and psychosocial QoL in ED patients and controls. METHOD: One hundred and fifty four female adult ED patients and 154 female healthy adult controls were recruited from Athens, Greece, and self-reported measures were used to assess family dysfunction, eating pathology, self-esteem, and psychosocial QoL. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to test the mediation hypotheses. RESULTS: For both the ED and control groups, family dysfunction levels did impact eating pathology, but only through self-esteem. Family dysfunction, self-esteem, and eating pathology had a direct effect on both groups' psychosocial QoL. CONCLUSION: Self-esteem's important role in EDs was confirmed in both groups, along with its sensitivity to family dysfunction. We propose a parsimonious yet comprehensive theoretical model of the role of family dysfunction and self-esteem in EDs which future studies should further investigate longitudinally and in other population groups.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Grécia
5.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 23: e61, 2022 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The deployment of (Trainee) Associate Psychological Practitioners (T/APPs) to deliver brief psychological interventions focusing on preventing mental health deterioration and promoting emotional wellbeing in General Practice settings is a novel development in the North West of England. As the need and demand for psychological practitioners increases, new workforce supply routes are required to meet this growth. AIMS: To evaluate the clinical impact and efficacy of the mental health prevention and promotion service, provided by the T/APPs and the acceptability of the role from the perspective of the workforce and the role to T/APPs, patients and services. METHODS: A mixed-methods design was used. To evaluate clinical outcomes, patients completed measures of wellbeing (WEMWBS), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7) and resilience (BRS) at the first session, final session and at a 4-6 week follow-up. Paired-samples t-tests were conducted comparing scores from session 1 and session 4, and session 1 and follow-up for each of the four outcome measures. To evaluate acceptability, questionnaires were sent to General Practice staff, T/APPs and patients to gather qualitative and quantitative feedback on their views of the T/APP role. Quantitative responses were collated and summarised. Qualitative responses were analysed using inductive summative content analysis to identify themes. RESULTS: T-test analysis revealed clinically and statistically significant reductions in depression and anxiety and elevations in wellbeing and resiliency between session 1 and session 4, and at follow-up. Moderate-large effect sizes were recorded. Acceptability of the T/APP role was established across General Practice staff, T/APPs and patients. Content analysis revealed two main themes: positive feedback and constructive feedback. Positive sub-themes included accessibility of support, type of support, patient benefit and primary care network benefit. Constructive sub-themes included integration of the role and limitations to the support. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of T/APPs into General Practice settings to deliver brief mental health prevention and promotion interventions is both clinically effective and acceptable to patients, General Practice staff and psychology graduates.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Saúde Mental , Inglaterra , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Acta Diabetol ; 59(12): 1575-1587, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038781

RESUMO

AIMS: Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) can lead to emotional distress and cognitive impairments, often caused by psychological factors such as low mood or anxiety; yet, few studies have explored the theoretical mechanisms underlying these relationships and within one study. This study explored the relationships between psychological states (anxiety/worry, fatigue) and diabetes outcomes (diabetes distress, cognitive dysfunction), and whether resilience mediated the association between these in T1DM and T2DM. METHODS: A sample of 307 UK adults with a clinical diagnosis of diabetes (T1DM = 129; T2DM = 178) completed a cross-sectional online survey, composed of six questionnaires. Associations between variables were investigated using Pearson's correlations and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). RESULTS: Psychological states were significantly correlated with diabetes outcomes, and resilience was significantly related to both psychological states and diabetes outcomes. The SEM model achieved an acceptable model fit with a significant mediating effect of resilience between psychological states (anxiety/worry, fatigue) and diabetes outcomes (diabetes distress, cognitive dysfunction), with no significant differences between diabetes type. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a new theoretical model of T1DM and T2DM that could be used to provide guidance for those designing interventions. These findings help to understand the complex nature of diabetes management, suggesting resilience could be a key factor in managing psychological states and diabetes outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Modelos Teóricos , Fadiga
7.
Crisis ; 43(1): 35-45, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475010

RESUMO

Background: Understanding and effectively managing self-harm and suicide require collaborative research between stakeholders focused on shared priorities. Aims: We aimed to develop a consensus about suicide and self-harm research priorities in the North West of England using the Delphi method. Method: Items for the Delphi survey were generated through group discussions at a workshop with 88 stakeholders and subsequent thematic analysis of key themes. A total of 44 participants who were experts-by-experience, researchers, and clinicians based within health services including third-sector organizations completed the Delphi survey. Results: A three-round survey reached consensus on 55 research priority items identifying key priorities in each of the following groups: offenders, children and young people, self-harm in community settings, and crisis care in the community. Limitations: The pool of delegates at the workshop and subsequent self-selection into the Delphi may have introduced bias into the study. Conclusion: The current paper highlights specific actionable priorities were identified in four areas that can be used to inform research efforts and future policy and practice, based on shared areas of perceived importance and concern. Future work is needed to confirm the significance of these priority areas, including the use of evidence synthesis approaches to ascertain the extent to which these priorities have already been investigated and where gaps in understanding remain.


Assuntos
Prevenção ao Suicídio , Adolescente , Criança , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Clin Psychol ; 78(2): 105-121, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand therapists' lived experiences of delivering mentalisation-based therapy (MBT), including their experiences of service user change. METHOD: One-to-one semi-structured interviews or focus groups were conducted with 14 MBT therapists and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). RESULTS: Four superordinate themes were identified: (1) experiencing the challenges and complexities of being with service users during MBT; (2) being on a journey of discovery and change; (3) being an MBT therapist: a new way of working and developing a new therapeutic identity; and (4) being a therapist in the group: seeing it all come together. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the complexity, challenges and individualised experience of working therapeutically with service users with a diagnosis of BPD. The study provides a perspective of service use change that is enriched by idiosyncrasies within the therapeutic encounter. We conclude with a consideration of implications for MBT research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Terapia Baseada em Meditação , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Front Psychol ; 12: 688472, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349705

RESUMO

Background: Research has identified functions of non-suicidal self-harm/self-injury (NSSH) but whether functions change over time, from adolescence to early adulthood, or predict the continuation of the behavior prospectively remains unclear. This study aimed to prospectively explore whether intrapersonal and interpersonal NSSH functions in adolescence predict repetition of self-harm (regardless of suicidal intent) and incident suicide attempts in early adulthood. Methods: Participants were 528 individuals with NSSH at age 16 years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based birth cohort in the UK. Descriptive statistics were used to explore changes in functions over time from age 16 to 21, and logistic regression used to examine associations between NSSH functions and repeat self-harm and suicide attempts at age 21, 24, and 25 years. Findings: The majority of 16-year-olds with NSSH endorsed intrapersonal (e.g., affect regulatory) functions only (73% at 16 years and 64% at 21 years). Just under half of adolescents (42%) and three quarters of 21 years olds reported more than one function simultaneously. A greater number of intrapersonal functions at 16 years independently predicted future repetition of self-harm at ages 21-25 years, over and above interpersonal functions (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.06-2.01). Interpersonal functions during adolescence did not predict repeat self-harm or suicide attempts in adulthood. Discussion: Our findings suggest that intrapersonal but not interpersonal NSSH functions are a prospective risk factor for future self-harm and might also predict incident suicide attempts. The results highlight the central role of underlying affective difficulties and motivations in self-harm maintenance.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 603-609, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-cutting in young people is associated with high risk of repetition and suicide. It is important, therefore, to identify characteristics of self-cutting that might impact on repetition and aspects of care by staff. This study aimed to explore differences in clinical (e.g., previous self-harm) and psychological characteristics (intent, mental state, precipitants) of self-cutting in young people based on whether site of cut was visible or concealed. METHODS: Data were from a large prospective self-harm monitoring database that collected data on hospital emergency department presentations for self-harm in the City of Manchester, UK, between 2005 and 2011. Clinical and psychological characteristics, as well as onward referral/clinical management from the emergency department, of 799 young people (totalling 1,196 episodes) age 15-24 who self-cut in visible or concealed areas were compared using logistic regression. RESULTS: During the study period 500 (40%) episodes were in a concealed location. Concealed self-cutting was more likely to be precipitated by specific self-reported precipitants such as abuse and characterised by the following: previous self-harm, current psychiatric treatment, premeditation, and greater risk of repetition within the study period. Receiving a psychosocial assessment and referral to psychiatric services from the emergency department were less likely, however. Repetition and referral to psychiatric treatment were not significantly associated with site of injury when adjusting for other factors. CONCLUSIONS: There are meaningful differences in characteristics associated with location of cut. We recommend that all young people who present to hospital following self-harm receive a psychosocial assessment, in line with NICE guidance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychol Psychother ; 93(3): 572-586, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies of lived experiences are important for improving treatment effectiveness, but most studies of mentalization-based therapy (MBT) are quantitative. This qualitative study aimed to better understand service users' lived experiences of MBT, including their experiences of change. DESIGN: This is a qualitative study that used one-to-one semi-structured interviews. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight MBT service users recruited via four NHS trusts. Interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). FINDINGS: Three superordinate themes were identified: being borderline, being in the group, and being on a journey. 'Experiences of diagnosis' and 'the group' are salient topics in the lived experiences of service users' during the MBT journey, as is the nature/type of 'change' that can create symptom reduction albeit alongside a negative felt experience. CONCLUSION: Our research aligns with current thought regarding the complexity and challenges of treating BPD via psychotherapy and adds a further dimension, that of experiencing MBT and changes during therapy. The participants' experiences of BPD and of experiencing MBT are discussed. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Therapists are observant of how each client gives meaning to their experience of diagnosis, the group, and change, particularly since the experience of recovery is not all positive. Service users' emerging and ongoing construction of their experience of diagnosis is closely monitored and additional appropriate strategies implemented where necessary. The impact of joining MBT, especially the group, becomes a process for formal regular review. Therapists undertake an in-depth exploration of service users' felt experiences to capture less quantifiable dimensions of change.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Mentalização , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27529025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emotion dysregulation is a core feature associated with borderline personality features (BPF). Little research has explored how individuals with high levels of BPF regulate their emotions. This study aimed to explore how individuals with high versus low levels of BPF compare on the strategies they use to regulate emotions and in their experiences of emotion regulation. METHODS: Twenty-nine university students were recruited and assessed for the presence of BPF using self-report questionnaires. Each participant took part in a semi-structured interview about their experiences of emotion regulation. All interview transcripts then underwent thematic analysis. In addition chi square analyses were conducted to explore the association between level of BPF (High vs Low) and each qualitative theme identified. RESULTS: Findings indicated similarities in the types of emotion regulation strategies used by the high and low-BPF groups. However, the groups differed in their experiences and thought processes surrounding emotion regulation. High-BPF participants were found to describe a need to communicate negative emotions with others and demonstrated difficulty maintaining attention on positive experiences. In addition there was a trend towards High-BPF participants demonstrating less forward-planning in emotion regulation. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into some of the unique aspects of emotion regulation in individuals with high BPF that may make emotion regulation attempts less successful.

14.
Arch Suicide Res ; 20(4): 614-34, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26953689

RESUMO

The presented study aimed to advance understanding of the reasons for non-suicidal self-harm (NSSH) in adult male offenders, with and without borderline personality traits. 179 offenders completed self-report measures of NSSH and other clinical constructs, with 42 being identified as having self-harmed. Results were consistent with past research and supported the relative importance of intrapersonal over interpersonal functions, but also highlight that self-harm is performed rarely for one type of reason. The results also show that the presence of borderline personality traits increases the likelihood of endorsing a range of interpersonal reasons. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the range of reasons for engaging in NSSH to help manage the behaviour within the prison.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Criminosos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Controle Comportamental/métodos , Controle Comportamental/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Isolamento Social/psicologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26445691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness of genetic testing in a real-world setting and to assess its impact on clinician treatment decisions. METHOD: This was a naturalistic, unblinded, prospective analysis of psychiatric patients and clinicians who utilized a commercially available genetic test (between April and October of 2013), which incorporates 10 genes related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of psychiatric medications. Each patient's genetic results were provided to participating clinicians, who completed a baseline survey including patient medications, history, and severity of illness. Clinicians were prompted to complete surveys within 1 week of receiving the genetic results and again 3 months later. Patients likewise completed assessments of depression, anxiety, medication side effects, and quality of life at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. RESULTS: Data from 685 patients were collected. Approximately 70% and 29% of patients had primary diagnoses of either a mood or anxiety disorder, respectively. Clinician-reported data, as measured by the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale, indicated that 87% of patients showed clinically measurable improvement (rated as very much improved, much improved, or minimally improved), with 62% demonstrating clinically significant improvement. When analysis was restricted to the 69% of individuals with ≥ 2 prior treatment failures, 91% showed clinically measurable improvement. Patients also reported significant decreases in depression (P < .001), anxiety (P < .001), and medication side effects (P < .001) and increases in quality of life (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a substantial proportion of individuals receiving pharmacogenetic testing showed clinically significant improvements on multiple measures of symptoms, adverse effects, and quality of life over 3 months. In the absence of a treatment-as-usual comparator, the proportion of improvement attributable to the test cannot be estimated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01507155.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26137347

RESUMO

This report describes the cases of 2 young adult men with depressive symptoms who experienced severe and disruptive motor disturbances while taking serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Both patients had a long history of medication failures and complex presentations. Genetic testing was utilized to guide effective treatment plans and to provide insight into previous medication failures. Most notably, testing in these patients revealed variations in the serotonin transporter protein and cytochrome P450 2D6 and 2C19 enzymes. These cases demonstrate the utility of genetic testing in clinical practice to help identify effective treatment plans in psychiatric patients.

17.
Aggress Behav ; 41(2): 109-22, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27539933

RESUMO

In the current prospective study, we investigated (1) whether high and low BMI in early childhood puts a child at risk of victimization by their peers, and (2) whether being victimized increases BMI over the short- and long-term, independent of the effect of BMI on victimization. We also examined whether gender moderated these prospective associations. Participants were 1,344 children who were assessed yearly from ages 3 to 10 years as part of the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD). BMI predicted annual increases in victimization for girls aged 6 years and over; for boys aged 7 and 8 years of age, higher BMI reduced victimization over the school year. Further, victimization predicted annual increases in BMI for girls after age 6 years. When these short-term effects were held constant, victimization was also shown to have a three and 5-year influence on annual BMI changes for girls from age 3 years. These short- and long-term cross-lagged effects were evident when the effects of family adversity were controlled. The findings support those from previous prospective research showing a link between higher BMI and victimization, but only for girls. Further, being victimized increased the likelihood that girls would put on weight over time, which then increased future victimization. The implications of these prospective findings for interventions are considered. Aggr. Behav. 42:109-122, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Dev Cell ; 31(2): 145-58, 2014 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25373775

RESUMO

The Piwi/Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway protects the germline from the activity of foreign sequences such as transposons. Remarkably, tens of thousands of piRNAs arise from a minimal number of discrete genomic regions. The extent to which clustering of these small RNA genes contributes to their coordinated expression remains unclear. We show that C. elegans SNPC-4, the Myb-like DNA-binding subunit of the small nuclear RNA activating protein complex, binds piRNA clusters in a germline-specific manner and is required for global piRNA expression. SNPC-4 localization is mutually dependent with localization of piRNA biogenesis factor PRDE-1. SNPC-4 exhibits an atypical widely distributed binding pattern that "coats" piRNA domains. Discrete peaks within the domains occur frequently at RNA-polymerase-III-occupied transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, which have been implicated in chromatin organization. We suggest that SNPC-4 binding establishes a positive expression environment across piRNA domains, providing an explanation for the conserved clustering of individually transcribed piRNA genes.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , RNA Polimerase III/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
Am J Manag Care ; 20(5): e146-56, 2014 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25326929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pharmacogenetic testing as a means of guiding treatment decisions is beginning to see wider clinical use in psychiatry. The utility of this genetic information as it pertains to clinical decision making, treatment effectiveness, cost savings, and patient perception has not been fully characterized. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, we examined health claims data in order to assess medication adherence rates and healthcare costs for psychiatric patients. METHODS: Individuals for whom pharmacogenetic testing was ordered (cases) were contrasted with those who did not undergo such testing (controls). Cases and controls were propensity score matched in order to minimize risk of confounding in this nonrandomized study. An initial analysis of 111 cases and 222 controls examined both adherence and healthcare costs. A replication study of 116 cases and 232 controls examined adherence alone, as cost data was not available for this latter cohort. RESULTS: Overall, individuals with assay-guided treatment were significantly more medication adherent (P = 1.56 3 10­3; Cohen's d = 0.511) than patients with standard treatment and demonstrated a relative cost savings of 9.5% in outpatient costs over a 4-month follow-up period, or $562 in total savings. CONCLUSIONS: The data show the utility of pharmacogenetic testing in everyday psychiatric clinical practice, as it can lead to improved patient adherence and decreased healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacogenética , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Redução de Custos/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacogenética/economia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Nature ; 512(7515): 453-6, 2014 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25164757

RESUMO

Despite the large evolutionary distances between metazoan species, they can show remarkable commonalities in their biology, and this has helped to establish fly and worm as model organisms for human biology. Although studies of individual elements and factors have explored similarities in gene regulation, a large-scale comparative analysis of basic principles of transcriptional regulatory features is lacking. Here we map the genome-wide binding locations of 165 human, 93 worm and 52 fly transcription regulatory factors, generating a total of 1,019 data sets from diverse cell types, developmental stages, or conditions in the three species, of which 498 (48.9%) are presented here for the first time. We find that structural properties of regulatory networks are remarkably conserved and that orthologous regulatory factor families recognize similar binding motifs in vivo and show some similar co-associations. Our results suggest that gene-regulatory properties previously observed for individual factors are general principles of metazoan regulation that are remarkably well-preserved despite extensive functional divergence of individual network connections. The comparative maps of regulatory circuitry provided here will drive an improved understanding of the regulatory underpinnings of model organism biology and how these relate to human biology, development and disease.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Sequência Conservada/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Genoma/genética , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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