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1.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 50(10): 995-9, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25462666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheal follicular pattern or so-called tracheal cobblestoning is a poorly described entity in the literature and is depicted as a nodular or lumpy appearance of the tracheal wall mucosa suggesting tracheal irritation from factors like gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD) or pulmonary infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of tracheal cobblestones in a large pediatric population. METHODS: A large database of rigid tracheoscopies recorded in children (0-6 years of age) undergoing general anesthesia with planned tracheal intubation for elective surgical procedures was retrospectively analyzed. Tracheoscopy records were reviewed by five pediatric airway experts (authors 3-7). Data were compared using the Mann-Whitney test, chi-square or Fisher exact test as appropriate (P < 0.05). RESULTS: A total of 971 rigid tracheoscopy records were analyzed. The median age of the patients was 3.3 years (range 0.4-6.0 yrs). Cobblestones were present in 377 out of 971 patients (38.8%) with a male to female prevalence of 254 (40.6%)/123 (35.5%). None of the children under four months of age showed the presence of cobblestones. The prevalence of cobblestones was significantly less in patients under 3 years of age compared to over 3 years (P < 0.01). There was no association between prevalence of cobblestones and GERD, current or recent respiratory infection or concomitant enlarged tonsils. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of tracheal cobblestones in otherwise healthy children is high and is not associated with GERD or respiratory infection. The gender and age related differences are novel interesting findings that require further investigations.


Assuntos
Traqueia/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 21(1): 26-31, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24419183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tracheal bronchus (TB) is defined as an abnormal bronchus that originates directly from the lateral wall of the trachea above the carina and goes towards the upper lobe territory of the lung. We analyzed rigid endoscopies of the trachea in children to determine the incidence and characteristics of TB. METHODS: In total, 1021 rigid endoscopies of the trachea recorded from children aged 0 to 6 years were analyzed. Endoscopic examination was performed from supraglottic region to carina using a 0-degree Hopkins rod-lens telescope. Patients with a TB were identified and the site of origin of the TB and its level above the carina was noted. Data of the identified patients was reviewed for the presence of preoperative airway findings such as stridor, upper lobe pneumonia and wheezing or atelectasis, other congenital anomalies, and intraoperative complications. RESULTS: TB was detected in 11 (1.06%) of 1021 upper airway endoscopic examinations. All originated from the right lateral wall of the trachea. Six children had retained secretions in the TB, and 3 children had perioperative airway problems unrelated to the TB. One child showed right main stem bronchus narrowing as seen at the true carina, in the presence of a TB. All the children with TB exhibited at least 1 additional congenital anomaly at birth besides TB. CONCLUSIONS: TB is a relatively common congenital endoscopic lower airway anomaly in childhood, which is itself rarely symptomatic, but almost always coexists with other congenital anomalies.


Assuntos
Brônquios/anormalidades , Traqueia/anormalidades , Broncoscopia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência
3.
J Pediatr Surg ; 48(7): 1470-5, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23895956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate changes of pediatric tracheotomy practice over time. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all tracheotomies at the University Children's Hospital Zurich from January 1990 to December 2009 was performed. Data analyzed included the indication for tracheotomy, patient comorbidities, age, duration of cannulation, and complications. The second part of the study consisted of comparing our results with data from an earlier study done at the same institution by Simma et al. (Eur J Pediatr 1994;153:291-296) reviewing the patients with tracheotomies treated from 1979 to 1989. RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2009, 119 patients were included. The indication for tracheotomy was airway obstruction in 70% and prolonged ventilation in 30%. 70% of the patients were operated on before 1 year of age. Serious postoperative complications occurred in 25 patients (23%). There was one death related to tracheotomy. Successful decannulation was achieved in 60%, on average 28 months after tracheotomy. The decannulation rate in patients with airway obstruction was 74% compared to 52% for the patients in prolonged ventilation group; a statistically significant difference was observed (p < 0.05). The longitudinal analysis showed an increase of indications for prolonged ventilation and a trend toward decreased tracheotomy complications. CONCLUSION: Over 30 years, a shift in the indications of pediatric tracheotomy, with an increasing number of procedures performed for prolonged ventilation, was found. The tracheotomy-related mortality was under 1%. Tracheotomy remains a valid and safe option for pediatric patients. Level of evidence 2c.


Assuntos
Traqueotomia , Cateterismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Traqueotomia/efeitos adversos , Traqueotomia/métodos , Traqueotomia/mortalidade
4.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 23(8): 734-40, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23763293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classic rapid sequence induction puts pediatric patients at risk of cardiorespiratory deterioration and traumatic intubation due to their reduced apnea tolerance and related shortened intubation time. A 'controlled' rapid sequence induction and intubation technique (cRSII) with gentle facemask ventilation prior to intubation may be a safer and more appropriate approach in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the benefits and complications of cRSII in a large cohort. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis of all patients undergoing cRSII according to a standardized institutional protocol between 2007 and 2011 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. By means of an electronic patient data management system, vital sign data were reviewed for cardiorespiratory parameters, intubation conditions, general adverse respiratory events, and general anesthesia parameters. RESULTS: A total of 1001 patients with cRSII were analyzed. Moderate hypoxemia (SpO2 80-89%) during cRSII occurred in 0.5% (n = 5) and severe hypoxemia (SpO2 <80%) in 0.3% of patients (n = 3). None of these patients developed bradycardia or hypotension. Overall, one single gastric regurgitation was observed (0.1%), but no pulmonary aspiration could be detected. Intubation was documented as 'difficult' in two patients with expected (0.2%) and in three patients with unexpected difficult intubation (0.3%). The further course of anesthesia as well as respiratory conditions after extubation did not reveal evidence of 'silent aspiration' during cRSII. CONCLUSION: Controlled RSII with gentle facemask ventilation prior to intubation supports stable cardiorespiratory conditions for securing the airway in children with an expected or suspected full stomach. Pulmonary aspiration does not seem to be significantly increased.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Inalação/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Adolescente , Anestesia por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/etiologia , Masculino , Respiração Artificial , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/epidemiologia , Aspiração Respiratória de Conteúdos Gástricos/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 23(2): 103-10, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23289772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airway alterations found after endotracheal intubation are usually associated with mechanical trauma from the tube. However, no studies are available concerning alterations in airways that have never been intubated before. It was the aim of the study to compare endoscopic findings in the larynx and trachea of children who had undergone prior endotracheal intubation with findings in children who had not been intubated before. METHODS: In 1021 children aged from 0 to 6 years, rigid endoscopies were performed before planned elective endotracheal intubation. The anonymized endoscopy videos were reviewed and graded by five international airway experts. Data was compared between the two groups using the chi-square test (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: Endoscopic records of 971 children (473 with prior intubation; 498 without prior airway intubation) were included in the final calculations. Most patients (93.7%) with prior intubation had been intubated with a cuffed tube. The number of intubations ranged from 1 to 27. The median interval between intubation and endoscopy was 0.53 years (0.003-5.57 years). Abnormal findings were observed in 31.7% and 26.8% of patients with and without prior intubation, respectively (P = 0.063). Glottic granulomas were significantly more common after intubation (3.6% vs 1.4%; P = 0.028). The incidence of other abnormal findings was similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic airway alterations can be observed in about one-quarter of children presenting for routine surgery without prior intubation. Except for glottic granulomas, the abnormalities are found with similar frequency in patients with and without prior intubation. No relevant airway damage from short-term endotracheal intubation was found.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Laringe/lesões , Traqueia/lesões , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Endoscopia , Feminino , Glote/patologia , Granuloma/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laringoscopia , Laringe/patologia , Masculino , Traqueia/patologia , Gravação em Vídeo
6.
Patient ; 5(4): 225-37, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23098363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In health technology assessment, the evidence obtained from clinical trials regarding multiple clinical outcomes is used to support reimbursement claims. At present, the relevance of these outcome measures for patients is, however, not systematically assessed, and judgments on their relevance may differ among patients and healthcare professionals. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a technique for multi-criteria decision analysis that can be used for preference elicitation. In the present study, we explored the value of using the AHP to prioritize the relevance of outcome measures for major depression by patients, psychiatrists and psychotherapists, and to elicit preferences for alternative healthcare interventions regarding this weighted set of outcome measures. METHODS: Supported by the pairwise comparison technique of the AHP, a patient group and an expert group of psychiatrists and psychotherapists discussed and estimated the priorities of the clinical outcome measures of antidepressant treatment. These outcome measures included remission of depression, response to drug treatment, no relapse, (serious) adverse events, social function, no anxiety, no pain, and cognitive function. Clinical evidence on the outcomes of three antidepressants regarding these outcome measures was derived from a previous benefit assessment by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG; Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen). RESULTS: The most important outcome measures according to the patients were, in order of decreasing importance: response to drug treatment, cognitive function, social function, no anxiety, remission, and no relapse. The patients and the experts showed some remarkable differences regarding the relative importance of response (weight patients = 0.37; weight experts = 0.05) and remission (weight patients = 0.09; weight experts = 0.40); however, both experts and patients agreed upon the list of the six most important measures, with experts only adding one additional outcome measure. CONCLUSIONS: The AHP can easily be used to elicit patient preferences and the study has demonstrated differences between patients and experts. The AHP is useful for policy makers in combining multiple clinical outcomes of healthcare interventions grounded in randomized controlled trials in an overall health economic evaluation. This may be particularly relevant in cases where different outcome measures lead to conflicting results about the best alternative to reimburse. Alternatively, AHP may also support researchers in selecting (primary) outcome measures with the highest relevance.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Cognição , Alemanha , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Psiquiatria , Psicoterapia , Indução de Remissão
7.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 23(6): 597-604, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22624978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The German Infant Nutritional Intervention (GINI) trial, a prospective, randomized, double-blind intervention, enrolled children with a hereditary risk for atopy. When fed with certain hydrolyzed formulas for the first 4 months of life, the risk was reduced by 26-45% in PP and 8-29% in intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses compared with children fed with regular cow's milk at age 6. The objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of feeding hydrolyzed formulas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cost-effectiveness was assessed with a decision tree model programmed in TreeAge. Costs and effects over a 6-yr period were analyzed from the perspective of the German statutory health insurance (SHI) and a societal perspective at a 3% effective discount rate followed by sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The extensively hydrolyzed casein formula would be the most cost-saving strategy with savings of 478 € per child treated in the ITT analysis (CI95%: 12 €; 852 €) and 979 € in the PP analysis (95%CI: 355 €; 1455 €) from a societal perspective. If prevented cases are considered, the partially whey hydrolyzed formula is cost-saving (ITT -5404 €, PP -6358 €). From an SHI perspective, the partially whey hydrolyzed formula is cost-effective, but may also be cost-saving depending on the scenario. An extensively hydrolyzed whey formula also included into the analysis was dominated in all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: For the prevention of AE, two formulas can be cost-effective or even cost-saving. We recommend that SHI should reimburse formula feeding or at least the difference between costs for cow's milk formula and the most cost-effective formula.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/prevenção & controle , Fórmulas Infantis/economia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/economia , Absenteísmo , Animais , Caseínas/economia , Caseínas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/dietoterapia , Dermatite Atópica/economia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Leite/efeitos adversos , Proteínas do Leite/economia , Proteínas do Leite/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Hidrolisados de Proteína/uso terapêutico , Risco , Proteínas do Soro do Leite
8.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 30(7): 537-49, 2012 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22612993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The monoclonal antibody rituximab has shown clinical effectiveness in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in several randomized controlled studies. Rituximab maintenance therapy is associated with significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival in patients with NHL. However, treatment with rituximab causes considerable costs for healthcare systems. OBJECTIVE: This article provides an overview of economic evaluations of rituximab and appraises their methodological quality. METHODS: A systematic literature search of cost-effectiveness studies on rituximab was carried out in nine electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), the German Agency of Health Technology Assessment (DAHTA) database, German Institute for Quality Improvement (DIQ)-Literatur, DIQ-Projekte, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology Assessments (HTA) database and Sozialmedizin (SOMED) [languages: English, German, Dutch, French, Spanish and Italian; publication period: 1998 to 2010]. Based on pre-specified inclusion criteria, cost-effectiveness studies were identified that compared standard chemotherapy with standard chemotherapy plus rituximab in patients with a subtype of NHL. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a quality checklist. RESULTS: Fourteen economic evaluations from seven different countries were included in the review. All economic evaluations reported incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for the add-on therapy with rituximab that were below the country-specific thresholds. The studies differed significantly in their characteristics and methodological rigour. Most studies lacked transparency regarding identification and justification of data. In several studies, the rationale for the model structure was not described appropriately. CONCLUSION: Adding rituximab to standard chemotherapy is considered a cost-effective treatment option for NHL. However, the results of the analyses should be interpreted with caution due to methodological limitations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/economia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Rituximab , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22504618

RESUMO

In the last 5 years the use of cuffed tracheal tubes in infants and children has become popular worldwide and is accepted by major medical authorities. The advantages of cuffed tracheal tubes in smaller children - in particular the almost 100% chance to insert the right sized tracheal tube at the first attempt and their reliable sealing characteristics within the trachea - makes tracheal intubation and ventilation considerable easier and safer. This certainly compensates for the higher cost of cuffed compared to uncuffed tracheal tubes. The fear that cuffed tracheal tubes cause increased laryngeal damage in small children could not be confirmed, if adequately designed, cuffed tracheal tubes are correctly used. Conditions for the safe use of cuffed tubes in children are the availability of an adequately designed cuffed tube with a proofed recommendation for tube size selection and cuff pressure monitoring. The following rules must be fulfiled when cuffed tubes in children using are: confirmation of an air leak < 20 cmH2O inspiratory pressure with the cuff not inflated, cuff pressure limitation at 20 cmH2O and the avoidance of negative cuff pressures, resulting in sharp, cutting edges of the cuff membrane within the trachea.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Pediatria/instrumentação , Pediatria/métodos , Criança , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Traqueia/lesões
10.
Ther Umsch ; 69(2): 91-2, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22334198

RESUMO

The dehydration, a physiological disturbance due to fluid depletion of the organism, is a common condition in the elderly and most common in the agonal state if not corrected with medical means. Alas, there is little evidence and a paucity of literature as well if one looks for firm data. Do we generally influence the course and duration of the dying process by hydrating or withholding fluids respectively and in what respect? We don't know. Where there is lack of evidence, ideology blossoms. To shed light on this issue an expert panel of members of palliative.ch convened in the Bigorio Monastery in 2009 with the intention to study existing data in order to formulate a concise guideline. Its title: "Hydration in the Palliative Care Setting: Consensus for Best Practice for Palliative Care in Switzerland". This document is available on the website of palliative.ch as a PDF file (go to Fachportal - Standards - best practice). Far beyond the realms of pure fluid physiology the process of decision making with regard to hydration therapy touches core issues of ethics and systemic communication as well. It poses substantial challenges to care teams as illustrated by a case presented in this article.


Assuntos
Desidratação/terapia , Hidratação/normas , Assistência Terminal/normas , Consenso , Comportamento Cooperativo , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Participação do Paciente , Suíça
11.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 27(4): 369-75, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22004779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient involvement is widely acknowledged to be a valuable component in health technology assessment (HTA) and healthcare decision making. However, quantitative approaches to ascertain patients' preferences for treatment endpoints are not yet established. The objective of this study is to introduce the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a preference elicitation method in HTA. Based on a systematic literature review on the use of AHP in health care in 2009, the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) initiated an AHP study related to its HTA work in 2010. METHODS: The AHP study included two AHP workshops, one with twelve patients and one with seven healthcare professionals. In these workshops, both patients and professionals rated their preferences with respect to the importance of different endpoints of antidepressant treatment by a pairwise comparison of individual endpoints. These comparisons were performed and evaluated by the AHP method and relative weights were generated for each endpoint. RESULTS: The AHP study indicates that AHP is a well-structured technique whose cognitive demands were well handled by patients and professionals. The two groups rated some of the included endpoints of antidepressant treatment differently. For both groups, however, the same six of the eleven endpoints analyzed accounted for more than 80 percent of the total weight. CONCLUSIONS: AHP can be used in HTA to give a quantitative dimension to patients' preferences for treatment endpoints. Preference elicitation could provide important information at various stages of HTA and challenge opinions on the importance of endpoints.


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente/métodos , Preferência do Paciente , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Alemanha , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 18(1): 38-44, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21134975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize patterns of electronic medical record (EMR) use at pediatric primary care acute visits. DESIGN: Direct observational study of 529 acute visits with 27 experienced pediatric clinician users. MEASUREMENTS: For each 20 s interval and at each stage of the visit according to the Davis Observation Code, we recorded whether the physician was communicating with the family only, using the computer while communicating, or using the computer without communication. Regression models assessed the impact of clinician, patient and visit characteristics on overall visit length, time spent interacting with families, and time spent using the computer while interacting. RESULTS: The mean overall visit length was 11:30 (min:sec) with 9:06 spent in the exam room. Clinicians used the EMR during 27% of exam room time and at all stages of the visit (interacting, chatting, and building rapport; history taking; formulation of the diagnosis and treatment plan; and discussing prevention) except the physical exam. Communication with the family accompanied 70% of EMR use. In regression models, computer documentation outside the exam room was associated with visits that were 11% longer (p=0.001), and female clinicians spent more time using the computer while communicating (p=0.003). LIMITATIONS: The 12 study practices shared one EMR. CONCLUSIONS: Among pediatric clinicians with EMR experience, conversation accompanies most EMR use. Our results suggest that efforts to improve EMR usability and clinician EMR training should focus on use in the context of doctor-patient communication. Further study of the impact of documentation inside versus outside the exam room on productivity is warranted.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação em Atendimento Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatria , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistemas Multi-Institucionais , Visita a Consultório Médico , Relações Médico-Paciente , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 30(3): 255-6, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20948457

RESUMO

An electronic survey assessing primary care pediatricians' estimations and practices regarding parents' vaccination refusal was sent to 395 members of the European Academy of Pediatrics Research in Ambulatory Setting network, with a response rate of 87%. Of respondents who vaccinate in the clinic, 93% estimated the total vaccine refusal rate as <1%. Of all respondents, 69% prefer a shared decision-making approach to handle refusing parents.


Assuntos
Médicos de Atenção Primária , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 29(12): 2197-205, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21134920

RESUMO

This paper reports the results of a large-scale analysis of a nationwide disease management program in Germany for patients with diabetes mellitus. The German program differs markedly from "classic" disease management in the United States. Although it combines important hallmarks of vendor-based disease management and the Chronic Care Model, the German program is based in primary care practices and carried out by physicians, and it draws on their personal relationships with patients to promote adherence to treatment goals and self-management. After four years of follow-up, overall mortality for patients and drug and hospital costs were all significantly lower for patients who participated in the program compared to other insured patients with similar health profiles who were not in the program. These results suggest that the German disease management program is a successful strategy for improving chronic illness care.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Doença Crônica/economia , Controle de Custos , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
16.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 26(4): 441-9, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20923585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive health technology assessments (HTAs) include thorough reflections on ethical issues associated with health technologies, their use, and value-based decisions in the assessment process. As methods of information retrieval for effectiveness assessments are not applicable to information retrieval on ethical issues, a specific methodological approach is necessary. OBJECTIVES: In the absence of existing adapted methods, our objective was to develop a methodological approach for the systematic retrieval of information on ethical issues related to health technologies. METHOD AND RESULTS: A literature search was conducted to verify the non-existence of published comprehensive methodological approaches for the information retrieval on ethical issues for HTAs, and resulted in no hits. We, therefore, developed a step-by-step workflow following the workflow of information retrieval for effectiveness assessments: Step 1: Translation of the search question using the PICO scheme and additional components. Step 2: Concept building by modeling and linking search components. Step 3: Identification of synonyms in all relevant languages. Step 4: Selection of relevant information sources. Step 5: Design of search strategies for bibliographic databases. Step 6: Execution of search strategies and information seeking, including hand-searching. Step 7: Saving of retrieval results and standardized reporting of the process and results. Step 8: Final quality check and calculation of precision and recall. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic searching for information on ethical issues related to health technologies can be performed following the common retrieval workflow for effectiveness assessments, but should be performed separately applying adapted procedures and search terms on ethical issues relevant to the research question.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/ética , Internet
18.
Opt Express ; 18 Suppl 2: A133-8, 2010 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20588581

RESUMO

A directionally selective multilayer filter is applied to a hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell to improve the light trapping. The filter prevents non-absorbed long-wavelength photons from leaving the cell under oblique angles leading to an enhancement of the total optical path length for weakly absorbed light within the device by a factor of kappa(r) = 3.5. Parasitic absorption in the contact layers limits the effective path length improvement for the photovoltaic quantum efficiency to a factor of kappa(EQE) = 1.5. The total short-circuit current density increases by DeltaJ(sc) = 0.2 mAcm(-2) due to the directional selectivity of the Bragg-like filter.

19.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 20(7): 620-4, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20456061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia (SA) is widely used for awake regional anesthesia in ex-preterm infants scheduled for herniotomy. Awake caudal anesthesia (CA) is suggested as an alternative approach for these patients and type of surgery. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy and complications of the two different techniques. METHODS: Two historical populations of 575 ex-preterm infants undergoing herniotomy under awake SA (n = 339; 1998-2001) and under awake CA (n = 236; 2001-2009) were investigated. Data are compared using t-test and chi-square tests (P < 0.05). RESULTS: The SA group consisted of 339 patients, they were born after 32.0 (3.3) weeks of gestation on average with a mean birth weight of 1691 g (725). The CA group consisted of 236 patients born after 32.1 weeks (3.7) with a mean birth weight of 1617 g (726). At the time of operation, the total age was 41.37 (3.6) and 41.28 (4.0), respectively, for SA and CA patients, and the corresponding weights were 3326 (1083) g and 3267 (931) g for SA and CA patients, respectively. For SA, significantly more puncture attempts were needed (1.83 vs 1.44, P < 0.001). Surgery was performed under pure regional anesthesia in 85% (SA) and 90.1% (CA) (ns). A change to general anesthesia was necessary in 7.7% (SA) and 3.9% (CA) (ns). Overall, intra- and postoperative complications were not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS: Caudal anesthesia was shown to be technically less difficult than SA and to have a higher success rate. Its application as awake regional anesthesia technique in these patients seems more appropriate than SA.


Assuntos
Anestesia Caudal/métodos , Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Hérnia Abdominal/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cardiol Young ; 20(2): 178-85, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20199708

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Parents of children with congenital cardiac disease suffer from psychological stress and financial burdens. These costs have not yet been quantified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In cooperation with paediatricians, social workers, and parents, a questionnaire was devised to calculate direct non-medical and indirect costs. Direct non-medical costs include all costs not directly related to medical services such as transportation. Indirect costs include lost productivity measured in lost income from wages. Parents were retrospectively queried on costs and refunds incurred during the child's first and sixth year of life. The questionnaire was sent out to 198 families with children born between 1980 and 2000. Costs were adjusted for inflation to the year 2006. Children were stratified into five groups according to the severity of their current health status. RESULTS: Fifty-four families responded and could be included into the analysis (27.7%). Depending on severity, total direct non-medical and indirect costs in the first year of life ranged between an average of euro1654 in children with no or mild (remaining) cardiac defects and an average euro2881 in children with clinically significant (residual/remaining) findings. Mean expenses in the sixth year of life were as low as euro562 (no or mild (remaining) cardiac defects) and as high as euro5213 (potentially life-threatening findings). At both points in time, the highest costs were lost income and transportation; and day care/ babysitting for siblings was third. DISCUSSION: Families of children with congenital cardiac disease and major sequelae face direct non-medical and indirect costs adding up to euro3000 per year on average. We should consider compensating families from low socioeconomic backgrounds to minimise under-use of non-medical services of assistance for their children.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Família , Cardiopatias Congênitas/economia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Meios de Transporte
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