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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 450, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in significant physical and psychological impacts for survivors, and for the healthcare professionals caring for patients. Nurses and doctors in critical care faced longer working hours, increased burden of patients, and limited resources, all in the context of personal social isolation and uncertainties regarding cross-infection. We evaluated the burden of anxiety, depression, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and alcohol dependence among doctors and nurses working in intensive care units (ICUs) in Nepal and explored the individual and social drivers for these impacts. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study in Nepal, using an online survey to assess psychological well-being and semi-structured interviews to explore perceptions as to the drivers of anxiety, stress, and depression. Participants were recruited from existing national critical care professional organisations in Nepal and using a snowball technique. The online survey comprised of validated assessment tools for anxiety, depression, stress, PTSD, and alcohol dependence; all tools were analysed using published guidelines. Interviews were analysed using rapid appraisal techniques, and themes regarding the drivers for psychological distress were explored. RESULTS: 134 respondents (113 nurses, 21 doctors) completed the online survey. Twenty-eight (21%) participants experienced moderate to severe symptoms of depression; 67 (50%) experienced moderate or severe symptoms of anxiety; 114 (85%) had scores indicative of moderate to high levels of stress; 46 out of 100 reported symptoms of PTSD. Compared to doctors, nurses experienced more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD, whereas doctors experienced higher levels of stress than nurses. Most (95%) participants had scores indicative of low risk of alcohol dependence. Twenty participants were followed up in interviews. Social stigmatism, physical and emotional safety, enforced role change and the absence of organisational support were perceived drivers for poor psychological well-being. CONCLUSION: Nurses and doctors working in ICU during the COVID-19 pandemic sustained psychological impacts, manifesting as stress, anxiety, and for some, symptoms of PTSD. Nurses were more vulnerable. Individual characteristics and professional inequalities in healthcare may be potential modifiable factors for policy makers seeking to mitigate risks for healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Prevalência , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
2.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e077156, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307535

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coexisting multiple health conditions is common among older people, a population that is increasing globally. The potential for polypharmacy, adverse events, drug interactions and development of additional health conditions complicates prescribing decisions for these patients. Artificial intelligence (AI)-generated decision-making tools may help guide clinical decisions in the context of multiple health conditions, by determining which of the multiple medication options is best. This study aims to explore the perceptions of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and patients on the use of AI in the management of multiple health conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A qualitative study will be conducted using semistructured interviews. Adults (≥18 years) with multiple health conditions living in the West Midlands of England and HCPs with experience in caring for patients with multiple health conditions will be eligible and purposively sampled. Patients will be identified from Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) Aurum; CPRD will contact general practitioners who will in turn, send a letter to patients inviting them to take part. Eligible HCPs will be recruited through British HCP bodies and known contacts. Up to 30 patients and 30 HCPs will be recruited, until data saturation is achieved. Interviews will be in-person or virtual, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The topic guide is designed to explore participants' attitudes towards AI-informed clinical decision-making to augment clinician-directed decision-making, the perceived advantages and disadvantages of both methods and attitudes towards risk management. Case vignettes comprising a common decision pathway for patients with multiple health conditions will be presented during each interview to invite participants' opinions on how their experiences compare. Data will be analysed thematically using the Framework Method. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the National Health Service Research Ethics Committee (Reference: 22/SC/0210). Written informed consent or verbal consent will be obtained prior to each interview. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conferences and lay summaries.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Medicina Estatal , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Multimorbidade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Polimedicação
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 33(1): 107487, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37980846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of two functional scales- Modified Rankin Scale (m-RS) and Modified Katz Index (m-Katz Index) on long-term mortality in a stroke cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Among 760 stroke survivors (median age: 66 (IQR:56-75), 56.4 % women) m-Katz Index and m-RS scales applied at 1 and 6 months after stroke, were investigated in relation to 12-years of all-cause mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were computed, and time-varying covariate Cox regression models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) in all sample and by sex. The prognostic ability of the fitted models was computed for each model by six different measures. RESULTS: After 12 years of follow-up (median survival time: 7.3 years), 311 participants died. Overall survival curves show lower survival rates among those with the highest levels of disability/dependence (all log-rank p-values <0.0001). These findings were confirmed in all regression models for both sexes, particularly in men who had higher levels of dependence on Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) by m-Katz Index and severe disability by m-RS and presented the highest HR of dying (HR: 3.34 (95 %CI: 2.27-4.92) and HR: 4.94 (95 % CI: 3.15-7.75), respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Both the m-Katz Index and the m-RS scale were good predictors of long-term mortality, which is of importance for guiding the functional rehabilitation of stroke patients. Besides, high levels of disability and dependence were implicated with high mortality risks, regardless of sex.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Brasil , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Sobreviventes , Avaliação da Deficiência
5.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 2235, 2023 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37957584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) are at a higher risk for developing diabetes and hypertension. Often services are separate for HIV and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), but how this impacts NCD care among PLWH is unknown. We aimed to understand the barriers and facilitators for prevention, early diagnosis and safe effective care for diabetes and hypertension among PLWH. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were conducted with 10 healthcare professionals (HCPs) that care for PLWH, 10 HCPs that care for people with diabetes and hypertension and 16 PLWH with a comorbidity of diabetes and/or hypertension. Participants were recruited from two healthcare facilities in Dodoma, Tanzania and purposively sampled based on age and sex. Interviews were conducted in Swahili using pre-developed topic guides, audio recorded then translated verbatim into English. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted using The Framework Method. RESULTS: Three themes were found: organisational/healthcare system factors, individual factors and syndemic factors. Organisational/healthcare system factors comprised the only facilitators for prevention (education on lifestyle behaviours and counselling on adherence), but included the most barriers overall: fragmented services, no protocol for NCD screening and lack of access to diagnostic equipment were barriers for early diagnosis whereas the former plus lack of continuity of NCD care were barriers for safe effective care. Individual factors comprised four sub-themes, three of which were considered facilitators: HCPs' knowledge of NCDs for early diagnosis, self-monitoring of NCDs for safe effective care and HCPs' personal practice for both early diagnosis and safe effective care. HCPs' knowledge was simultaneously a barrier for prevention and PLWH knowledge was a barrier for prevention and safe effective care. Syndemic factors comprised three sub-themes; all were barriers for prevention, early diagnosis and/or safe effective care: poverty and mental health of PLWH and HIV stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Organisational/healthcare system, individual and syndemic factors were found to be interlinked with barriers and facilitators that contribute to the prevention, early diagnosis and safe effective care of diabetes and hypertension among PLWH in Tanzania; these findings can inform future initiatives for making small and large health system changes to improve the health of aging PLWH.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Infecções por HIV , Hipertensão , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Atenção à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
6.
Wellcome Open Res ; 8: 29, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37954925

RESUMO

Background: Improved access to healthcare in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has not equated to improved health outcomes. Absence or unsustained quality of care is partly to blame. Improving outcomes in intensive care units (ICUs) requires delivery of complex interventions by multiple specialties working in concert, and the simultaneous prevention of avoidable harms associated with the illness and the treatment interventions. Therefore, successful design and implementation of improvement interventions requires understanding of the behavioural, organisational, and external factors that determine care delivery and the likelihood of achieving sustained improvement. We aim to identify care processes that contribute to suboptimal clinical outcomes in ICUs located in LMICs and to establish barriers and enablers for improving the care processes. Methods: Using rapid evaluation methods, we will use four data collection methods: 1) registry embedded indicators to assess quality of care processes and their associated outcomes; 2) process mapping to provide a preliminary framework to understand gaps between current and desired care practices; 3) structured observations of processes of interest identified from the process mapping and; 4) focus group discussions with stakeholders to identify barriers and enablers influencing the gap between current and desired care practices. We will also collect self-assessments of readiness for quality improvement. Data collection and analysis will be led by local stakeholders, performed in parallel and through an iterative process across eight countries: Kenya, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam. Conclusions: The results of our study will provide essential information on where and how care processes can be improved to facilitate better quality of care to critically ill patients in LMICs; thus, reduce preventable mortality and morbidity in ICUs. Furthermore, understanding the rapid evaluation methods that will be used for this study will allow other researchers and healthcare professionals to carry out similar research in ICUs and other health services.

8.
PLoS One ; 18(10): e0292463, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37824516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for stroke. To enable improvements to AF diagnosis and follow-up care, understanding current patient pathways and barriers to optimal care are essential. We investigated the patient care pathways and their drivers, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient pathways in a middle-income country setting, Brazil. METHODS: This mixed-methods study in São Paulo, included adults (≥18y) with AF from 13 primary/secondary healthcare facilities. Surveys using baseline, follow-up (administered ≥two months after baseline) and COVID-19 questionnaires (quantitative), and three focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted. Minimum sample size for the quantitative component was 236 and we aimed to reach saturation with at least three FGDs for the qualitative component. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data and a content analysis was used for qualitative data to identify themes related to AF diagnosis and follow-up care. RESULTS: 267 participants completed the baseline questionnaire: 25% were diagnosed in primary care, 65% in an emergency or inpatient department. At follow-up (n = 259), 31% visited more than one facility for AF care, and 7% had no follow-up. Intervals between international normalised ratio (INR) tests were increased during the pandemic, and the number of healthcare visits and availability of medication were reduced. Seventeen patients participated in three FGDs and revealed that AF diagnosis often occurred following a medical emergency and patients often delay care-seeking due to misconceptions about AF symptoms. Long waiting times, doctor/patient interactions and health system factors, such as doctor availability and the referral system, influence where participants visited for follow-up care. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of public awareness and underdeveloped primary healthcare lead to delayed diagnosis, which impacts clinical outcomes and excess patient and healthcare system costs. Health system, care-provider, and pandemic factors disrupt timely and effective continuity of care.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Pandemias , Procedimentos Clínicos , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações
9.
Glob Health Action ; 16(1): 2231763, 2023 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37466418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying existing care pathways is the first step for understanding how services can be improved to enable early diagnosis and effective follow-up care for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); however, evidence on how care pathways can and should be identified in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To describe generalisability and lessons learned from recruitment and data collection for the quantitative component of a mixed methods study designed to determine the care pathway for atrial fibrillation (AF) in Brazil, China and Sri Lanka. METHODS: Adults (≥18 years) that spoke the local language and with an AF diagnosis were eligible. We excluded anyone with a hearing or cognitive impairment or ineligible address. Eligible participants were identified using electronic records in Brazil and China; in Sri Lanka, researchers attended the outpatient clinics to identify eligible participants. Data were collected using two quantitative questionnaires administered at least 2-months apart. A minimum sample size of 238 was required for each country. RESULTS: The required sample size was met in Brazil (n = 267) and China (n = 298), but a large proportion of AF patients could not be contacted (47% and 27%, respectively) or refused to participate (36% and 38%, respectively). In Sri Lanka, recruitment was challenging, resulting in a reduced sample (n = 151). Mean age of participants from Brazil, China and Sri Lanka was 69 (SD = 11.3), 65 (SD = 12.8) and 58 (SD = 11.7), respectively. Females accounted for 49% of the Brazil sample, 62% in China and 70% in Sri Lanka. CONCLUSIONS: Generalisability was an issue in Brazil and China, as was selection bias. Recruitment bias was highlighted in Sri Lanka. Additional or alternative recruitment methods may be required to ensure generalisability and reduce bias in future studies aimed at identifying NCD care pathways in LMICs.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Países em Desenvolvimento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Procedimentos Clínicos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sri Lanka
10.
Syst Rev ; 12(1): 52, 2023 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36945026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia globally and it adversely affects the quality of life (QoL). Available rate and rhythm control strategies equally reduce mortality but may impact QoL differently. A number of systematic reviews have focused on the impact of specific strategies on QoL, though a 2006 review synthesized the evidence on the effect of all strategies on QoL, allowing for a clinically important comparison between the types of strategies. Many trials have been published since the review undertook the search in 2005; therefore, an update is needed. This systematic review aims to provide an update to the 2006 review on the impact of all rate and rhythm control strategies on QoL in people with AF. METHODS: The following four databases and three clinical trial registries will be searched for primary studies: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ClinicalTrialsRegister.eu. No language restriction will be applied. The search will be limited to 2004 or later publication year to allow overlap with the search conducted by the 2006 review authors. Any randomized control trial that reports the QoL of adult (≥ 18 years) AF patients following an eligible rate or rhythm control intervention will be eligible for inclusion. Eligible interventions (and comparators) include pacing, atrioventricular node junction and bundle of HIS ablation, pharmacological therapy, radio frequency catheter ablation, cryoablation, pulmonary vein isolation, maze operation, pace maker implantation, and defibrillator implantation. Two reviewers will independently screen for eligible studies, extract the data using a piloted tool, and assess bias by QoL outcome using the RoB 2 tool. The suitability of conducting a meta-analysis will be assessed by the clinical and methodology similarities of included studies. If it is feasible, standardized mean differences will be pooled using a random-effects model and assessed appropriately. DISCUSSION: The findings from this review will allow for meaningful comparisons between various rate and rhythm control strategies regarding their impact on QoL. This review will be useful for a wide range of stakeholders and will be crucial for optimizing the overall wellbeing of AF patients. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021290542.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Adulto , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Viés , Metanálise como Assunto , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 120, 2023 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36829123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death worldwide, with 98% of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The only vaccine licenced for the prevention of TB has limited protection for adolescents, adults and vulnerable populations. A safe and effective vaccine for all populations at risk is imperative to achieve global elimination of TB. We aimed to systematically review the efficacy and safety of TB vaccine candidates in late-phase clinical trials conducted in LMICs. METHODS: Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, PubMed, Clinicaltrials.gov and Greylit.org were searched in June 2021 to identify phase 2 or later clinical randomised controlled trials that report the efficacy or safety (adverse events) of TB vaccine candidates with participants of any age living in an LMIC. TB vaccine candidates listed in the 2020 WHO Global TB Report were eligible for inclusion aside from BCG revaccination. Trials were excluded if all participants had active TB at baseline. Two reviewers independently assessed papers for eligibility, and for bias and quality using the Risk of Bias 2 tool and GRADE guidelines, respectively. We report efficacy rates and frequencies of adverse events from each included trial where available and qualitatively synthesise the findings. RESULTS: Thirteen papers representing eleven trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven vaccine candidates were reviewed across seven countries: M72/AS01, RUTI, VPM1002, H56:IC31, MTBVAC, DAR-901 and ID93 + GLA-SE. Two trials reported on efficacy: an efficacy rate of 54% (95% CI 11.5, 76.2) was reported for M72/AS01 in adults with latent TB and 3% (95% CI -13.9, 17.7) for DAR-901 in healthy adolescents. However, the latter trial was underpowered. All vaccine candidates had comparable occurrences of adverse events between treatment arms and demonstrated acceptable safety profiles; though, RUTI resulted in one serious complication in a person living with HIV. M72/AS01 was the only vaccine considered safe across a diverse group of people including people living with HIV or latent TB and healthy infants and adolescents. CONCLUSION: Further efficacy trials for M72/AS01 are warranted to include additional populations at risk where safety has been demonstrated. Further safety trials are needed for the remaining vaccine candidates to confirm safety in vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Tuberculose Latente , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose , Tuberculose , Adulto , Adolescente , Lactente , Humanos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Tuberculose Latente/tratamento farmacológico , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico
12.
HIV Med ; 24(5): 640-647, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934808

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of HIV infection on the aging process is disputed and largely unknown. We aimed to identify whether people living with HIV experience premature, accelerated, and/or accentuated aging by investigating the development of four age-related non-communicable diseases in people living with versus without HIV. METHODS: This population-based matched cohort study design used UK-based primary care electronic health records from the IQVIA Medical Research Database. Between January 2000 and January 2020, all people living with and without HIV aged ≥18 years were eligible. Outcomes included cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which were identified by Read codes. We used age at diagnosis to investigate premature aging and age at exit date to investigate accentuation and acceleration. For each outcome, people with and without HIV were excluded if they had the outcome of interest at baseline. Participants were matched based on propensity scores (1:1 ratio). Linear regression was used to report any difference in age at diagnosis between the two groups and to report the prevalence trends for age at exit date. RESULTS: In total, 8880 people living with HIV were matched with 8880 people without HIV and were found to have an earlier onset of CVD (54.5 vs. 56.8; p = 0.002). Similarly, people living with HIV had an earlier onset of hypertension (49.7 vs. 51.4; p = 0.002). No difference was found for T2DM or CKD (53.4 vs. 52.6; p = 0.368 and 57.6 vs. 58.1; p = 0.483, respectively). The burden of CKD increased over time, whereas no difference in the burden was found for the other conditions. CONCLUSION: The earlier development of CVD and hypertension in people living with HIV than in those without HIV indicates premature aging, whereas the increased burden of CKD indicates accelerated aging.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Infecções por HIV , Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Senilidade Prematura/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 559, 2022 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) negatively impacts health systems worldwide. We aimed to capture perceptions of and barriers and facilitators for AF care in Brazilian primary care units (PCUs) from the perspective of healthcare professionals (HCPs). METHODS: This mixed-methods, cross-sectional study utilised an exploratory sequential design, beginning with the quantitative data collection (up to 18 closed questions) immediately followed by a semi-structured interview. HCPs were recruited from 11 PCUs in the Sao Paulo region and included managers, physicians, pharmacists, nurses and community health agents. Descriptive statistics were used to present findings from the quantitative questionnaire and inductive analysis was used to identify themes from the qualitative data. RESULTS: One hundred seven HCPs were interviewed between September 2019 and May 2020. Three main themes were identified that encapsulated barriers and facilitators to AF care: access to care (appointments, equipment/tests and medication), HCP and patient roles (HCP/patient relationship and patient adherence) and the role of the organisation/system (infrastructure, training and protocols/guidelines). Findings from the qualitative analysis reinforced the quantitative findings, including a lack of AF-specific training for HCPs, protocols/guidelines on AF management, INR tests in the PCUs, patient knowledge of AF management and novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) as key barriers to optimal AF care. CONCLUSIONS: Development and implementation of AF-specific training for PCU HCPs are needed in Brazil, along with evidence-based protocols and guidelines, educational programmes for patients, better access to INR tests for patients taking warfarin and availability of NOACs.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e056480, 2022 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418134

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia globally. It is associated with a fivefold risk in stroke, but early diagnosis and effective treatment can reduce this risk. AF is often underdiagnosed, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where screening for AF is not always feasible or considered common practice in primary care settings. Epidemiological data on AF in LMICs is often incomplete particularly in vulnerable populations. This LMIC research collaborative aims to identify the prevalence of AF in the Northern Sri Lankan community. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cross-sectional household survey piloted and codesigned through a series of community engagement events will be administered in all five districts in Northern Province, Sri Lanka. A multistage cluster sampling approach will be used starting at district level, then the Divisional Secretariats followed by Grama Niladhari divisions. Twenty households will be selected from each cluster. The study aims to recruit 10 000 participants aged 50 years or older, 1 participant per household. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, well-being and lifestyle and anthropometric measurements will be collected using a digital data platform (REDCap, Research Electronic Data Capture) by trained data collectors. Participants will be screened for AF using a fingertip single-lead ECG via a smartphone application (AliveCor) with rhythm strips reviewed by a consultant cardiologist. Prevalence of AF and risk factors will be established at province and district-levels. Adjusted ORs and population attributable fractions for AF risk factors will be determined. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Ethics Review Committee of Faculty of Medicine at University of Jaffna. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Findings will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentations at conferences. The findings will enable early treatment for new AF diagnoses and inform interventions to improve community-based management of AF in LMICs.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Eletrocardiografia
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 119(5): 724-731, nov. 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533702

RESUMO

Resumo Fundamento A associação entre o status de saúde cardiovascular ideal ( ideal cardiovascular health ( ICVH) e diagnóstico de fibrilação ou flutter atrial (FFA) foi menos estudado em comparação a outras doenças cardiovasculares. Objetivos Analisar a associação entre o diagnóstico de FFA e métricas e escores de ICVH no Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Métodos Este estudo analisou dados de 13141 participantes com dados completos. Os traçados eletrocardiográficos foram codificados de acordo com o Sistema de Minnesota, em um centro de leitura centralizado. As métricas do ICVH (dieta, atividade física, índice de massa corporal, tabagismo, glicemia de jeju, e colesterol total) e escores do ICVH foram calculados conforme proposto pela American Heart Association . Modelos de regressão logística bruta e ajustada foram construídos para analisar associações de métricas e escores do ICVH com diagnóstico de FFA. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 0,05. Resultados A idade mediana da amostra foi de 55 anos, e 54,4% eram mulheres. Nos modelos ajustados, os escores de ICVH não apresentaram associação significativa com diagnóstico de FFA prevalente [odds ratio (OR):0,96; intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%):0,80-1,16; p=0,70). Perfis de pressão arterial ideal (OR:0,33; IC95%:0,1-0,74; p=0,007) e colesterol total ideal (OR:1,88; IC95%:1,19-2,98; p=0,007) foram significativamente associados com o diagnóstico de FFA. Conclusões Não foram identificadas associações significativas entre escores de ICVH global e diagnóstico de FFA após ajuste multivariado em nossas análises, devido, ao menos em parte, às associações antagônicas da FFA com métricas de pressão arterial e de colesterol total do ICVH. Nossos resultados sugerem que estimar a prevenção da FFA por meio de escore de ICVH global pode não ser adequado, e as métricas do ICVH devem ser consideradas separadamente.


Abstract Background The association between ideal cardiovascular health (ICVH) status and atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) diagnosis has been less studied compared to other cardiovascular diseases. Objective To analyze the association between AFF diagnosis and ICVH metrics and scores in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Methods This study analyzed data from 13,141 participants with complete data. Electrocardiographic tracings were coded according to the Minnesota Coding System, in a centralized reading center. ICVH metrics (diet, physical activity, body mass index, smoking, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol) and scores were calculated as proposed by the American Heart Association. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regression models were built to analyze the association of ICVH metrics and scores with AFF diagnosis. Significance level was set at 0.05. Results The sample had a median age of 55 years and 54.4% were women. In adjusted models, ICVH scores were not significantly associated with prevalent AFF diagnosis (odds ratio [OR]:0.96; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:0.80-1.16; p=0.70). Ideal blood pressure (OR:0.33; 95% CI:0.15-0.74; p=0.007) and total cholesterol (OR:1.88; 95% CI:1.19-2.98; p=0.007) profiles were significantly associated with AFF diagnosis. Conclusions No significant associations were identified between global ICVH scores and AFF diagnosis after multivariable adjustment in our analyses, at least partially due to the antagonistic associations of AFF with blood pressure and total cholesterol ICVH metrics. Our results suggest that estimating the prevention of AFF burden using global ICVH scores may not be adequate, and ICVH metrics should be considered in separate.

16.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between ideal cardiovascular health (ICVH) status and atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) diagnosis has been less studied compared to other cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between AFF diagnosis and ICVH metrics and scores in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). METHODS: This study analyzed data from 13,141 participants with complete data. Electrocardiographic tracings were coded according to the Minnesota Coding System, in a centralized reading center. ICVH metrics (diet, physical activity, body mass index, smoking, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and total cholesterol) and scores were calculated as proposed by the American Heart Association. Crude and adjusted binary logistic regression models were built to analyze the association of ICVH metrics and scores with AFF diagnosis. Significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: The sample had a median age of 55 years and 54.4% were women. In adjusted models, ICVH scores were not significantly associated with prevalent AFF diagnosis (odds ratio [OR]:0.96; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:0.80-1.16; p=0.70). Ideal blood pressure (OR:0.33; 95% CI:0.15-0.74; p=0.007) and total cholesterol (OR:1.88; 95% CI:1.19-2.98; p=0.007) profiles were significantly associated with AFF diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: No significant associations were identified between global ICVH scores and AFF diagnosis after multivariable adjustment in our analyses, at least partially due to the antagonistic associations of AFF with blood pressure and total cholesterol ICVH metrics. Our results suggest that estimating the prevention of AFF burden using global ICVH scores may not be adequate, and ICVH metrics should be considered in separate.


FUNDAMENTO: A associação entre o status de saúde cardiovascular ideal ( ideal cardiovascular health ( ICVH) e diagnóstico de fibrilação ou flutter atrial (FFA) foi menos estudado em comparação a outras doenças cardiovasculares. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a associação entre o diagnóstico de FFA e métricas e escores de ICVH no Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). MÉTODOS: Este estudo analisou dados de 13141 participantes com dados completos. Os traçados eletrocardiográficos foram codificados de acordo com o Sistema de Minnesota, em um centro de leitura centralizado. As métricas do ICVH (dieta, atividade física, índice de massa corporal, tabagismo, glicemia de jeju, e colesterol total) e escores do ICVH foram calculados conforme proposto pela American Heart Association . Modelos de regressão logística bruta e ajustada foram construídos para analisar associações de métricas e escores do ICVH com diagnóstico de FFA. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 0,05. RESULTADOS: A idade mediana da amostra foi de 55 anos, e 54,4% eram mulheres. Nos modelos ajustados, os escores de ICVH não apresentaram associação significativa com diagnóstico de FFA prevalente [odds ratio (OR):0,96; intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%):0,80-1,16; p=0,70). Perfis de pressão arterial ideal (OR:0,33; IC95%:0,1-0,74; p=0,007) e colesterol total ideal (OR:1,88; IC95%:1,19-2,98; p=0,007) foram significativamente associados com o diagnóstico de FFA. CONCLUSÕES: Não foram identificadas associações significativas entre escores de ICVH global e diagnóstico de FFA após ajuste multivariado em nossas análises, devido, ao menos em parte, às associações antagônicas da FFA com métricas de pressão arterial e de colesterol total do ICVH. Nossos resultados sugerem que estimar a prevenção da FFA por meio de escore de ICVH global pode não ser adequado, e as métricas do ICVH devem ser consideradas separadamente.

17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1078, 2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia that affects 60 million people worldwide. Limited evidence on AF management exists from low- and middle-income countries and none from Sri Lanka. We aimed to investigate the existing AF care pathway and patients' perception on AF management to identify barriers and enablers for optimal AF care in Northern Province, Sri Lanka. METHODS: A rapid evaluation was undertaken with use of qualitative methods. Local healthcare providers (HCPs) mapped the intended pathway of care for AF patients which was then explored and annotated through 12 iterative sessions with additional HCPs. Topics of inefficiencies identified from the finalised map were used to guide focus group discussions (FGDs) with AF patients. AF patients who were attending the anticoagulation clinic at the only tertiary hospital in Northern Province were recruited and invited to participate using purposive sampling. The topic guide was developed in collaboration with local clinicians and qualitative experts. FGDs were conducted in the native Tamil language and all sessions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using a deductive approach. RESULTS: The mapped pathway revealed inefficiencies in referral, diagnosis and ongoing management. These were explored through three FGDs conducted with 25 AF patients aged 25 to 70 years. Two key themes that contributed to and resulted in delays in accessing care and ongoing management were health seeking behaviours and atomistic healthcare structures. Four cross-cutting sub-themes identified were decision making, paternalistic approach to care, cost impacts and lifestyle impacts. These are discussed across 10 unique categories with consideration of the local context. CONCLUSIONS: Strengthening primary healthcare services, improving public health literacy regarding AF and building patient autonomy whilst understanding the importance of their daily life and family involvement may be advantageous in tackling the inefficiencies in the current AF care pathway in Sri Lanka.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Grupos Focais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sri Lanka
18.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 22(9): 715-722, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920018

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the association between medication use and long-term all-cause mortality in a Brazilian stroke cohort. METHODS: Both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were evaluated. Medication use was assessed as: never, only pre-stroke, only post-stroke, and continuous use. We evaluated anti-hypertensives, anti-diabetics, lipid-lowering drugs, anti-platelets, and anti-coagulants. Cox regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Among 1173 incident stroke cases (median age: 68; 86.8% were ischemic, 70% first-ever stroke), medication use was low (overall: 17.5% pre-stroke, 26.4% post-stroke, and 40% were under continuous use). Anti-hypertensives and anti-platelets (aspirin) were the continuous cardiovascular medications used most often, at 83.5% and 72%, respectively, while statins (39.7%) and anti-diabetics (31.3%) were the least used. Medication use (pre-stroke, post-stroke and continuous use) was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality risk, particularly among those under continuous use (multivariable hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.46-0.66) compared with never-users. Among ischemic stroke patients, this effect was similar (multivariable hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.40-0.68). No significant associations were evident among hemorrhagic stroke patients. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of all-cause mortality was reduced by 48% among those with ischemic stroke under continuous use of medications. Secondary prevention should be emphasized more strongly in clinical practice. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2022; 22: 715-722.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral Hemorrágico , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Morbidade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Sobreviventes
20.
Lancet HIV ; 9(3): e172-e181, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35123667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of mental illness is higher in people living with HIV than in the general population, but the incidence of composite mental illness and its components is unclear. We aimed to identify the risk of incident mental illness along with individual conditions of depression, anxiety, and severe mental illness in people living with HIV in the UK. METHODS: Data for this population-based cohort were extracted from the IQVIA Medical Research Database, a nationally representative UK-based database of primary care electronic health records. We included adults (aged ≥18 years) living with HIV, matched with adults without HIV using propensity score matching (1:1 ratio). The primary outcome was composite mental illness comprising a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or severe mental illness. Secondary outcomes were individual mental health conditions. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to compare the risk of each outcome between people with and without HIV. Each model excluded those with the outcome at baseline. Individuals were followed up prospectively. The study period was from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 1, 2020. FINDINGS: Of 7167 people living with HIV without mental illness at baseline, 586 developed a mental illness (incidence rate 19·6 per 1000 person-years) compared with 418 of 7167 people without HIV (incidence rate 12·1 per 1000 person-years), resulting in an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1·63 (95% CI 1·44-1·85). People living with HIV had higher incidence rates for depression (15·4 per 1000 person-years), anxiety (7·2 per 1000 person-years), and severe mental illness (1·6 per 1000 person-years) compared with people without HIV (7·9, 5·0, and 0·6 per 1000 person-years, respectively), with adjusted HRs of 1·94 (95% CI 1·68-2·24) for depression, 1·38 (1·15-1·66) for anxiety, and 2·18 (1·41-3·39) for severe mental illness. INTERPRETATION: People living with HIV have an increased risk for developing composite mental illness, depression, anxiety, and severe mental illness compared with people without HIV. People living with HIV should be regularly screened for mental illness; however, there is a strong need to improve prevention of mental illness in people living with HIV and for more outreach programmes to ensure that no groups of people living with HIV are being underdiagnosed. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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