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1.
Am J Public Health ; 114(3): 340-346, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330256

RESUMO

Unaccompanied immigrant children continue to arrive at the US-Mexico border and are at high risk for ongoing abuse, neglect, and poor mental and physical health. We are medical and legal experts in the fields of immigrant and refugee health, child abuse, and the legal rights of international refugee and migrant children. We provide an overview of US federal agencies with custody of unaccompanied immigrant children, a summary of medical care provided while in custody, and recent findings from the independent Juvenile Care Monitor Report mandating new custodial conditions for immigrant children while in federal custody. We provide recommendations to improve the health and well-being of unaccompanied immigrant children while in custody and once released to US sponsors. (Am J Public Health. 2024;114(3):340-346. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307570).


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Refugiados , Migrantes , Criança , Humanos , Direitos Civis
2.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 39: 100868, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38420107

RESUMO

Background: The clinical management of Child sexual abuse (CSA) demands specialised skills from healthcare professionals due to its sensitivity, legal implications, and serious physical health and mental health effects. Standardised, comprehensive clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) may be pivotal. In this systematic review, we examined existing CSA national CPGs (NCPGs) from European countries to assess their quality and reporting. Methods: We systematically searched six international databases and multiple grey literature sources, reporting by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards. Eligible guidelines were CSA guidance from national health agencies or societies in 34 COST Action 19106 Network Countries (CANC), published between January 2012 and November 2022. Two independent researchers searched, screened, reviewed, and extracted data. NCPGs were compared for completeness with reference WHO 2017 and 2019 guidelines. We used the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) to appraise quality and reporting. PROSPERO: CRD42022320747. Findings: Of 2919 records identified by database searches, none met inclusion criteria. Of 4714 records identified by other methods, 24 NCPGs from 17 (50%) of CANC countries were included. In 17 (50%) of eligible countries, no NCPGs were found. Content varied significantly within and between countries. NCPGs lacked many components in state-of-the art clinical practice compared to WHO reference standards, particularly in safety and risk assessment, interactions with caregivers, and mental health interventions. Appraisal by AGREE II revealed shortcomings in NCPG development, regarding scientific rigour, stakeholder involvement, implementation and evaluation. Interpretation: A notable number of European countries lack an NCPG; existing NCPGs often fall short. The healthcare response to CSA in Europe requires a coordinated approach to develop and implement high-quality CPGs. We advocate for a multidisciplinary team to develop a pan-European CSA guideline to ensure quality care for survivors. Funding: Funding was provided by the International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children.

3.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272540

RESUMO

Increasingly large numbers of children and youth are migrating across international borders with many seeking employment in both formal and informal work sectors. These young people are at high risk of exploitation. Healthcare professionals need to be able to recognise vulnerable patients and advocate for their protection and safety, yet there is a paucity of literature that provides guidance on how to accomplish this. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance to clinicians on identifying and assisting migrant paediatric patients at risk of being exploited in the work sector, including conducting a risk assessment and making decisions about mandatory reporting. First, the best interest of the youth within their cultural context should be examined respecting their desires and goals, as well as immediate and longer-term physical health, mental health and safety issues. Second, clinicians should consider the best interest of the family, with attention to varying socioeconomic and psychosocial conditions including acculturation, immigration challenges, as well as cultural norms and values. Third, the situation must be evaluated within the legal framework of the host country regarding child labour, exploitation and trafficking. Cultural humility, open-mindedness, the active engagement of patients and families and an understanding of child labour within cultural contexts and legal statutes will empower healthcare professionals to identify and support patients at risk of exploitation in work settings. These recommendations serve to prioritise the best interests of vulnerable working migrant children and youth. The healthcare and migration systems of the USA will be used as a case for exploration.


Assuntos
Trabalho Infantil , Migrantes , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Emigração e Imigração , Saúde Mental , Atenção à Saúde
4.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 47: e54, 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37008675

RESUMO

The objective of this communication is to outline the key elements required to train health care providers in various occupations (medicine, psychology, dentistry, nursing, social work, nutrition, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, chemistry, pharmacy, and obstetrics, including midwifery, among others) to address child sexual abuse (CSA) and develop care protocols grounded on evidence-based practices, as well as provide resources to optimize both processes. Training on child and adolescent sexual abuse is an essential component of facing this major challenge in Latin America and allowing health care personnel to fulfill their role of safeguarding the security and well-being of children and adolescents. Developing protocols helps health care staff define the roles and responsibilities of individual members, summarize potential red flags of CSA, and describe strategies to best identify and address the health and safety needs of patients and their families, which should include a trauma-informed approach. Future work should focus on developing and evaluating new strategies to increase the capacity of the health sector to care for children experiencing CSA and optimizing ways to train staff. Further aims should also include improving research and evidence generation on the epidemiology and care of CSA in Latin America, including of male children and adolescents, minorities, and priority groups (e.g., migrant children, children with disabilities, street children, youth deprived of liberty, indigenous communities and the LGBTQI+ community).


O objetivo desta comunicação é delinear os elementos-chave da capacitação em violência sexual infantil (VSI) para profissionais de saúde de diferentes disciplinas ­ medicina, psicologia, odontologia, enfermagem, serviço social, nutrição, fisioterapia, terapia ocupacional, química, farmácia e obstetrícia (incluindo parteiras), entre outros ­ e o desenvolvimento de protocolos de atendimento construídos sobre práticas baseadas em evidências, bem como fornecer recursos para otimizar ambos os processos. A capacitação sobre violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes é fundamental para enfrentar esse grande desafio na América Latina e permitir que os profissionais de saúde cumpram seu papel na defesa da segurança e do bem-estar das crianças e adolescentes. O desenvolvimento de protocolos ajuda a equipe de saúde a definir as funções e responsabilidades dos membros da equipe, resumir potenciais indicadores de VSI e descrever estratégias para melhor identificar e atender as necessidades de saúde e segurança do paciente e de sua família, o que deve incluir uma abordagem informada pelo trauma. O trabalho futuro deve se concentrar na elaboração e avaliação de novas estratégias para aumentar a capacidade do setor da saúde de atender crianças que sofrem VSI e otimizar as formas de capacitar o pessoal. Também é necessária uma melhor geração de pesquisas e evidências sobre a epidemiologia e atenção à VSI na América Latina, incluindo crianças e adolescentes do sexo masculino, e grupos minoritários e prioritários (por exemplo, crianças migrantes, com deficiência, em situação de rua, privadas de liberdade, pertencentes a comunidades indígenas e à comunidade LGBTQI+).

5.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e064008, 2023 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37068895

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with potentially severe health and mental health consequences. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) should be familiar with risk factors and potential indicators of CSA, and able to provide appropriate medical management. The WHO issued global guidelines for the clinical care of children with CSA, based on rigorous review of the evidence base. The current systematic review identifies existing CSA guidelines issued by government agencies and academic societies in the European Region and assesses their quality and clarity to illuminate strengths and identify opportunities for improvement. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This 10-database systematic review will be conducted according to the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines and will be reported according to The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Guidance for HCPs regarding CSA, written by a national governmental agency or academic society of HCPs within 34 COST Action 19106 Network Countries (CANC) and published in peer-reviewed or grey literature between January 2012 and November 2022, is eligible for inclusion. Two independent researchers will search the international literature, screen, review and extract data. Included guidelines will be assessed for completeness and clarity, compared with the WHO 2017/2019 guidelines on CSA, and evaluated for consistency between the CANC guidelines. The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tool and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology will be used to evaluate CANC guidelines. Descriptive statistics will summarise content similarities and differences between the WHO guidelines and national guidelines; data will be summarised using counts, frequencies, proportions and per cent agreement between country-specific guidelines and the WHO 2017/2019 guidelines. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: There are no individuals or protected health information involved and no safety issues identified. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed medical journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022320747.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Delitos Sexuais , Criança , Humanos , Literatura Cinzenta , Saúde Mental , Projetos de Pesquisa
6.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-57311

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. El objetivo de esta comunicación es delinear los elementos clave de la capacitación en violencia sexual infan- til (VSI) para profesionales de la salud en diferentes disciplinas medicina, psicología, odontología, enfermería, trabajo social, nutrición, fisioterapia, terapia ocupacional, química, bioquímica y obstetricia incluidas las par- teras, entre otras y el desarrollo de protocolos de atención con base en las prácticas basadas en evidencia, así como proporcionar recursos que permitan optimizar ambos procesos. La capacitación sobre la violencia sexual hacia niñas, niños y adolescentes (NNA) es esencial para enfrentar este gran desafío en América Latina y permitir al personal de salud cumplir su función en defensa de la seguridad y el bienestar de NNA. El desarrollo de protocolos ayuda al personal de salud a definir las funciones y responsabilidades de los miem- bros del personal, resumir los posibles indicadores de VSI y describir las estrategias para identificar y abordar mejor las necesidades de salud y seguridad del paciente y su familia, por lo que deben incluir el enfoque informado sobre el trauma. El trabajo futuro debe centrarse en desarrollar y evaluar estrategias nuevas para aumentar la capacidad del sector de la salud para atender a los NNA que experimentan VSI y optimizar las formas de capacitar al personal. Apunta, también, a mejorar la generación de investigación y evidencia sobre la epidemiología y atención de la VSI en América Latina, incluidos los niños y adolescentes varones, grupos minoritarios y de atención prioritaria (p. ej. NNA migrantes, con discapacidad, en situación de calle, privados de la libertad, pertenecientes a comunidades indígenas y a la comunidad LGBTIQ+).


[ABSTRACT]. The objective of this communication is to outline the key elements required to train health care providers in various occupations (medicine, psychology, dentistry, nursing, social work, nutrition, physiotherapy, occu- pational therapy, chemistry, pharmacy, and obstetrics, including midwifery, among others) to address child sexual abuse (CSA) and develop care protocols grounded on evidence-based practices, as well as provide resources to optimize both processes. Training on child and adolescent sexual abuse is an essential com- ponent of facing this major challenge in Latin America and allowing health care personnel to fulfill their role of safeguarding the security and well-being of children and adolescents. Developing protocols helps health care staff define the roles and responsibilities of individual members, summarize potential red flags of CSA, and describe strategies to best identify and address the health and safety needs of patients and their families, which should include a trauma-informed approach. Future work should focus on developing and evaluating new strategies to increase the capacity of the health sector to care for children experiencing CSA and opti- mizing ways to train staff. Further aims should also include improving research and evidence generation on the epidemiology and care of CSA in Latin America, including of male children and adolescents, minorities, and priority groups (e.g., migrant children, children with disabilities, street children, youth deprived of liberty, indigenous communities and the LGBTQI+ community).


[RESUMO]. O objetivo desta comunicação é delinear os elementos-chave da capacitação em violência sexual infantil (VSI) para profissionais de saúde de diferentes disciplinas — medicina, psicologia, odontologia, enfermagem, serviço social, nutrição, fisioterapia, terapia ocupacional, química, farmácia e obstetrícia (incluindo parteiras), entre outros — e o desenvolvimento de protocolos de atendimento construídos sobre práticas baseadas em evidências, bem como fornecer recursos para otimizar ambos os processos. A capacitação sobre violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes é fundamental para enfrentar esse grande desafio na América Latina e permitir que os profissionais de saúde cumpram seu papel na defesa da segurança e do bem-estar das crianças e adolescentes. O desenvolvimento de protocolos ajuda a equipe de saúde a definir as funções e responsabilidades dos membros da equipe, resumir potenciais indicadores de VSI e descrever estratégias para melhor identificar e atender as necessidades de saúde e segurança do paciente e de sua família, o que deve incluir uma abordagem informada pelo trauma. O trabalho futuro deve se concentrar na elabo- ração e avaliação de novas estratégias para aumentar a capacidade do setor da saúde de atender crianças que sofrem VSI e otimizar as formas de capacitar o pessoal. Também é necessária uma melhor geração de pesquisas e evidências sobre a epidemiologia e atenção à VSI na América Latina, incluindo crianças e adolescentes do sexo masculino, e grupos minoritários e prioritários (por exemplo, crianças migrantes, com deficiência, em situação de rua, privadas de liberdade, pertencentes a comunidades indígenas e à comuni- dade LGBTQI+).


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Pessoal de Saúde , Capacitação Profissional , Tutoria , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Pessoal de Saúde , Capacitação Profissional , Tutoria , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Pessoal de Saúde , Capacitação Profissional , Tutoria
7.
Pediatrics ; 151(1)2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36827522

RESUMO

Exploitation and labor and sex trafficking of children and adolescents is a major public health problem in the United States and throughout the world. Significant numbers of US and non-US-born children and adolescents (including unaccompanied immigrant minors) are affected by this growing concern and may experience a range of serious physical and mental health problems associated with human trafficking and exploitation (T/E). Despite these considerations, there is limited information available for health care providers regarding the nature and scope of T/E and how providers may help recognize and protect children and adolescents. Knowledge of risk factors, recruitment practices, possible indicators of T/E, and common medical, mental, and emotional health problems experienced by affected individuals will assist health care providers in recognizing vulnerable children and adolescents and responding appropriately. A trauma-informed, rights-based, culturally sensitive approach helps providers identify and treat patients who have experienced or are at risk for T/E. As health care providers, educators, and leaders in child advocacy and development, pediatricians play an important role in addressing the public health issues faced by children and adolescents who experience exploitation and trafficking. Working across disciplines with professionals in the community, health care providers can offer evidence-based medical screening, treatment, and holistic services to individuals who have experienced T/E and assist vulnerable patients and families in recognizing signs of T/E.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Gravidez , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adolescente , Tráfico de Pessoas/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Parto , Atenção à Saúde
8.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 47: e54, 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1432095

RESUMO

RESUMEN El objetivo de esta comunicación es delinear los elementos clave de la capacitación en violencia sexual infantil (VSI) para profesionales de la salud en diferentes disciplinas medicina, psicología, odontología, enfermería, trabajo social, nutrición, fisioterapia, terapia ocupacional, química, bioquímica y obstetricia incluidas las parteras, entre otras y el desarrollo de protocolos de atención con base en las prácticas basadas en evidencia, así como proporcionar recursos que permitan optimizar ambos procesos. La capacitación sobre la violencia sexual hacia niñas, niños y adolescentes (NNA) es esencial para enfrentar este gran desafío en América Latina y permitir al personal de salud cumplir su función en defensa de la seguridad y el bienestar de NNA. El desarrollo de protocolos ayuda al personal de salud a definir las funciones y responsabilidades de los miembros del personal, resumir los posibles indicadores de VSI y describir las estrategias para identificar y abordar mejor las necesidades de salud y seguridad del paciente y su familia, por lo que deben incluir el enfoque informado sobre el trauma. El trabajo futuro debe centrarse en desarrollar y evaluar estrategias nuevas para aumentar la capacidad del sector de la salud para atender a los NNA que experimentan VSI y optimizar las formas de capacitar al personal. Apunta, también, a mejorar la generación de investigación y evidencia sobre la epidemiología y atención de la VSI en América Latina, incluidos los niños y adolescentes varones, grupos minoritarios y de atención prioritaria (p. ej. NNA migrantes, con discapacidad, en situación de calle, privados de la libertad, pertenecientes a comunidades indígenas y a la comunidad LGBTIQ+).


ABSTRACT The objective of this communication is to outline the key elements required to train health care providers in various occupations (medicine, psychology, dentistry, nursing, social work, nutrition, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, chemistry, pharmacy, and obstetrics, including midwifery, among others) to address child sexual abuse (CSA) and develop care protocols grounded on evidence-based practices, as well as provide resources to optimize both processes. Training on child and adolescent sexual abuse is an essential component of facing this major challenge in Latin America and allowing health care personnel to fulfill their role of safeguarding the security and well-being of children and adolescents. Developing protocols helps health care staff define the roles and responsibilities of individual members, summarize potential red flags of CSA, and describe strategies to best identify and address the health and safety needs of patients and their families, which should include a trauma-informed approach. Future work should focus on developing and evaluating new strategies to increase the capacity of the health sector to care for children experiencing CSA and optimizing ways to train staff. Further aims should also include improving research and evidence generation on the epidemiology and care of CSA in Latin America, including of male children and adolescents, minorities, and priority groups (e.g., migrant children, children with disabilities, street children, youth deprived of liberty, indigenous communities and the LGBTQI+ community).


RESUMO O objetivo desta comunicação é delinear os elementos-chave da capacitação em violência sexual infantil (VSI) para profissionais de saúde de diferentes disciplinas — medicina, psicologia, odontologia, enfermagem, serviço social, nutrição, fisioterapia, terapia ocupacional, química, farmácia e obstetrícia (incluindo parteiras), entre outros — e o desenvolvimento de protocolos de atendimento construídos sobre práticas baseadas em evidências, bem como fornecer recursos para otimizar ambos os processos. A capacitação sobre violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes é fundamental para enfrentar esse grande desafio na América Latina e permitir que os profissionais de saúde cumpram seu papel na defesa da segurança e do bem-estar das crianças e adolescentes. O desenvolvimento de protocolos ajuda a equipe de saúde a definir as funções e responsabilidades dos membros da equipe, resumir potenciais indicadores de VSI e descrever estratégias para melhor identificar e atender as necessidades de saúde e segurança do paciente e de sua família, o que deve incluir uma abordagem informada pelo trauma. O trabalho futuro deve se concentrar na elaboração e avaliação de novas estratégias para aumentar a capacidade do setor da saúde de atender crianças que sofrem VSI e otimizar as formas de capacitar o pessoal. Também é necessária uma melhor geração de pesquisas e evidências sobre a epidemiologia e atenção à VSI na América Latina, incluindo crianças e adolescentes do sexo masculino, e grupos minoritários e prioritários (por exemplo, crianças migrantes, com deficiência, em situação de rua, privadas de liberdade, pertencentes a comunidades indígenas e à comunidade LGBTQI+).

9.
Pediatrics ; 150(4)2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Survivors of child sex trafficking (CST) experience many health and social sequelae as a result of stigma, discrimination, and barriers to health care. Our objective was to obtain a cross-cultural understanding of these barriers and to explore the relationship between stigmatization and health outcomes through application of the Health Stigma and Discrimination Framework (HSDF). METHODS: In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 45 recognized CST expert service providers. Interview data were analyzed using established content analysis procedures and applied to the HSDF. RESULTS: Barriers to medical and mental health services span each socioecological level of the HSDF, indicating the various contexts in which stigmatization leads to adverse health and social outcomes. Stigmatization of CST survivors is a complex process whereby various factors drive and facilitate the marking of CST survivors as stigmatized. Intersecting stigmas multiply the burden, and manifest in stigma experiences of self-stigmatization, shame, family and community discrimination, and stigma practices of provider discrimination. These lead to reduced access to care, lack of funding, resources, and trained providers, and ultimately result in health and social disparities such as social isolation, difficulty reintegrating, and a myriad of physical health and mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: The HSDF is a highly applicable framework within which to evaluate stigmatization of CST survivors. This study suggests the utility of stigma-based public health interventions for CST and provides a global understanding of the influence and dynamics of stigmatization unique to CST survivors.


Assuntos
Mudança Social , Estigma Social , Criança , Humanos , Vergonha , Estereotipagem , Sobreviventes
10.
Public Health Rep ; 137(1_suppl): 30S-37S, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775914

RESUMO

Although human trafficking is recognized as a public health issue, research on the health effects of human trafficking and best intervention practices is limited. We describe 2 citywide collaborative victim services models, the THRIVE (Trafficking, Healthcare, Resources, and Interdisciplinary Victim Services and Education) Clinic at the University of Miami and Jackson Health System in Miami, Florida, and the Greater Houston Area Pathways for Advocacy-based, Trauma-Informed Healthcare (PATH) Collaborative at Baylor College of Medicine, CommonSpirit Health, and San Jose Clinic in Houston, Texas, funded in part by the Office for Victims of Crime, which focus on trauma-informed health care delivery for victims of human trafficking. From June 2015 through September 2021, the THRIVE Clinic served 214 patients with an average age of 28.7 years at the time of their first visit. From October 2017 through September 2021, the PATH Collaborative received 560 suspected trafficking referrals, 400 of which screened positive for labor or sex trafficking. These models serve as a framework for replication of interdisciplinary practices to provide health care for this unique population and preliminary information about the strategies put in place to assist victims during their recovery. Key lessons include the importance of a citywide needs assessment, patient navigators, interdisciplinary care, and building community partnerships to ensure safe housing, transportation, identification, health insurance, vocation services, input from survivors, peer-to-peer mentorship, and medical-legal services. Further research is needed to understand the detrimental health effects of trafficking and the health care needs of victims. In addition, a need exists to develop optimal models of care for recovery and reintegration for this patient population and to address public health, legal, and medical policies to ensure access to and sustainability of comprehensive, trauma-informed, interdisciplinary victim services.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Adulto , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sobreviventes/psicologia
12.
Child Abuse Negl ; 131: 105694, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child labor trafficking is a largely unexplored and unpublished phenomenon in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To 1) characterize the state of the science on child labor trafficking, and 2) identify empirical information regarding risk and protective factors, and physical/behavioral health needs of labor-trafficked children/adolescents. METHODS: This scoping review involved an electronic review of five databases; the search was restricted to studies in English or Spanish and published between Jan 1, 2010-Oct 16, 2020. The search yielded 1190 articles; 48 studies qualified for full review and 8 met inclusion criteria (US-based study addressing risk factors/vulnerabilities for child labor trafficking; protective factors; health impact; or health/behavioral healthcare). RESULTS: Only one study had sufficient sample size to compare sex to labor trafficking among minors; some did not separate data by age group or by type of trafficking. A few shared data from a common source; one was a single case review. Findings suggested that sex and labor trafficking may share common risk factors (e.g., prior child maltreatment and out-of-home placement) as well as within group differences (e.g., labor trafficked children had less prior child welfare involvement than those involved in sex trafficking and were more likely to be younger, male, Black or non-white, and Hispanic). Multiple physical/behavioral health symptoms were reported and may be useful items for a healthcare screen. CONCLUSIONS: Child labor trafficking research in the U.S. is in its infancy, although the results of this review point to opportunities for screening and case conceptualization that may be useful to practitioners.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Trabalho Infantil , Tráfico de Pessoas , Adolescente , Criança , Proteção da Criança , Tráfico de Pessoas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Trabalho Sexual , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221093119, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of trauma-informed primary healthcare on recovery from human trafficking, or individual characteristics associated with successful participation in community services. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a trauma-informed family medicine clinic, the Medical Safe Haven ("MSH"), in facilitating success in a community-based anti-trafficking victim service program, Community Against Sexual Harm ("CASH"), and to identify participant characteristics associated with successful CASH completion. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from 57 adult females participating in the CASH program, 37 of whom received care at MSH. We examined differences in descriptive statistics between those who completed the CASH program and those who did not; then conducted logistic and linear regressions testing the association between MSH care and CASH program outcomes. Survival analysis models examined the time to CASH program drop-out (program incompletion). RESULTS: Odds of successful CASH completion increased by a factor of 5.37 for MSH patients compared to other participants. This association strengthened with increases in the duration of MSH care and degree of patient engagement. The positive association of MSH care on program completion was mediated by the length of program participation. The extended length of participation among MSH patients was even stronger when those patients were in a stable and independent housing situation. The risk of program incompletion was 68% lower for MSH patients compared to other participants. CONCLUSIONS: Adults who experience human trafficking and receive healthcare at MSH are significantly more likely to successfully complete the CASH program than those who do not receive healthcare or who use alternative health systems. Study findings argue for the importance of consistent, trauma-informed longitudinal healthcare for trafficked persons.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Participação do Paciente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Appl Clin Inform ; 13(1): 113-122, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 21st Century Cures Act has accelerated adoption of OpenNotes, providing new opportunities for patient and family engagement in their care. However, these regulations present new challenges, particularly for pediatric health systems aiming to improve information sharing while minimizing risks associated with adolescent confidentiality and safety. OBJECTIVE: Describe lessons learned preparing for OpenNotes across a pediatric health system during a 4-month trial period (referred to as "Learning Mode") in which clinical notes were not shared by default but decision support was present describing the upcoming change and physicians could request feedback on complex cases from a multidisciplinary team. METHODS: During Learning Mode (December 3, 2020-March 9, 2021), implementation included (1) educational text at the top of commonly used note types indicating that notes would soon be shared and providing guidance, (2) a new confidential note type, and (3) a mechanism for physicians to elicit feedback from a multidisciplinary OpenNotes working group for complex cases with questions related to OpenNotes. The working group reviewed lessons learned from this period, as well as implementation of OpenNotes from March 10, 2021 to June 30, 2021. RESULTS: During Learning Mode, 779 confidential notes were written across the system. The working group provided feedback on 14 complex cases and also reviewed 7 randomly selected confidential notes. The proportion of physician notes shared with patients increased from 1.3% to 88.4% after default sharing of notes to the patient portal. Key lessons learned included (1) sensitive information was often present in autopopulated elements, differential diagnoses, and supervising physician note attestations; and (2) incorrect reasons were often selected by clinicians for withholding notes but this accuracy improved with new designs. CONCLUSION: While OpenNotes provides an unprecedented opportunity to engage pediatric patients and their families, targeted education and electronic health record designs are needed to mitigate potential harms of inappropriate disclosures.


Assuntos
Portais do Paciente , Médicos , Adolescente , Criança , Confidencialidade , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação
15.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(2): 285-289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924047

RESUMO

Human trafficking is associated with a variety of adverse health and mental health consequences, which should be accurately addressed and documented in electronic health records.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos
16.
Pediatr Rev ; 42(12): 639-654, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850175

RESUMO

Regardless of their practice setting or subspecialty, pediatricians are likely to encounter children who have experienced sex or labor trafficking or who are at risk for exploitation. Only 24.1% of health professionals in one study reported receiving previous training on human trafficking; after a brief presentation on the topic, 39.6% indicated that they knew or suspected they had cared for a trafficked person in the past 3 months. Trafficked and exploited children can present with myriad physical or mental health conditions; most have experienced repeated, significant trauma; and few are likely to spontaneously disclose their exploitative situation. As a result, clinicians face challenges in recognizing and appropriately responding to potential human trafficking. Knowledge of common risk factors and potential indicators of exploitation can assist the pediatrician in recognizing affected and at-risk youth. However, health professionals report that existing training tends to focus on general information about trafficking, with relatively little time spent discussing the specifics of the trauma-informed approach to patient interactions. Given the critical importance of building patient trust, empowering patients to share their concerns, and engaging them in their own care and safety planning, this article focuses on the practical aspects of working with trafficked and exploited children. A brief overview of human trafficking is followed by an extensive discussion of rights-based, culturally sensitive, trauma-informed strategies for interacting with vulnerable patients.


Assuntos
Trabalho Infantil , Tráfico de Pessoas , Adolescente , Criança , Tráfico de Pessoas/prevenção & controle , Humanos
17.
Front Public Health ; 8: 561184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251172

RESUMO

The global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 exacerbates major risk factors for global human trafficking. Social isolation of families and severe economic distress amplify the risk of interpersonal violence, unemployment and homelessness, as well as increased internet use by under-supervised children. Aggravating the situation are overwhelmed health systems, severe limitations in activities of social service organizations, and decreased contact of healthcare professionals with children. Healthcare professionals have a duty to be alert to possible indicators of trafficking, and aware of available victim resources which can be offered to at-risk patients. Healthcare facilities should take steps to increase public awareness of trafficking and community resources.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tráfico de Pessoas , Criança , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 56(9): 1335-1339, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815607

RESUMO

Human trafficking is a public health issue and humanitarian crisis. Most alarming is that children are especially at risk. Although many studies demonstrate that the majority of trafficked persons surveyed engage with the health-care system during the time in which they are trafficked, health-care practitioners lack the knowledge, tools and resources to assist these patients. The present efforts in training health-care professionals have been fragmented and largely ineffective. While prior training has produced short-term changes in knowledge or attitudes of health professionals, it has not produced sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes nor meaningful changes in screening or intervention. No training has demonstrated changes in patient outcomes. Trafficked persons, particularly children and survivors of labour trafficking, are inadequately served by our present training options for health-care practitioners, and evidence-based protocols are needed to care for this underserved, disenfranchised and traumatised population. To provide optimal care for trafficked youth, health-care practitioners may benefit from: (i) evaluating training for health care providers (HCP) rigorously and meaningfully; (ii) advocating for high-quality training for all HCPs; (iii) fostering partnerships with key stakeholders to inform training and practice; and (iv) designing HCP training that is comprehensive, spanning all forms of human trafficking and including all populations involved.


Assuntos
Tráfico de Pessoas , Adolescente , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes
19.
Pediatr Ann ; 49(5): e209-e214, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413148

RESUMO

Human trafficking has been increasingly recognized worldwide as a major public health problem. It is a crime based on exploitation of the most vulnerable and marginalized people of any community and is a violation of human rights. Children, especially immigrant and refugee children, are at risk of victimization and may experience considerable physical and mental health consequences. Adding these problems to pre-existing vulnerabilities and adversities makes human trafficking a complex health issue that needs to be addressed by a multidisciplinary team that includes health care providers. This article aims to provide an overview of human trafficking and the red flags that may alert the pediatrician to the possibility of exploitation, with a special focus on immigrant and refugee children. It describes a trauma-informed, rights-based approach and discusses ways in which pediatricians can contribute to a multidisciplinary response to human trafficking. [Pediatr Ann. 2020;49(5):e209-e214.].


Assuntos
Proteção da Criança , Vítimas de Crime , Tráfico de Pessoas , Criança , Proteção da Criança/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Tráfico de Pessoas/legislação & jurisprudência , Tráfico de Pessoas/prevenção & controle , Tráfico de Pessoas/psicologia , Humanos , Notificação de Abuso , Pediatria , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Refugiados , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Populações Vulneráveis
20.
Annu Rev Public Health ; 41: 481-497, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237991

RESUMO

Human trafficking and child sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in particular are global public health issues with widespread, lasting impacts on children, families, and communities. Traditionally, human trafficking has been treated as a law enforcement problem with an emphasis on the arrest and prosecution of traffickers. However, use of a public health approach focuses efforts on those impacted by exploitation: trafficked persons, their families, and the population at large. It promotes strategies to build a solid scientific evidence base that allows development, implementation, and evaluation of prevention and intervention efforts, informs policy and program development, and guides international efforts at eradication. This article uses the public health approach to address human trafficking, with a focus on child sex trafficking and exploitation. Recommendations are made for public health professionals to contribute to antitrafficking efforts globally.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/legislação & jurisprudência , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Tráfico de Pessoas/legislação & jurisprudência , Tráfico de Pessoas/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
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