Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 362
Filtrar
1.
Med Image Anal ; 94: 103132, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442527

RESUMO

Counting of mitotic figures is a fundamental step in grading and prognostication of several cancers. However, manual mitosis counting is tedious and time-consuming. In addition, variation in the appearance of mitotic figures causes a high degree of discordance among pathologists. With advances in deep learning models, several automatic mitosis detection algorithms have been proposed but they are sensitive to domain shift often seen in histology images. We propose a robust and efficient two-stage mitosis detection framework, which comprises mitosis candidate segmentation (Detecting Fast) and candidate refinement (Detecting Slow) stages. The proposed candidate segmentation model, termed EUNet, is fast and accurate due to its architectural design. EUNet can precisely segment candidates at a lower resolution to considerably speed up candidate detection. Candidates are then refined using a deeper classifier network, EfficientNet-B7, in the second stage. We make sure both stages are robust against domain shift by incorporating domain generalization methods. We demonstrate state-of-the-art performance and generalizability of the proposed model on the three largest publicly available mitosis datasets, winning the two mitosis domain generalization challenge contests (MIDOG21 and MIDOG22). Finally, we showcase the utility of the proposed algorithm by processing the TCGA breast cancer cohort (1,124 whole-slide images) to generate and release a repository of more than 620K potential mitotic figures (not exhaustively validated).

2.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 34(3): 1667-1674, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38386124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Uniformly classifying long bone open fractures is challenging. The purpose of this study was to propose a modified Orthopaedic Trauma Society (OTS) Open Fracture Classification System, developed in a setting with a high incidence of civilian gunshot fractures. METHODS: From our prospectively collected database, we identified all patients with open tibia and femur fractures treated with intramedullary nailing over a 4 year period. All open fractures were retrospectively reclassified from the Gustilo-Anderson Classification system to the OTS Open Fracture Classification System. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-seven cases were identified. Ninety per cent of subjects were males. Their mean age was 34 years. The most common mechanism of injury was low-velocity civilian gunshot wounds (GSW) in 54.7% of cases. Soft tissue management was primary closure in 23.4% and soft tissue reconstruction in 24.1%. In 52.6% of cases (these all being secondary to civilian GSW), soft tissue management was healing via secondary intention. This is not included as a soft tissue management option in the OTS classification system. Fracture reclassification using the OTS Open Fracture Classification System was only possible in 47.5% of cases (Simple in 23.4%, Complex B in 24.1%). CONCLUSION: We conclude that the OTS Open Fracture Classification System is not inclusive of all open tibia and femur fractures as it does not cater for gunshot fractures. We propose a modification as follows: alter 'wound debridement' to 'appropriate wound care' and to subcategorise 'Simple' into type A and B: healing via secondary intention and primary closure, respectively.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur , Fraturas Expostas , Ortopedia , Fraturas da Tíbia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Fraturas do Fêmur/etiologia , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips20230028, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369884

RESUMO

Previous evaluations of interventions for borderline personality disorder have focused on psychotherapies. This study (N=42 patients), conducted in Liverpool, United Kingdom, reviewed the effect on out-of-area treatments (OATs) and hospital admissions of establishing a local case management team and a combined day treatment and crisis service for patients who are too dysregulated to access typical office-based psychotherapy. Data from 12, 24, and 36 months postintervention were compared with baseline data. All patients in OATs were repatriated to the local community. No new patients were sent to OATs. Admissions decreased (at 12 months, 49%; 24 months, 64%; 36 months, 74%), achieving savings in hospitalization costs. Moderate increases in the use and costs of some other services were observed.

4.
J Orthop ; 51: 98-102, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38357441

RESUMO

Open tibia fractures frequently occur following high-energy trauma. Contamination of the fracture site combined with limited soft tissue coverage and blood supply means that these open fractures are associated with a high rate of complications, including fracture related infection (FRI). FRI is associated with lowered patient outcomes and requires early recognition and appropriate surgical and medical management. The current evidence on FRI after open tibial fractures largely is limited to case series, small retrospective cohort studies and expert opinion. Recent expert consensus has produced guidelines with the aim of standardising care for these patients. This review summarises the current management strategies employed in treating FRI following open tibial fractures and where possible the evidence behind them.

5.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38352450

RESUMO

Hyperpolarized- 13 C magnetic resonance imaging (HP- 13 C MRI) was used to image changes in 13 C-lactate signal during a visual stimulus condition in comparison to an eyes-closed control condition. Whole-brain 13 C-pyruvate, 13 C-lactate and 13 C-bicarbonate production was imaged in healthy volunteers (N=6, ages 24-33) for the two conditions using two separate hyperpolarized 13 C-pyruvate injections. BOLD-fMRI scans were used to delineate regions of functional activation. 13 C-metabolite signal was normalized by 13 C-metabolite signal from the brainstem and the percentage change in 13 C-metabolite signal conditions was calculated. A one-way Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed a significant increase in 13 C-lactate in regions of activation when compared to the remainder of the brain ( p = 0.02, V = 21). No significant increase was observed in 13 C-pyruvate ( p = 0.11, V = 17) or 13 C-bicarbonate ( p = 0.95, V = 3) signal. The results show an increase in 13 C-lactate production in the activated region that is measurable with HP- 13 C MRI.

6.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 38(1): 14-21, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285961

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with an accelerated course of dementia, although biological relationships are incompletely understood. METHODS: The study examined 1124 participants, including 343 with Alzheimer disease (AD), 127 with AD with TBI, 266 cognitively normal adults with TBI, and 388 cognitively normal adults without TBI. Cortical thickness was quantified from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the interaction between AD and TBI on cortical thickness. RESULTS: Among those with AD, TBI was associated with an earlier age of AD onset but, counterintuitively, less cortical thinning in frontotemporal regions relative to non-AD controls. DISCUSSION: AD with TBI represents a distinct group from AD, likely with distinct pathologic contributions beyond gray matter loss. This finding has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AD in the presence of TBI and indicates that models of AD, aging, and neural loss should account for TBI history.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
7.
J Neurol ; 2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38282082

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the clinical stratification of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients in relation to in vivo cerebral degeneration. One hundred forty-nine ALS patients and one hundred forty-four healthy controls (HCs) were recruited from the Canadian ALS Neuroimaging Consortium (CALSNIC). Texture analysis was performed on T1-weighted scans to extract the texture feature "autocorrelation" (autoc), an imaging biomarker of cerebral degeneration. Patients were stratified at baseline into early and advanced disease stages based on criteria adapted from ALS clinical trials and the King's College staging system, as well as into slow and fast progressors (disease progression rates, DPR). Patients had increased autoc in the internal capsule. These changes extended beyond the internal capsule in early-stage patients (clinical trial-based criteria), fast progressors, and in advanced-stage patients (King's staging criteria). Longitudinal increases in autoc were observed in the postcentral gyrus, corticospinal tract, posterior cingulate cortex, and putamen; whereas decreases were observed in corpus callosum, caudate, central opercular cortex, and frontotemporal areas. Both longitudinal increases and decreases of autoc were observed in non-overlapping regions within insula and precentral gyrus. Within-criteria comparisons of autoc revealed more pronounced changes at baseline and longitudinally in early- (clinical trial-based criteria) and advanced-stage (King's staging criteria) patients and fast progressors. In summary, comparative patterns of baseline and longitudinal progression in cerebral degeneration are dependent on sub-group selection criteria, with clinical trial-based stratification insufficiently characterizing disease stage based on pathological cerebral burden.

8.
J Neurosci ; 44(5)2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38050101

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that the left hemisphere dominates motor function, often observed through homotopic activation measurements. Using a functional connectivity approach, this study investigated the lateralization of the sensorimotor cortex during handwriting and drawing, two complex visuomotor tasks with varying contextual demands. We found that both left- and right-lateralized connectivity in the primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), somatosensory cortex, and visual regions were evident in adults (males and females), primarily in an interhemispheric integrative fashion. Critically, these lateralization tendencies remained highly invariant across task contexts, representing a task-invariant neural architecture for encoding fundamental motor programs consistently implemented in different task contexts. Additionally, the PMd exhibited a slight variation in lateralization degree between task contexts, reflecting the ability of the high-order motor system to adapt to varying task demands. However, connectivity-based lateralization of the sensorimotor cortex was not detected in 10-year-old children (males and females), suggesting that the maturation of connectivity-based lateralization requires prolonged development. In summary, this study demonstrates both task-invariant and task-sensitive connectivity lateralization in sensorimotor cortices that support the resilience and adaptability of skilled visuomotor performance. These findings align with the hierarchical organization of the motor system and underscore the significance of the functional connectivity-based approach in studying functional lateralization.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor , Córtex Sensório-Motor , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial , Mapeamento Encefálico
9.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 28(3): 1161-1172, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37878422

RESUMO

We introduce LYSTO, the Lymphocyte Assessment Hackathon, which was held in conjunction with the MICCAI 2019 Conference in Shenzhen (China). The competition required participants to automatically assess the number of lymphocytes, in particular T-cells, in images of colon, breast, and prostate cancer stained with CD3 and CD8 immunohistochemistry. Differently from other challenges setup in medical image analysis, LYSTO participants were solely given a few hours to address this problem. In this paper, we describe the goal and the multi-phase organization of the hackathon; we describe the proposed methods and the on-site results. Additionally, we present post-competition results where we show how the presented methods perform on an independent set of lung cancer slides, which was not part of the initial competition, as well as a comparison on lymphocyte assessment between presented methods and a panel of pathologists. We show that some of the participants were capable to achieve pathologist-level performance at lymphocyte assessment. After the hackathon, LYSTO was left as a lightweight plug-and-play benchmark dataset on grand-challenge website, together with an automatic evaluation platform.

10.
J Pathol Clin Res ; 10(1): e346, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37873865

RESUMO

Early-stage estrogen receptor positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor negative (ER+/HER2-) luminal breast cancer (BC) is quite heterogeneous and accounts for about 70% of all BCs. Ki67 is a proliferation marker that has a significant prognostic value in luminal BC despite the challenges in its assessment. There is increasing evidence that spatial colocalization, which measures the evenness of different types of cells, is clinically important in several types of cancer. However, reproducible quantification of intra-tumor spatial heterogeneity remains largely unexplored. We propose an automated pipeline for prognostication of luminal BC based on the analysis of spatial distribution of Ki67 expression in tumor cells using a large well-characterized cohort (n = 2,081). The proposed Ki67 colocalization (Ki67CL) score can stratify ER+/HER2- BC patients with high significance in terms of BC-specific survival (p < 0.00001) and distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.0048). Ki67CL score is shown to be highly significant compared with the standard Ki67 index. In addition, we show that the proposed Ki67CL score can help identify luminal BC patients who can potentially benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Prognóstico , Antígeno Ki-67 , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Inteligência Artificial
11.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 106(1): 47-55, 2024 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37708306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that formalized trauma systems enhance patient functional outcomes and decrease mortality rates, there remains a lack of such systems globally. Critical to trauma systems are the equipment, materials, and supplies needed to support care, which vary in availability regionally. The purpose of the present study was to identify essential resources for musculoskeletal trauma care across diverse resource settings worldwide. METHODS: The modified Delphi method was utilized, with 3 rounds of electronic surveys. Respondents consisted of 1 surgeon with expertise in musculoskeletal trauma per country. Participants were identified with use of the AO Trauma, AO Alliance, Orthopaedic Trauma Association, and European Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery networks. Respondents rated resources on a Likert scale from 1 (most important) to 9 (least important). The "most essential" resources were classified as those rated ≤2 by ≥75% of the sampled group. RESULTS: One hundred and three of 111 invited surgeons completed the first survey and were included throughout the subsequent rounds (representing a 93% response rate). Most participants were fellowship-trained (78%) trauma and orthopaedic surgeons (90%) practicing in an academic setting (62%), and 46% had >20 years of experience. Respondents represented low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs; 35%), upper-middle income countries (UMICs; 30%), and high-income countries (HICs; 35%). The initial survey identified 308 unique resources for pre-hospital, in-hospital, and post-hospital phases of care, of which 71 resources achieved consensus as the most essential. There was a significant difference (p < 0.0167) in ratings between income groups for 16 resources, all of which were related to general trauma care rather than musculoskeletal injury management. CONCLUSIONS: There was agreement on a core list of essential musculoskeletal trauma care resources by respondents from LMICs, UMICs, and HICs. All significant differences in resource ratings were related to general trauma management. This study represents a first step toward establishing international consensus and underscores the need to prioritize resources that are locally available. The information can be used to develop effective guidelines and policies, create best-practice treatment standards, and advocate for necessary resources worldwide. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study utilized the Delphi method representing expert opinion; however, this work did not examine patient management and therefore does not have a clinical Level of Evidence.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Humanos , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Mod Pathol ; 37(3): 100416, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154653

RESUMO

In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has demonstrated exceptional performance in mitosis identification and quantification. However, the implementation of AI in clinical practice needs to be evaluated against the existing methods. This study is aimed at assessing the optimal method of using AI-based mitotic figure scoring in breast cancer (BC). We utilized whole slide images from a large cohort of BC with extended follow-up comprising a discovery (n = 1715) and a validation (n = 859) set (Nottingham cohort). The Cancer Genome Atlas of breast invasive carcinoma (TCGA-BRCA) cohort (n = 757) was used as an external test set. Employing automated mitosis detection, the mitotic count was assessed using 3 different methods, the mitotic count per tumor area (MCT; calculated by dividing the number of mitotic figures by the total tumor area), the mitotic index (MI; defined as the average number of mitotic figures per 1000 malignant cells), and the mitotic activity index (MAI; defined as the number of mitotic figures in 3 mm2 area within the mitotic hotspot). These automated metrics were evaluated and compared based on their correlation with the well-established visual scoring method of the Nottingham grading system and Ki67 score, clinicopathologic parameters, and patient outcomes. AI-based mitotic scores derived from the 3 methods (MCT, MI, and MAI) were significantly correlated with the clinicopathologic characteristics and patient survival (P < .001). However, the mitotic counts and the derived cutoffs varied significantly between the 3 methods. Only MAI and MCT were positively correlated with the gold standard visual scoring method used in Nottingham grading system (r = 0.8 and r = 0.7, respectively) and Ki67 scores (r = 0.69 and r = 0.55, respectively), and MAI was the only independent predictor of survival (P < .05) in multivariate Cox regression analysis. For clinical applications, the optimum method of scoring mitosis using AI needs to be considered. MAI can provide reliable and reproducible results and can accurately quantify mitotic figures in BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Antígeno Ki-67 , Inteligência Artificial , Mitose , Índice Mitótico
13.
Med Image Anal ; 92: 103047, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157647

RESUMO

Nuclear detection, segmentation and morphometric profiling are essential in helping us further understand the relationship between histology and patient outcome. To drive innovation in this area, we setup a community-wide challenge using the largest available dataset of its kind to assess nuclear segmentation and cellular composition. Our challenge, named CoNIC, stimulated the development of reproducible algorithms for cellular recognition with real-time result inspection on public leaderboards. We conducted an extensive post-challenge analysis based on the top-performing models using 1,658 whole-slide images of colon tissue. With around 700 million detected nuclei per model, associated features were used for dysplasia grading and survival analysis, where we demonstrated that the challenge's improvement over the previous state-of-the-art led to significant boosts in downstream performance. Our findings also suggest that eosinophils and neutrophils play an important role in the tumour microevironment. We release challenge models and WSI-level results to foster the development of further methods for biomarker discovery.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Técnicas Histológicas/métodos
14.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1286903, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38077405

RESUMO

Cattle possess three IgG subclasses. However, the key immune functions, including complement and NK cell activation, and enhancement of phagocytosis, are not fully described for bovine IgG1, 2 and 3. We produced chimeric monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) consisting of a defined variable region linked to the constant regions of bovine IgG1, 2 and 3, and expressed His-tagged soluble recombinant bovine Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) IA (CD64), IIA (CD32A), III (CD16) and Fcγ2R. Functional assays using bovinized mAbs were developed. IgG1 and IgG3, but not IgG2, activated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Only IgG1 could activate cattle NK cells to mobilize CD107a after antigen crosslinking, a surrogate assay for antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity. Both IgG1 and IgG2 could trigger monocyte-derived macrophages to phagocytose fluorescently labelled antigen-expressing target cells. IgG3 induced only weak antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). By contrast, monocytes only exhibited strong ADCP when triggered by IgG2. IgG1 bound most strongly to recombinant FcγRs IA, IIA and III, with weaker binding by IgG3 and none by IgG2, which bound exclusively to Fcγ2R. Immune complexes containing IgG1, 2 and 3 bound differentially to leukocyte subsets, with IgG2 binding strongly to neutrophils and monocytes and all subclasses binding platelets. Differential expression of the FcγRs on leukocyte subsets was demonstrated by surface staining and/or RT-qPCR of sorted cells, e.g., Fcγ2R mRNA was expressed in monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, and platelets, potentially explaining their strong interactions with IgG2, and FcγRIII was expressed on NK cells, presumably mediating IgG1-dependent NK cell activation. These data reveal differences in bovine IgG subclass functionality, which do not correspond to those described in humans, mice or pigs, which is relevant to the study of these IgG subclasses in vaccine and therapeutic antibody development.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G , Receptores de IgG , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Camundongos , Suínos , Fatores Imunológicos , Macrófagos , Fagocitose , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Antígenos
15.
Viruses ; 15(12)2023 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140685

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV-1 and -2) are the causative agents of one of the most important infectious diseases affecting the global pig industry. Previous studies, largely focused on PRRSV-2, have shown that non-structural protein-1α (NSP1α) and NSP1ß modulate host cell responses; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel PRRSV-1 NSP1-host protein interactions to improve our knowledge of NSP1-mediated immunomodulation. NSP1α and NSP1ß from a representative western European PRRSV-1 subtype 1 field strain (215-06) were used to screen a cDNA library generated from porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the primary target cell of PRRSV, using the yeast-2-hybrid system. This identified 60 putative binding partners for NSP1α and 115 putative binding partners for NSP1ß. Of those taken forward for further investigation, 3 interactions with NSP1α and 27 with NSP1ß were confirmed. These proteins are involved in the immune response, ubiquitination, nuclear transport, or protein expression. Increasing the stringency of the system revealed NSP1α interacts more strongly with PIAS1 than PIAS2, whereas NSP1ß interacts more weakly with TAB3 and CPSF4. Our study has increased our knowledge of the PRRSV-1 NSP1α and NSP1ß interactomes, further investigation of which could provide detailed insight into PRRSV immunomodulation and aid vaccine development.


Assuntos
Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Animais , Suínos , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Linhagem Celular , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
16.
NPJ Precis Oncol ; 7(1): 122, 2023 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37968376

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) grade is a well-established subjective prognostic indicator of tumour aggressiveness. Tumour heterogeneity and subjective assessment result in high degree of variability among observers in BC grading. Here we propose an objective Haematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) image-based prognostic marker for early-stage luminal/Her2-negative BReAst CancEr that we term as the BRACE marker. The proposed BRACE marker is derived from AI based assessment of heterogeneity in BC at a detailed level using the power of deep learning. The prognostic ability of the marker is validated in two well-annotated cohorts (Cohort-A/Nottingham: n = 2122 and Cohort-B/Coventry: n = 311) on early-stage luminal/HER2-negative BC patients treated with endocrine therapy and with long-term follow-up. The BRACE marker is able to stratify patients for both distant metastasis free survival (p = 0.001, C-index: 0.73) and BC specific survival (p < 0.0001, C-index: 0.84) showing comparable prediction accuracy to Nottingham Prognostic Index and Magee scores, which are both derived from manual histopathological assessment, to identify luminal BC patients that may be likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

17.
Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr ; 18(2): 82-86, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37942432

RESUMO

Introduction: Methoxyflurane has excellent analgesic properties and is approved for use in the United Kingdom and Ireland since 2015. It is currently used in emergency departments for analgesia during fracture reductions. During the COVID-19 pandemic, with theatre access severely restricted, Penthrox® had the potential to provide adequate pain relief to aid frame and wire removal in the clinic setting. Materials and methods: Patients presenting to the limb reconstruction service elective clinic and requiring frame removal or minor procedures were included in the study. Patients with renal, cardiac or hepatic disease, a history of sensitivity to fluorinated anaesthetic agents and those on any nephrotoxic or enzyme-inducing drugs were excluded. All procedures were performed in an appropriate isolated room in the clinic. Patient demographics, procedure details, visual analogue score, Richmond Agitation Scale and patient satisfaction were recorded. Results: A total of 39 patients were included in the study of which 17 had Ilizarov frames removed, 10 had hexapod removals, nine had heel rings removed and three had an external fixator removed. Eleven patients received additional pain relief in the form of oral analgesia. All patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the experience. One patient required a general anaesthetic for the removal of a wire that could not be removed in the clinic due to bony overgrowth. Conclusion: Patient satisfaction was very high (>95%), and it was possible to perform frame removals and minor procedures in the clinic environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. We see potential for regular use of Penthrox® in the future for the removal of external fixation outside of the operating theatre. Clinical significance: Penthrox as an analgesic for frame adjustments and removals is safe and has the potential for significant financial savings for the National Health Service (NHS). How to cite this article: Debuka E, Birkenhead P, Shah S, et al. Penthrox® (Methoxyflurane) as an Analgesic for Removal of Circular External Fixators and Minor Procedures during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr 2023;18(2):82-86.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38033926

RESUMO

Introduction: External fixator (EF) devices are commonly used in the management of complex skeletal trauma, as well as in elective limb reconstruction surgery for the management of congenital and acquired pathology. The subsequent removal of an EF is commonly performed under general anaesthesia in an operating theatre. This practice is resource-intensive and limits the amount of time available for other surgical cases in the operating theatre. We aimed to assess the use of regional anaesthesia as an alternative method of analgesia to facilitate the EF removal in an outpatient setting. Design and methods: This prospective case series evaluated the first 50 consecutive cases of EF removal in the outpatient clinic between 10/06/22 and 03/02/23. Regional anaesthesia using ultrasound-guided blockade of peripheral nerves was administered using 1% lidocaine due to its rapid onset and short half-life. Patients were assessed for additional analgesia requirements and then were asked to evaluate their experience and perceived pain using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: Fifty patients were included in the study. The mean age was 46.8 years (range 21-85 years). About 54% of the patients were male patients (N = 27). Post-procedure, all patients indicated positive satisfaction ratings, each participant responded as either 'satisfied' (N = 6), 'very satisfied' (N = 24) or 'highly satisfied' (N = 20). In addition, 90% of the participants reported that they would opt for this method of EF removal again in future. The VAS for pain immediately following completion of the procedure was low, with a mean score of 0.36 (range 0-4), where a score of 0 = 'No pain', and 10 = 'worst pain possible'. The median score was 0. Conclusion: We present the first description of outpatient EF removal using regional anaesthesia, with a prospective case series of 50 fully conscious patients from whom the EF was removed. This novel technique is likely to be cost-effective, reproducible, and safe. This technique reduces the burden of EF removal from an operating list and also improves the patient's experience when compared with other forms of conscious sedation. By eliminating the use of Entonox and methoxyflurane for sedation and analgesia, this technique also demonstrates a method of improving environmental sustainability. How to cite this article: Williams LM, Stamps G, Peak H, et al. Circular External Fixator Removal in the Outpatient Clinic Using Regional Anaesthesia: A Pilot Study of A Novel Approach. Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr 2023;18(1):7-11.

19.
Brain Behav ; 13(11): e3212, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37872889

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Post-acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) syndrome (PACS) is a growing concern, with headache being a particularly debilitating symptom with high prevalence. The long-term effects of COVID-19 and post-COVID headache on brain function remain poorly understood, particularly among non-hospitalized individuals. This study focused on the power-law scaling behavior of functional brain dynamics, indexed by the Hurst exponent (H). This measure is suppressed during physiological and psychological distress and was thus hypothesized to be reduced in individuals with post-COVID syndrome, with greatest reductions among those with persistent headache. METHODS: Resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected for 57 individuals who had COVID-19 (32 with no headache, 14 with ongoing headache, 11 recovered) and 17 controls who had cold and flu-like symptoms but  tested negative for COVID-19. Individuals were assessed an average of 4-5 months after COVID testing, in a cross-sectional, observational study design. RESULTS: No significant differences in H values were found between non-headache COVID-19 and control groups., while those with ongoing headache had significantly reduced H values, and those who had recovered from headache had elevated H values, relative to non-headache groups. Effects were greatest in temporal, sensorimotor, and insular brain regions. Reduced H in these regions was also associated with decreased BOLD activity and local functional connectivity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new insights into the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie persistent post-COVID headache, with reduced BOLD scaling as a potential biomarker that is specific to this debilitating condition.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , COVID-19/complicações , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cefaleia/diagnóstico por imagem , Cefaleia/etiologia
20.
Lancet Digit Health ; 5(11): e786-e797, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37890902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histopathological examination is a crucial step in the diagnosis and treatment of many major diseases. Aiming to facilitate diagnostic decision making and improve the workload of pathologists, we developed an artificial intelligence (AI)-based prescreening tool that analyses whole-slide images (WSIs) of large-bowel biopsies to identify typical, non-neoplastic, and neoplastic biopsies. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted with an internal development cohort of slides acquired from a hospital in the UK and three external validation cohorts of WSIs acquired from two hospitals in the UK and one clinical laboratory in Portugal. To learn the differential histological patterns from digitised WSIs of large-bowel biopsy slides, our proposed weakly supervised deep-learning model (Colorectal AI Model for Abnormality Detection [CAIMAN]) used slide-level diagnostic labels and no detailed cell or region-level annotations. The method was developed with an internal development cohort of 5054 biopsy slides from 2080 patients that were labelled with corresponding diagnostic categories assigned by pathologists. The three external validation cohorts, with a total of 1536 slides, were used for independent validation of CAIMAN. Each WSI was classified into one of three classes (ie, typical, atypical non-neoplastic, and atypical neoplastic). Prediction scores of image tiles were aggregated into three prediction scores for the whole slide, one for its likelihood of being typical, one for its likelihood of being non-neoplastic, and one for its likelihood of being neoplastic. The assessment of the external validation cohorts was conducted by the trained and frozen CAIMAN model. To evaluate model performance, we calculated area under the convex hull of the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), area under the precision-recall curve, and specificity compared with our previously published iterative draw and rank sampling (IDaRS) algorithm. We also generated heat maps and saliency maps to analyse and visualise the relationship between the WSI diagnostic labels and spatial features of the tissue microenvironment. The main outcome of this study was the ability of CAIMAN to accurately identify typical and atypical WSIs of colon biopsies, which could potentially facilitate automatic removing of typical biopsies from the diagnostic workload in clinics. FINDINGS: A randomly selected subset of all large bowel biopsies was obtained between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2017. The AI training, validation, and assessments were done between Jan 1, 2021, and Sept 30, 2022. WSIs with diagnostic labels were collected between Jan 1 and Sept 30, 2022. Our analysis showed no statistically significant differences across prediction scores from CAIMAN for typical and atypical classes based on anatomical sites of the biopsy. At 0·99 sensitivity, CAIMAN (specificity 0·5592) was more accurate than an IDaRS-based weakly supervised WSI-classification pipeline (0·4629) in identifying typical and atypical biopsies on cross-validation in the internal development cohort (p<0·0001). At 0·99 sensitivity, CAIMAN was also more accurate than IDaRS for two external validation cohorts (p<0·0001), but not for a third external validation cohort (p=0·10). CAIMAN provided higher specificity than IDaRS at some high-sensitivity thresholds (0·7763 vs 0·6222 for 0·95 sensitivity, 0·7126 vs 0·5407 for 0·97 sensitivity, and 0·5615 vs 0·3970 for 0·99 sensitivity on one of the external validation cohorts) and showed high classification performance in distinguishing between neoplastic biopsies (AUROC 0·9928, 95% CI 0·9927-0·9929), inflammatory biopsies (0·9658, 0·9655-0·9661), and atypical biopsies (0·9789, 0·9786-0·9792). On the three external validation cohorts, CAIMAN had AUROC values of 0·9431 (95% CI 0·9165-0·9697), 0·9576 (0·9568-0·9584), and 0·9636 (0·9615-0·9657) for the detection of atypical biopsies. Saliency maps supported the representation of disease heterogeneity in model predictions and its association with relevant histological features. INTERPRETATION: CAIMAN, with its high sensitivity in detecting atypical large-bowel biopsies, might be a promising improvement in clinical workflow efficiency and diagnostic decision making in prescreening of typical colorectal biopsies. FUNDING: The Pathology Image Data Lake for Analytics, Knowledge and Education Centre of Excellence; the UK Government's Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund; and Innovate UK on behalf of UK Research and Innovation.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Portugal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Biópsia , Reino Unido , Microambiente Tumoral
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...