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1.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 13(6)2023 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37002915

RESUMO

Poa pratensis, commonly known as Kentucky bluegrass, is a popular cool-season grass species used as turf in lawns and recreation areas globally. Despite its substantial economic value, a reference genome had not previously been assembled due to the genome's relatively large size and biological complexity that includes apomixis, polyploidy, and interspecific hybridization. We report here a fortuitous de novo assembly and annotation of a P. pratensis genome. Instead of sequencing the genome of a C4 grass, we accidentally sampled and sequenced tissue from a weedy P. pratensis whose stolon was intertwined with that of the C4 grass. The draft assembly consists of 6.09 Gbp with an N50 scaffold length of 65.1 Mbp, and a total of 118 scaffolds, generated using PacBio long reads and Bionano optical map technology. We annotated 256K gene models and found 58% of the genome to be composed of transposable elements. To demonstrate the applicability of the reference genome, we evaluated population structure and estimated genetic diversity in P. pratensis collected from three North American prairies, two in Manitoba, Canada and one in Colorado, USA. Our results support previous studies that found high genetic diversity and population structure within the species. The reference genome and annotation will be an important resource for turfgrass breeding and study of bluegrasses.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Poa , Genoma , Poa/genética , Plantas Daninhas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
2.
PhytoKeys ; 217: 1-135, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36760228

RESUMO

The Arctic ecozone is undergoing a rapid transformation in response to climate change. Establishing a baseline of current Arctic biodiversity is necessary to be able to track changes in species diversity and distribution over time. Here, we report a vascular plant floristic study of Katannilik Territorial Park, Kimmirut and vicinity within Circumpolar Arctic Bioclimate Subzone D on southern Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. We compiled a dataset of 1596 collections gathered in the study area throughout the last century, including 838 we made in 2012. The vascular flora comprises 35 families, 98 genera, 211 species, two nothospecies and seven infraspecific taxa. We newly recorded 51 taxa in 22 families in the study area: Erigeroneriocephalus, Taraxacumholmenianum (Asteraceae), Drabaarctica, D.fladnizensis, D.lactea (Brassicaceae), Campanularotundifolia (Campanulaceae), Arenarialongipedunculata, Honckenyapeploidessubsp.diffusa, Sabulinarossii, Sileneuralensissubsp.uralensis, Viscariaalpina (Caryophyllaceae), Carexbrunnescenssubsp.brunnescens, C.krausei, C.microglochin, C.subspathacea, C.williamsii, Eriophorumscheuchzerisubsp.arcticum (Cyperaceae), Andromedapolifolia, Orthiliasecundasubsp.obtusata (Ericaceae), Oxytropispodocarpa (Fabaceae), Luzulagroenlandica (Juncaceae), Triglochinpalustris (Juncaginaceae), Utriculariaochroleuca (Lentibulariaceae), Huperziacontinentalis (Lycopodiaceae), Montiafontana (Montiaceae), Corallorhizatrifida, Platantheraobtusatasubsp.obtusata (Orchidaceae), Hippurislanceolata, H.vulgaris, Plantagomaritima (Plantaginaceae), Calamagrostisneglectasubsp.groenlandica, C.purpurascens, Festucaproliferavar.lasiolepis, F.rubrasubsp.rubra, F.rubrasubsp.arctica, Hordeumjubatumsubsp.jubatum, Leymusmollissubsp.mollis, L.mollissubsp.villosissimus, Puccinelliavaginata (Poaceae), Primulaegaliksensis (Primulaceae), Cryptogrammastelleri (Pteridaceae), Coptidium×spitsbergense (Ranunculaceae), Potentillacrantzii, P.hyparcticasubsp.hyparctica, Rubuschamaemorus, Sibbaldiaprocumbens (Rosaceae), Salixfuscescens (Salicaceae), Micranthesfoliolosa, M.nivalis, M.tenuis (Saxifragaceae) and Woodsiaalpina (Woodsiaceae). We recorded 196 taxa in Katannilik Territorial Park (191 species, three infraspecific taxa and two nothospecies); 145 of these taxa are first records for the park. We recorded 170 taxa in Kimmirut and vicinity (166 species, three infraspecific taxa and one nothospecies) in Kimmirut and vicinity; 15 of these taxa are first records for Kimmirut and vicinity. All study area species are native, except two grasses that grew in Kimmirut: F.rubrasubsp.rubra, which may have been seeded and Hordeumjubatumsubsp.jubatum, of unknown origin. We summarize the distribution on Baffin Island for each taxon recorded in the study area, including several unpublished southern Baffin Island records.

3.
PhytoKeys ; 169: 119-135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354142

RESUMO

Monadelpha L.J.Gillespie & Card.-McTeag., gen. nov., is described as a new member of Euphorbiaceae tribe Plukenetieae subtribe Tragiinae, to accommodate Tragia guayanensis, a species known from western Amazonas, Venezuela and, newly reported here, from Amazonas, Brazil. The genus is unique in the subtribe for having 5-colpate pollen and staminate flowers with filaments entirely connate into an elongate, cylindrical staminal column terminated by a tight cluster of anthers. Phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear rDNA ITS and sampling 156 accessions across the diversity of Tragiinae (all 12 genera and 77 of ~195 species) also support Monadelpha as a distinct lineage that is separate from Tragia. A revised key to the genera of Tragiinae in South America and Central America is provided.

4.
PhytoKeys ; 141: 1-330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201471

RESUMO

Victoria Island in Canada's western Arctic is the eighth largest island in the world and the second largest in Canada. Here, we report the results of a floristic study of vascular plant diversity of Victoria Island. The study is based on a specimen-based dataset comprising 7031 unique collections from the island, including some 2870 new collections gathered between 2008 and 2019 by the authors and nearly 1000 specimens variously gathered by N. Polunin (in 1947), M. Oldenburg (1940s-1950s) and S. Edlund (1980s) that, until recently, were part of the unprocessed backlog of the National Herbarium of Canada and unavailable to researchers. Results are presented in an annotated checklist, including keys and distribution maps for all taxa, citation of specimens, comments on taxonomy, distribution and the history of documentation of taxa across the island, and photographs for a subset of taxa. The vascular plant flora of Victoria Island comprises 38 families, 108 genera, 272 species, and 17 additional taxa. Of the 289 taxa known on the island, 237 are recorded from the Northwest Territories portion of the island and 277 from the Nunavut part. Thirty-nine taxa are known on the island from a single collection, seven from two collections and three from three collections. Twenty-one taxa in eight families are newly recorded for the flora of Victoria Island: Artemisia tilesii, Senecio lugens, Taraxacum scopulorum (Asteraceae); Crucihimalaya bursifolia, Draba fladnizensis, D. juvenilis, D. pilosa, D. simmonsii (Brassicaceae); Carex bigelowii subsp. bigelowii, Eriophorum russeolum subsp. albidum (Cyperaceae); Anthoxanthum monticola subsp. monticola, Bromus pumpellianus, Deschampsia cespitosa subsp. cespitosa, D. sukatschewii, Festuca rubra subsp. rubra, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis subsp. pratensis (Poaceae); Stuckenia filiformis (Potamogetonaceae); Potentilla × prostrata (Rosaceae); Galium aparine (Rubiaceae); and Salix ovalifolia var. ovalifolia (Salicaceae). Eight of these are new to the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Senecio lugens, Draba juvenilis, D. pilosa, Anthoxanthum monticola subsp. monticola, Bromus pumpellianus, Deschampsia cespitosa subsp. cespitosa, Poa pratensis subsp. pratensis and Salix ovalifolia var. ovalifolia. One of these, Galium aparine, is newly recorded for the flora of Nunavut. Four first records for Victoria Island are introduced plants discovered in Cambridge Bay in 2017: three grasses (Festuca rubra subsp. rubra, Lolium perenne, and Poa pratensis subsp. pratensis) and Galium aparine. One taxon, Juncus arcticus subsp. arcticus, is newly recorded from the Northwest Territories. Of the general areas on Victoria Island that have been botanically explored the most, the greatest diversity of vascular plants is recorded in Ulukhaktok (194 taxa) and the next most diverse area is Cambridge Bay (183 taxa). The floristic data presented here represent a new baseline on which continued exploration of the vascular flora of Victoria Island - particularly the numerous areas of the island that remain unexplored or poorly explored botanically - will build.

5.
Ambio ; 49(3): 693-703, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792797

RESUMO

We present a comprehensive list of non-native vascular plants known from the Arctic, explore their geographic distribution, analyze the extent of naturalization and invasion among 23 subregions of the Arctic, and examine pathways of introductions. The presence of 341 non-native taxa in the Arctic was confirmed, of which 188 are naturalized in at least one of the 23 regions. A small number of taxa (11) are considered invasive; these plants are known from just three regions. In several Arctic regions there are no naturalized non-native taxa recorded and the majority of Arctic regions have a low number of naturalized taxa. Analyses of the non-native vascular plant flora identified two main biogeographic clusters within the Arctic: American and Asiatic. Among all pathways, seed contamination and transport by vehicles have contributed the most to non-native plant introduction in the Arctic.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas , Regiões Árticas
6.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 29, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plukenetia is a small pantropical genus of lianas and vines with variably sized edible oil-rich seeds that presents an ideal system to investigate neotropical and pantropical diversification patterns and seed size evolution. We assessed the biogeography and seed evolution of Plukenetia through phylogenetic analyses of a 5069 character molecular dataset comprising five nuclear and two plastid markers for 86 terminals in subtribe Plukenetiinae (representing 20 of ~ 23 Plukenetia species). Two nuclear genes, KEA1 and TEB, were used for phylogenetic reconstruction for the first time. Our goals were: (1) produce a robust, time-dependent evolutionary framework for Plukenetia using BEAST; (2) reconstruct its biogeographical history with ancestral range estimation in BIOGEOBEARS; (3) define seed size categories; (4) identify patterns of seed size evolution using ancestral state estimation; and (5) conduct regression analyses with putative drivers of seed size using the threshold model. RESULTS: Plukenetia was resolved into two major groups, which we refer to as the pinnately- and palmately-veined clades. Our analyses suggest Plukenetia originated in the Amazon or Atlantic Forest of Brazil during the Oligocene (28.7 Mya) and migrated/dispersed between those regions and Central America/Mexico throughout the Miocene. Trans-oceanic dispersals explain the pantropical distribution of Plukenetia, including from the Amazon to Africa in the Early Miocene (17.4 Mya), followed by Africa to Madagascar and Africa to Southeast Asia in the Late Miocene (9.4 Mya) and Pliocene (4.5 Mya), respectively. We infer a single origin of large seeds in the ancestor of Plukenetia. Seed size fits a Brownian motion model of trait evolution and is moderately to strongly associated with plant size, fruit type/dispersal syndrome, and seedling ecology. Biome shifts were not drivers of seed size, although there was a weak association with a transition to fire prone semi-arid savannas. CONCLUSIONS: The major relationships among the species of Plukenetia are now well-resolved. Our biogeographical analyses support growing evidence that many pantropical distributions developed by periodic trans-oceanic dispersals throughout the Miocene and Pliocene. Selection on a combination of traits contributed to seed size variation, while movement between forest edge/light gap and canopy niches likely contributed to the seed size extremes in Plukenetia.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Euphorbiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Filogeografia , Óleos de Plantas/química , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Clima Tropical , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Mineração de Dados , Euphorbiaceae/genética , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Análise de Regressão , Transcriptoma/genética
7.
PhytoKeys ; (111): 69-102, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30505165

RESUMO

Eremopoa is a small genus of annual grasses distributed from Egypt to western China. Phylogenetic analyses of plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA show that Eremopoa species, together with the monotypic genus Lindbergella and a single species of Poa (P.speluncarum), are nested within the genus Poa, in a clade that we accept as Poasubg.Pseudopoa. Here we accept seven species, four subspecies and four varieties in Poasubg.Pseudopoa. Five new combinations are made: Poaattalica, P.diaphora var. alpina, P.diaphora var. songarica, P.nephelochloides and P.persicasubsp.multiradiata; P.millii is proposed as a replacement name for E.capillaris; and Poa sections Lindbergella and Speluncarae are proposed. We provide a diagnosis for Poasubg.Pseudopoa, synonymy for and a key to the taxa. Eight lectotypes are designated: Eragrostisbarbeyi Post, Eremopoanephelochloides Roshev., Glyceriataurica Steud., Nephelochloatripolitana Boiss. & Blanche, Poacilicensis Hance, Poaparadoxa Kar. & Kir., Poapersicavar.alpina Boiss and Poapersicasubsp.cypria Sam. Eremopoamedica is re-identified as a species of Puccinellia.

8.
PhytoKeys ; (110): 101-121, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429662

RESUMO

Poasecunda J. Presl. s.l. is a morphologically highly variable bunchgrass that is a valuable forage species in western North America. There has been much controversy as to whether multiple taxa should be recognised and at what rank in this taxonomically challenging apomictic complex. Here we propose an infraspecific classification for Poasecunda of six varieties within two subspecies, juncifolia and secunda. New combinations are P.secunda vars. ampla, gracillima, juncifolia, nevadensis and scabrella. Conflicting plastid and nrDNA phylogenies show that P.sect.Secundae is of ancient hybrid origin. Based on this and its distinct morphology, the section is raised to the rank of subgenus. A key is presented for P.secunda infraspecies and closely related non-arctic species. Suppl. materials are provided of chromosome counts for Secundae taxa and D.D. Keck specimen annotations of taxa here included in P.secunda.

9.
Ann Bot ; 118(2): 281-303, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27373539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Poa subgenus Poa supersect. Homalopoa has diversified extensively in the Americas. Over half of the species in the supersection are diclinous; most of these are from the New World, while a few are from South-East Asia. Diclinism in Homalopoa can be divided into three main types: gynomonoecism, gynodioecism and dioecism. Here the sampling of species of New World Homalopoa is expanded to date its origin and diversification in North and South America and examine the evolution and origin of the breeding system diversity. METHODS: A total of 124 specimens were included in the matrix, of which 89 are species of Poa supersect. Homalopoa sections Acutifoliae, Anthochloa, Brizoides, Dasypoa, Dioicopoa, Dissanthelium, Homalopoa sensu lato (s.l.), Madropoa and Tovarochloa, and the informal Punapoa group. Bayesian and parsimony analyses were conducted on the data sets based on four markers: the nuclear ribosomal internal tanscribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS), and plastid trnT-L and trnL-F. Dating analyses were performed on a reduced Poa matrix and enlarged Poaceae outgroup to utilize fossils as calibration points. A relaxed Bayesian molecular clock method was used. KEY RESULTS: Hermaphroditism appears to be pleisiomorphic in the monophyletic Poa supersect. Homalopoa, which is suggested to have originated in Eurasia 8·4-4·2 million years ago (Mya). The ancestor of Poa supersect. Homalopoa radiated throughout the New World in the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene, with major lineages originating during the Pliocene to Pleistocene (5-2 Mya). Breeding systems are linked to geographic areas, showing an evolutionary pattern associated with different habitats. At least three major pathways from hermaphroditism to diclinism are inferred in New World Homalopoa: two leading to dioecism, one via gynodioecism in South America and another directly from hermaphroditism in North America, a result that needs to be checked with a broader sampling of diclinous species in North America. A third pathway leads from hermaphroditism to gynomonoecism in Andean species of South America, with strictly pistillate species evolving in the highest altitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Divergence dating provides a temporal context to the evolution of breeding systems in New World Poa supersect. Homalopoa The results are consistent with the infrageneric classification in part; monophyletic sections are confirmed, it is proposed to reclassify species of sect. Acutifoliae, Dasypoa and Homalopoa s.l. and it is acknowledged that revision of the infrageneric taxonomy of the gynomonoecious species is needed.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Poa/genética , Poaceae/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Flores/classificação , Flores/genética , Fósseis , América do Norte , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Poa/classificação , Poaceae/classificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , América do Sul
10.
PhytoKeys ; (52): 23-79, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26311505

RESUMO

The Canadian Arctic Archipelago is a vast region of approximately 1,420,000 km(2), with a flora characterized by low species diversity, low endemicity, and little influence by alien species. New records of vascular plant species are documented here based on recent fieldwork on Victoria and Baffin Islands; additional records based on recent literature sources are mentioned. This paper serves as an update to the 2007 publication Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and brings the total number of vascular plants for the region to 375 species and infraspecific taxa, an increase of 7.7%. Three families (Amaranthaceae, Juncaginaceae, Pteridaceae) and seven genera (Cherleria L., Cryptogramma R. Br., Platanthera Rich., Sabulina Rchb., Suaeda Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel., Triglochin L., Utricularia L.) are added to the flora, and one genus is deleted (Minuartia L.). Five species are first records for Nunavut (Arenarialongipedunculata Hultén, Cryptogrammastelleri (S.G. Gmel.) Prantl, Puccinelliabanksiensis Consaul, Saxifragaeschscholtzii Sternb., Utriculariaochroleuca R.W. Hartm.).

11.
PLoS One ; 8(10): e77982, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24348895

RESUMO

Accurate identification of Arctic plant species is critical for understanding potential climate-induced changes in their diversity and distributions. To facilitate rapid identification we generated DNA barcodes for the core plastid barcode loci (rbcL and matK) for 490 vascular plant species, representing nearly half of the Canadian Arctic flora and 93% of the flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Sequence recovery was higher for rbcL than matK (93% and 81%), and rbcL was easier to recover than matK from herbarium specimens (92% and 77%). Distance-based and sequence-similarity analyses of combined rbcL + matK data discriminate 97% of genera, 56% of species, and 7% of infraspecific taxa. There is a significant negative correlation between the number of species sampled per genus and the percent species resolution per genus. We characterize barcode variation in detail in the ten largest genera sampled (Carex, Draba, Festuca, Pedicularis, Poa, Potentilla, Puccinellia, Ranunculus, Salix, and Saxifraga) in the context of their phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. Discrimination with the core barcode loci in these genera ranges from 0% in Salix to 85% in Carex. Haplotype variation in multiple genera does not correspond to species boundaries, including Taraxacum, in which the distribution of plastid haplotypes among Arctic species is consistent with plastid variation documented in non-Arctic species. Introgression of Poa glauca plastid DNA into multiple individuals of P. hartzii is problematic for identification of these species with DNA barcodes. Of three supplementary barcode loci (psbA-trnH, psbK-psbI, atpF-atpH) collected for a subset of Poa and Puccinellia species, only atpF-atpH improved discrimination in Puccinellia, compared with rbcL and matK. Variation in matK in Vaccinium uliginosum and rbcL in Saxifraga oppositifolia corresponds to variation in other loci used to characterize the phylogeographic histories of these Arctic-alpine species.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Plantas/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/genética , Regiões Árticas , Biodiversidade , Canadá , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Plantas/classificação , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/química , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Am J Bot ; 97(2): 324-36, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21622393

RESUMO

The proportion of polyploid plant species increases at higher latitudes, and it has been suggested that original postglacial Arctic immigrants of some large groups, including grasses, were polyploid. We analyzed noncoding nuclear and chloroplast DNA of all North American diploid Puccinellia (Poaceae) and a subset of arctic polyploids to hypothesize evolutionary relationships among diploids and to evaluate the parentage of polyploids. Diploids formed three lineages: one uniting arctic species P. arctica and P. banksiensis; a second comprising arctic species P. tenella, P. alaskana, P. vahliana, and P. wrightii; and a third uniting the two temperate species P. lemmonii and P. parishii. The arctic species P. angustata (hexaploid) and P. andersonii (primarily octoploid) apparently derive from the P. arctica-P. banksiensis lineage based on ITS and chloroplast sequences, and share an ancestor with arctic triploid/tetraploid P. phryganodes based on nrDNA sequences. Sequence comparisons also suggest tetraploid P. bruggemannii evolved from two arctic lineages: P. vahliana-P. wrightii and P. arctica-P. banksiensis. These patterns and the predominance of arctic rather than temperate diploid species support the idea that diploid Puccinellia recolonized the Arctic from northern glacial refugia like Beringia, and also formed stabilized polyploid hybrids during these refugial events or subsequently during postglacial colonization.

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