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1.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1383263, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736879

RESUMO

Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin diseases. The current understanding of acne primarily revolves around inflammatory responses, sebum metabolism disorders, aberrant hormone and receptor expression, colonization by Cutibacterium acnes, and abnormal keratinization of follicular sebaceous glands. Although the precise mechanism of action remains incompletely understood, it is plausible that macrophages exert an influence on these pathological features. Macrophages, as a constituent of the human innate immune system, typically manifest distinct phenotypes across various diseases. It has been observed that the polarization of macrophages toward the M1 phenotype plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of acne. In recent years, extensive research on acne has revealed an increasing number of natural remedies exhibiting therapeutic efficacy through the modulation of macrophage polarization. This review investigates the role of cutaneous macrophages, elucidates their potential significance in the pathogenesis of acne, a prevalent chronic inflammatory skin disorder, and explores the therapeutic mechanisms of natural plant products targeting macrophages. Despite these insights, the precise role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of acne remains poorly elucidated. Subsequent investigations in this domain will further illuminate the pathogenesis of acne and potentially offer guidance for identifying novel therapeutic targets for this condition.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Macrófagos , Acne Vulgar/imunologia , Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Pele/metabolismo
2.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653908

RESUMO

Aminoglycoside antibiotics, including gentamicin (GM), induce delayed ototoxic effects such as hearing loss after prolonged use, which results from the death of hair cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the ototoxicity of aminoglycosides warrant further investigation, and there are currently no effective drugs in the clinical setting. Herein, the therapeutic effect of the flavonoid compound rutin against the ototoxic effects of GM in zebrafish hair cells was investigated. Animals incubated with rutin (100-400 µmol/L) were protected against the pernicious effects of GM (200 µmol/L). We found that rutin improves hearing behavior in zebrafish, and rutin was effective in reducing the number of Tunel-positive cells in the neuromasts of the zebrafish lateral line and promoting cell proliferation after exposure to GM. Subsequently, rutin exerted a protective effect against GM-induced cell death in HEI-OC1 cells and could limit the production of cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and diminish the percentage of apoptotic cells. Additionally, the results of the proteomic analysis revealed that rutin could effectively inhibit the expression of necroptosis and apoptosis related genes. Meanwhile, molecular docking analysis revealed a high linking activity between the molecular docking of rutin and STAT1 proteins. The protection of zebrafish hair cells or HEI-OC1 cells from GM-induced ototoxicity by rutin was attenuated by the introduction of STAT1 activator. Finally, we demonstrated that rutin significantly improves the bacteriostatic effect of GM by in vitro experiments, emphasising its clinical application value. In summary, these results collectively unravel a novel therapeutic role for rutin as an otoprotective drug against the adverse effects of GM.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(15): 10963-10972, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567839

RESUMO

Microdroplet chemistry is emerging as a great tool for accelerating reactions by several orders of magnitude. Several unique properties such as extreme pHs, interfacial electric fields (IEFs), and partial solvation have been reported to be responsible for the acceleration; however, which factor plays the key role remains elusive. Here, we performed quantum chemical calculations to explore the underlying mechanisms of an aza-Michael addition reaction between methylamine and acrylamide. We showed that the acceleration in methanol microdroplets results from the cumulative effects of several factors. The acidic surface of the microdroplet plays a dominating role, leading to a decrease of ∼9 kcal/mol in the activation barrier. We speculated that the dissociation of both methanol and trace water contributes to the surface acidity. An IEF of 0.1 V/Šcan further decrease the barrier by ∼2 kcal/mol. Partial solvation has a negligible effect on lowering the activation barrier in microdroplets but can increase the collision frequency between reactants. With acidity revealed to be the major accelerating factor for methanol droplets, reactions on water microdroplets should have even higher rates because water is more acidic. Both theoretically and experimentally, we confirmed that water microdroplets significantly accelerate the aza-Michael reaction, achieving an acceleration factor that exceeds 107. This work elucidates the multifactorial influences on the microdroplet acceleration mechanism, and with such detailed mechanistic investigations, we anticipate that microdroplet chemistry will be an avenue rich in opportunities in the realm of green synthesis.

4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2308310, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520730

RESUMO

CD47 blockade has emerged as a promising immunotherapy against liver cancer. However, the optimization of its antitumor effectiveness using efficient drug delivery systems or combinations of therapeutic agents remains largely incomplete. Here, patients with liver cancer co-expressing CD47 and CDC7 (cell division cycle 7, a negative senescence-related gene) are found to have the worst prognosis. Moreover, CD47 is highly expressed, and senescence is inhibited after the development of chemoresistance, suggesting that combination therapy targeting CD47 and CDC7 to inhibit CD47 and induce senescence may be a promising strategy for liver cancer. The efficacy of intravenously administered CDC7 and CD47 inhibitors is limited by low uptake and short circulation times. Here, inhibitors are coloaded into a dual-targeted nanosystem. The sequential release of the inhibitors from the nanosystem under acidic conditions first induces cellular senescence and then promotes immune responses. In an in situ liver cancer mouse model and a chemotherapy-resistant mouse model, the nanosystem effectively inhibited tumor growth by 90.33% and 85.15%, respectively. Overall, the nanosystem in this work achieved the sequential release of CDC7 and CD47 inhibitors in situ to trigger senescence and induce immunotherapy, effectively combating liver cancer and overcoming chemoresistance.

5.
Cancer Biol Med ; 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Abnormal metabolism is the underlying reason for breast cancer progression. Decreased lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) has been detected in breast cancer but the function of LDHB remains unknown. METHODS: Western blot was used to analyze LDHB expression in breast cancer cells. The impact of LDHB on tumor cell migration and invasion was determined using Transwell assays, wound healing assays, and a mouse lung metastasis model. Subcutaneous tumor formation, a natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity assay, and flow cytometry evaluated NK cell activation. Immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR detected NK cell activation markers. Kaplan-Meier analysis evaluated the effect of immune cell infiltration on prognosis. Single-sample gene set enrichment analysis determined NK cell activation scores. A support vector machine predicted the role of LDHB in NK cell activation. RESULTS: In this study we showed that LDHB inhibits the breast cancer cell metastasis and orchestrates metabolic reprogramming within tumor cells. Our results revealed that LDHB-mediated lactic acid clearance in breast cancer cells triggers NK cell activation within the tumor microenvironment. Our findings, which were confirmed in a murine model, demonstrated that LDHB in tumor cells promotes NK cell activation and ultimately results in the eradication of malignant cells. Clinically, our study further validated that LDHB affects immune cell infiltration and function. Specifically, its expression has been linked to enhanced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and improved patient survival. Furthermore, we identified LDHB expression in tumors as an important predictor of NK cell activation, with strong predictive ability in some cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that LDHB is a promising target for activating the tumor immune microenvironment in breast cancer, where LDHB-associated lactic acid clearance leads to increased NK cell activity. This study highlights the critical role of LDHB in regulating immune responses and its potential as a therapeutic target for breast cancer.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(12): 8576-8584, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488449

RESUMO

Spraying water microdroplets containing 1,2,3-triazole (Tz) has been found to effectively convert gas-phase carbon dioxide (CO2), but not predissolved CO2, into formic acid (FA). Herein, we elucidate the reaction mechanism at the molecular level through quantum chemistry calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Computations suggest a multistep reaction mechanism that initiates from the adsorption of CO2 by Tz to form a CO2-Tz complex (named reactant complex (RC)). Then, the RC either is reduced by electrons that were generated at the air-liquid interface of the water microdroplet and then undergoes intramolecular proton transfer (PT) or switches the reduction and PT steps to form a [HCO2-(Tz-H)]- complex (named PC-). Subsequently, PC- undergoes reduction and the C-N bond dissociates to generate COOH- and [Tz-H]- (m/z = 69). COOH- easily converts to HCOOH and is captured at m/z = 45 in mass spectroscopy. Notably, the intramolecular PT step can be significantly lowered by the oriented electric field at the interface and a water-bridge mechanism. The mechanism is further confirmed by testing multiple azoles. The AIMD simulations reveal a novel proton transfer mechanism where water serves as a transporter and is shown to play an important role dynamically. Moreover, the transient •COOH captured by the experiment is proposed to be partly formed by the reaction with H•, pointing again to the importance of the air-water interface. This work provides valuable insight into the important mechanistic, kinetic, and dynamic features of converting gas-phase CO2 to valuable products by azoles or amines dissolved in water microdroplets.

7.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 17: 383-393, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348088

RESUMO

Background: The association between acne and gut microbiota has garnered considerable attention; nevertheless, given the substantial diversity within gut microbiota, the precise cause-and-effect relationship linking specific microbial species to acne remains elusive. To address this gap in knowledge, our study utilized Mendelian randomization analysis to elucidate a potential causal link between gut microbiota composition and acne development while also investigating underlying mechanisms involving microbial factors associated with metabolic disorders. Materials and Methods: The independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) closely associated with 196 gut microbiota samples (N=18340) were selected as variable tools. The relationship between gut microbiota and acne (N=212438) was analyzed using the Twosample package in R4.3.1, employing various methods including inverse variance weighting (IVW), weighted median, MR-Egger, Simple-mode, and Weighted-mode. To ensure the stability of the estimates, a series of sensitivity analyses were conducted, such as Cochran's Q-test, MR-Egger intercept analysis, leave-one-out analysis, and funnel plots. Additionally, the impact of each instrumental variable was calculated. Results: In the Mendelian randomization analysis, we identified twelve microbial taxa potentially associated with acne: family.Bacteroidaceae, family.Clostridiaceae1, genus.Allisonella, genus.Bacteroides, genus.Butyricimonas, genus.Clostridiumsensustricto1, and genus.Coprococcus3. These seven bacterial groups were found to be potential risk factors for acne. Conversely, family.Lactobacillaceae and genus.Ruminococcustorquesgroup along with genus.CandidatusSoleaferrea, genus.Fusicatenibacter, family.Lactobacillaceae, and genus.Lactobacillus exhibited a protective effect against acne. Furthermore, our investigation revealed that some of these microbial taxa have been implicated in metabolic diseases through previous studies. Importantly though, no causal relationship was observed in the reverse Mendelian randomization analysis.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 15(4): 863-868, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237052

RESUMO

Differential adsorption heats of NH3 on a series of zeolites, including MOR, MFI, FER, and BEA, are accurately measured to probe their acidity using flow-pulse adsorption microcalorimetry. Initial adsorption heats of NH3 at Brønsted acid sites (BAS) vary between 105 to 136 kJ/mol, depending on framework aluminum amounts and topography structures of zeolites. A Brønsted/Lewis acid synergy between BAS and proximate tricoordinated framework-associated aluminum species is identified to generate super acid sites with initial adsorption heats of NH3 around 150 kJ/mol, but occurs only in the MFI zeolites and sensitively depends on the Si/Al ratio. These accurate data of NH3 differential adsorption heats unveil structural sensitivity of BAS and Brønsted/Lewis acid synergy in zeolites and provide experimental benchmark data for fundamental understanding of acidity and acid-catalysis of zeolites.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 182: e644-e651, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38065359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk factors of new adjacent vertebral fractures (AVF) and remote vertebral fractures (RVF) after percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). METHODS: Patients who underwent additional PVP for new OVCFs were enrolled. In addition, we set a 1:1 age-, sex-, surgical segment-, and surgical date-matched control group, in which patients underwent PVP without new OVCFs. Data on body mass index, occurrence time of second PVP, vertebral computed tomography (CT) Hounsfield Unit (HU) at the fracture adjacent segment, and RVF segment were collected. RESULTS: A total of 44 patients who underwent additional PVP for new OVCFs at our hospital were included. AVF occurred significantly earlier than RVF (13.5 ± 14.1 vs. 30.4 ± 20.1 months, P = 0.007). Compared to the control group, the AVF segment CT HU was significantly lower in patients with AVF (28.7 ± 16.7 vs. 61.3 ± 14.7, P = 0.000), while there was no significant difference between patients with RVF and control group including both adjacent and RVF segment CT HU. Receiver operating characteristic curves identified a cutoff value of 43 for using adjacent segment CT HU to differentiate patients with AVF from controls, with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 88.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the risk factors for AVF and RVF after PVP surgery were different. The occurrence of AVF was earlier and associated with low adjacent segment CT HU values, whereas the preoperative CT HU in both adjacent and RVF segments was not found to be associated with RVF.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Compressão , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Vertebroplastia , Humanos , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Vertebroplastia/efeitos adversos , Vertebroplastia/métodos , Fraturas por Compressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Compressão/cirurgia , Fraturas por Compressão/complicações , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Cimentos Ósseos
10.
Angiology ; 75(5): 462-471, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36809222

RESUMO

We compared the efficacy and complication rates of quantitative radiofrequency ablation guided by ablation index (RFCA-AI) with those of second-generation cryoballoon ablation (CBA-2). Consecutive patients (n = 230) with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing a first ablation CBA-2 (92 patients) or RFCA-AI (138 patients) procedure were enrolled in this study. The late recurrence rate in the CBA-2 group was higher than that in the RFCA-AI group (P = .012). Subgroup analysis showed the same result in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) (P = .039), but no difference was found in patients with persistent AF (P = .21). The average operation duration in the CBA-2 group (85 [75-99.5] minutes) was shorter than that in the RFCA-AI group (100 [84.5-120] minutes) (P < .0001), but the average exposure time (17.36(13.87-22.49) vs 5.49(4.00-8.24) minutes) in the CBA-2 group and X-ray dose (223.25(149.15-336.95) vs 109.15(80.75-168.7) mGym) were significantly longer than those in RFCA-AI group (P < .0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that left atrial diameter (LAD), early recurrence, and methods of ablation (cryoballoon ablation) were independent risk factors for late recurrence after AF ablation. Early recurrence of AF and LAD were independent risk factors for predicting late recurrence after AF ablation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Criocirurgia , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Criocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Criocirurgia/métodos , Átrios do Coração/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Recidiva
11.
Mater Horiz ; 11(3): 768-780, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37997176

RESUMO

The achievement of dual-functional photocatalytic technology requires a photocatalyst with accelerated charge flow and purposeful active-site arrangement. In this study, we developed an oriented embedding strategy to induce ReS2 growth at the S vacancy in twin-crystal Zn0.5Cd0.5S solid solution (Sv-ZCS), obtaining an atomic-level heterostructure (ReS2/Sv-ZCS). The electronic structure calculations demonstrate that the charge density of the Zn atom around the S vacancy is higher than for other Zn atoms and the introduced S vacancy establishes a high-speed channel for electron transport via formed Zn-S-Re bonds at the interface between ReS2 and Sv-ZCS. Photogenerated electrons and holes gathered on Re atoms and Sv-ZCS, respectively, which achieves spatial charge separation and separated arrangement for redox sites. As a result, the optimized ReS2/Sv-ZCS heterostructure possesses high efficiency of electron injection (2.6-fold) and charge separation (8.44-fold), as well as excellent conductivity capability (20.16-fold). The photocatalytic performance of the ReS2/Sv-ZCS composite exhibits highly improved dual-functional activity with simultaneous H2 evolution and selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The reaction rate of benzaldehyde and H2 evolution reaches 125 mmol gcat-1 h-1 and 159 mmol gcat-1 h-1, which is the highest efficiency achieved so far for simultaneous coproduction of H2 fuel and organic chemicals on ReS2-based composites. This work enriches the application of ReS2-modified composites in a dual-functional photoredox system and also gives insight into the role of defects in electronic structure modification and activity improvement.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38083055

RESUMO

Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease and premature death worldwide and it puts a heavy burden on the healthcare system. It is, therefore, very important to detect and evaluate hypertension and related cardiovascular events as to for efficient diagnosis, treatment and management. Hypertension can be evaluated with noninvasive cardiac signals, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals. Most of the previous studies predicted hypertension from ECG and PPG signals with extracted features that are correlated with hypertension. However, correlation is sometimes unreliable and may be affected by confounding factors. In this study, we propose a causal inference based approach to identify feature variables from ECG and PPG signals that are potentially causally related with hypertension. The method of greedy equivalence search was employed to construct the causal graph of features and hypertension. With causal features identified from the causal graph, we used machine learning models to diagnose hypertension. The machine learning classification models achieve great classification performance, among which random forest model has the best classification performance, with accuracy being 0.987, precision being 0.990, recall being 0.981, and F1-score being 0.985. The results show that the causal inference based approach can effectively predict hyper-tension.Clinical relevance- This paper proposes a new hypertension risk prediction method, which uses causality instead of correlation as the feature screening criteria to establish a causal graph of hypertension, which can predict the hypertension more reliably.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Coração , Eletrocardiografia , Causalidade
13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 10: 1288328, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38054088

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a cardiovascular disease characterized by persistent ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. DCM has a variety of causes, including myocarditis; exposure to narcotics, alcohol, or other toxins; and metabolic or endocrine disorders. Genetic factors play a dominant role in 30%-40% of DCM cases. Here, we report a case of DCM with very severe heart failure. Because of the severity of heart failure, the patient underwent heart transplantation. We speculated that the patient's DCM might be due to a mutation; hence, we performed whole-exome sequencing of the patient and their parents, which showed a de novo heterozygous mutation (NM_001001431.2c.769G>A:p.E257K) in TNNT2, which was considered pathogenic according to the ACMG pathogenicity assessment. This finding expands the genetic map of DCM and TNNT2 and will be important for future studies on the genetic and disease relationships between DCM and TNNT2.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(48): 26003-26008, 2023 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38011046

RESUMO

Even though it is still an emerging field, the application of a high external electric field (EEF) as a green and efficient catalyst in synthetic chemistry has recently received significant attention for the ability to deliver remarkable control of reaction selectivity and acceleration of reaction rates. Here, we extend the application of the EEF to Menshutkin reactions by taking advantage of the spontaneous high electric field at the air-water interfaces of sprayed water microdroplets. Experimentally, a series of Menshutkin reactions were accelerated by 7 orders of magnitude. Theoretically, both density functional theory calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations predict that the reaction barrier decreases significantly in the presence of oriented external electric fields, thereby supporting the notion that the electric fields in the water droplets are responsible for the catalysis. In addition, the ordered solvent and reactant molecules oriented by the electric field alleviate the steric effect of solvents and increase the successful collision rates, thus facilitating faster nucleophilic attack. The success of Menshutkin reactions in this study showcases the great potential of microdroplet chemistry for green synthesis.

15.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 22(12): 1365-1375, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37788341

RESUMO

Gastric and pancreatic cancers are malignancies of high unmet clinical need. Expression of CLDN18.2 in these cancers, coupled with it's absence from most normal tissues, provides a potential therapeutic window against this target. We present preclinical development and characterization of a novel therapeutic mAb and antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting CLDN18.2. A humanized CLDN18.2 specific mAb, CLDN18.2-307-mAb, was generated through immunization in mice followed by full humanization of the mouse mAb sequences. Antibody clones were screened by flow cytometry for selective binding to membrane bound CLDN18.2. A CLDN18.2-directed ADC (CLDN18.2-307-ADC) was also generated by conjugating MMAE to CLDN18.2 mAb using a cleavable linker. Tissue expression of CLDN18.2 was determined by IHC assay using a CLDN18.2-specific mAb. CLDN18.2-307-mAb binds with high affinity to CLDN18.2-positive (CLDN18.2+) cells and induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Treatment with this CLDN18.2-mAb blocked the growth of CLDN18.2+ gastric and pancreas cancer cell line xenograft (CDX) models. Upon binding to the extracellular domain of this target, the CLDN18.2-ADC/CLDN18.2 protein was internalized and subsequently localized to the lysosomal compartment inducing complete and sustained tumor regressions in CLDN18.2+ CDXs and patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenografts (PDX). A screen of human cancer tissues, by IHC, found 58% of gastric, 60% of gastroesophageal junction, and 20% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas to be positive for membrane expression of CLDN18.2. These data support clinical development of the CLDN18.2-307-mAb and CLDN18.2-307-ADC for treatment of CLDN18.2+ cancers. Both are now being investigated in phase I clinical studies.


Assuntos
Imunoconjugados , Neoplasias , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Imunoconjugados/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Claudinas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas
16.
Se Pu ; 41(10): 937-948, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875416

RESUMO

Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) is widely applied in food, environment, medicine, and other fields, owing to its high separation efficiency, low consumption of reagents and samples, and ease of integrating multiple operating units. Polymer microchip materials like cycloolefin copolymer (COC) are low-cost and easy to fabricate. However, their practical applications are limited by the non-specific adsorption on channel surface during electrophoresis and the instability of electroosmotic flow. These shortcomings can be solved by COC surface modification. In this study, a static coating and dynamic/static coating combined strategy was used to develop a channel-surface-modified COC microchip. Combined with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection, a MCE-LIF separation and analysis method was developed for detecting functional components in health care products. The separation performance of MCE was improved by the static coating microchannel surface modification method. The static coating was constructed by hydrophobic amino acid adsorption, glutaraldehyde immobilization, and hydrophilic amino acid functionalization on the COC microchannel surface. The separation performance of MCE was improved by microchannel surface modification combined with dynamic/static coating. The static coating was constructed by valine adsorption, carboxyl activation, and ethylenediamine functionalization on the COC microchannel surface. The dynamic coating is automatically formed by introducing a buffer solution containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and sodium dodecyl sulfate into the microchannel. The physical and chemical properties of surface-modified microchannels and the factors governing electrophoretic separation were studied. Combined with LIF detection, the MCE-LIF separation and analysis of lysine and γ-aminobutyric acid present in children's health care products, as well as aspartic acid and taurine in sport drinks, were developed. The recoveries of lysine and γ-aminobutyric acid in children's health care products were 84.8%-118%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 7.2% (n=3). The recoveries of aspartic acid and taurine in sport drinks were 97.5%-118%, and the RSDs were less than 6.4% (n=3). The analysis results are consistent with the HPLC results, and the method has potential for application in the separation and analysis of anionic amino acids in health care products.


Assuntos
Eletroforese em Microchip , Criança , Humanos , Eletroforese em Microchip/métodos , Ácido Aspártico , Lisina , Polímeros , Aminoácidos , Taurina , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
17.
Am J Cancer Res ; 13(9): 4259-4268, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37818068

RESUMO

In the quest for effective treatment of early-stage breast cancer, this study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of modified radical mastectomy (MRM) and oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery (OBCS). Breast cancer remains a major health concern globally, where early detection and effective treatment strategies are crucial for improving the outcomes of patients. MRM and OBCS are two primary treatment modalities for breast cancer, each with its distinct benefits and challenges. Through a retrospective analysis, we found that although the patients in the OBCS group experienced a longer operation time, they had significantly less intraoperative bleeding, postoperative drainage, and hospitalization time compared to the MRM group. Furthermore, patients in the OBCS group demonstrated higher subjective satisfaction and quality of life scores, along with better objective outcomes. In terms of postoperative complications and recurrence rates, no significant difference was identified between the two groups. However, our multivariate Cox regression analysis identified lymph node metastasis and molecular type as independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). Subsequently, we constructed a risk model based on these variables, which was proven to be effective in predicting recurrence, with an area under the risk score curve for recurrence prediction being 0.852. The group with a lower risk score demonstrated a significantly higher DFS rate. Our study suggests that compared with MRM, OBCS can significantly reduce surgical incision, improve patient satisfaction, and does not increase the risk of complications or recurrence. Our risk model, developed using Cox regression, also demonstrated high clinical value in predicting breast cancer recurrence, thereby aiding in personalized patient management and treatment planning.

18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 15(18): 9341-9357, 2023 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37566749

RESUMO

High glucose promotes retinal pigment epithelial cell (RPEC) migration. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms explaining how high fatty acid levels affect RPEC migration remain largely unknown. We investigated whether and how palmitic acid (PA) impacts the migration of human RPEC cell line ARPE-19. ARPE-19 cells were treated with varying doses of palmitic acid, and the RPEC migration was evaluated by scratch and transwell migration assays. Cell viability was determined by the CCK-8 method. The levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated proteins, including E-cadherin, vimentin, MMP2, and MMP3, were evaluated by western blot. The microRNAs and mRNAs levels were assessed by quantitative PCR. miRNA targets were predicted with online tools and validated with the luciferase reporter assay. miRNA mimics, inhibitors, and siRNA oligos were used to perform gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies. We found that PA increased viability of ARPE-19 cells, promoted their migration and EMT. PA decreased E-cadherin protein expression, and increased vimentin, MMP2, and MMP3 protein levels. Additionally, PA increased miR-222 expression in ARPE-19 cells, and functionally blocking miR-222 suppressed the PA-induced RPEC migration and EMT. NUMB was identified as a downstream target of miR-222, and NUMB knockdown abolished the effects of PA on promoting the migration and EMT of ARPE-19 cells. Therefore, PA promotes human RPEC migration by upregulating miR-222 expression and downregulating NUMB. This study unravels a novel PA-miR-222-NUMB axis that can be potentially targeted for therapy of high fat acid-related ocular diseases.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/farmacologia , Ácido Palmítico/toxicidade , Pigmentos da Retina/metabolismo , Vimentina/metabolismo
19.
Se Pu ; 41(8): 641-650, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37534551

RESUMO

Microchip electrophoresis is a separation technology that involves fluid manipulation in a microchip; the advantages of this technique include high separation efficiency, low sample consumption, and fast and easy multistep integration. Microchip electrophoresis has been widely used to rapidly separate and analyze complex samples in biology and medicine. In this paper, we review the research progress on microchip electrophoresis, explore the fabrication and separation modes of microchip materials, and discuss their applications in the detection and analysis of biological samples. Research on microchip materials can be mainly categorized into chip materials, channel modifications, electrode materials, and electrode integration methods. Microchip materials research involves the development of silicon, glass, polydimethylsiloxane and polymethyl methacrylate-based, and paper electrophoretic materials. Microchannel modification research primarily focuses on the dynamic and static modification methods of microchannels. Although chip materials and fabrication technologies have improved over the years, problems such as high manufacturing costs, long processing time, and short service lives continue to persist. These problems hinder the industrialization of microchip electrophoresis. At present, few static methods for the surface modification of polymer channels are available, and most of them involve a combination of physical adsorption and polymers. Therefore, developing efficient surface modification methods for polymer channels remains a necessary undertaking. In addition, both dynamic and static modifications require the introduction of other chemicals, which may not be conducive to the expansion of subsequent experiments. The materials commonly used in the development of electrodes and processing methods for electrode-microchip integration include gold, platinum, and silver. Microchip electrophoresis can be divided into two modes according to the uniformity of the electric field: uniform and non-uniform. The uniform electric field electrophoresis mode mainly involves micro free-flow electrophoresis and micro zone electrophoresis, including micro isoelectric focusing electrophoresis, micro isovelocity electrophoresis, and micro density gradient electrophoresis. The non-uniform electric field electrophoresis mode involves micro dielectric electrophoresis. Microchip electrophoresis is typically used in conjunction with conventional laboratory methods, such as optical, electrochemical, and mass spectrometry, to achieve the rapid and efficient separation and analysis of complex samples. However, the labeling required for most widely used laser-induced fluorescence technologies often involves a cumbersome organic synthesis process, and not all samples can be labeled, which limits the application scenarios of laser-induced fluorescence. The applications of unlabeled microchip electrophoresis-chemiluminescence/dielectrophoresis are also limited, and simplification of the experimental process to achieve simple and rapid microchip electrophoresis remains challenging. Several new models and strategies for high throughput in situ detection based on these detection methods have been developed for microchip electrophoretic systems. However, high throughput analysis by microchip electrophoresis is often dependent on complex chip structures and relatively complicated detection methods; thus, simple high throughput analytical technologies must be further explored. This paper also reviews the progress on microchip electrophoresis for the separation and analysis of complex biological samples, such as biomacromolecules, biological small molecules, and bioparticles, and forecasts the development trend of microchip electrophoresis in the separation and analysis of biomolecules. Over 250 research papers on this field are published annually, and it is gradually becoming a research focus. Most previous research has focused on biomacromolecules, including proteins and nucleic acids; biological small molecules, including amino acids, metabolites, and ions; and bioparticles, including cells and pathogens. However, several problems remain unsolved in the field of microchip electrophoresis. Overall, microchip electrophoresis requires further study to increase its suitability for the separation and analysis of complex biological samples.


Assuntos
Eletroforese em Microchip , Ácidos Nucleicos , Eletroforese em Microchip/métodos , Eletrodos , Proteínas , Polímeros
20.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 30(8): 1193-1206, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37580627

RESUMO

The nuclear folding of chromosomes relative to nuclear bodies is an integral part of gene function. Here, we demonstrate that population-based modeling-from ensemble Hi-C data-provides a detailed description of the nuclear microenvironment of genes and its role in gene function. We define the microenvironment by the subnuclear positions of genomic regions with respect to nuclear bodies, local chromatin compaction, and preferences in chromatin compartmentalization. These structural descriptors are determined in single-cell models, thereby revealing the structural variability between cells. We demonstrate that the microenvironment of a genomic region is linked to its functional potential in gene transcription, replication, and chromatin compartmentalization. Some chromatin regions feature a strong preference for a single microenvironment, due to association with specific nuclear bodies in most cells. Other chromatin shows high structural variability, which is a strong indicator of functional heterogeneity. Moreover, we identify specialized nuclear microenvironments, which distinguish chromatin in different functional states and reveal a key role of nuclear speckles in chromosome organization. We demonstrate that our method produces highly predictive three-dimensional genome structures, which accurately reproduce data from a variety of orthogonal experiments, thus considerably expanding the range of Hi-C data analysis.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular , Cromatina , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/química , Cromatina/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Genoma
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