Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36
Filtrar
2.
Psychooncology ; 32(9): 1339-1347, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37496186

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD) has been legal in Canada since June 2016. A person can receive MAiD if their suffering cannot be relieved under conditions that they consider acceptable. Informed consent requires that the person requesting MAiD has received all the information needed to make their decision; that is, medical diagnosis and prognosis, available treatments including palliative care. The evaluation of unbearable suffering is known to be challenging as suffering is often psychological, existential, and social in nature. While interventions to relieve suffering exist, it is unclear how suffering is assessed and addressed in the literature on MAiD practice. No scoping review exists on the topic in Canada. The aim of this study was to understand how the concept of suffering was approached within the Canadian MAiD grey (GL) and scientific (peer-reviewed) literature (SL), specifically: 1- How suffering is defined and assessed in the context of MAiD in Canada and 2- Which interventions in response to suffering are recommended within the process of obtaining informed consent for MAiD and throughout the process of MAiD itself. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted based on PRISMA-SR guidelines. SL articles (N = 1027) were identified from a review of 6 databases and GL documents (N = 537) were obtained from the provinces of Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia. Documents were analyzed using NVivo with coding by two-raters and continuous team discussions. RESULTS: A multidimensional definition of suffering, akin to the concept of total pain, is used. The assessment of suffering is based upon patients' reports. Tools to aid in the assessment are not comprehensively covered. Specific interventions to address suffering were often focused on active listening and the management of physical symptoms. No specific interventions were mentioned and there was no reference to clinical practice guidelines in the grey literature to address other components of suffering. The use of a multidisciplinary approach is suggested without specifying the nature of involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Our review indicates that published guidelines of MAID assessments could include clearer structure around the assessment and management of suffering, with suggestions of tools that may help clarify types of suffering and reference to clinical practice guidelines and interventions to holistically attend to patient suffering with an attention on non-physical symptoms. Guidelines would benefit from clearer explanations of how members of an interdisciplinary teams could be coherently coordinated.


Assuntos
Suicídio Assistido , Humanos , Canadá , Assistência Médica , Cuidados Paliativos , Quebeque , Suicídio Assistido/psicologia
3.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 61(7): 946-948, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772868

RESUMO

Over the past decade, visits to American and Canadian emergency departments (EDs) for child and youth mental health care have increased substantially.1,2 Acute mental health crises can occur as a result of a variety of concerns, including those that are life threatening (eg, suicide attempts), pose safety concerns (eg, suicidal intentions, aggressive behaviors, alcohol and other drug use), and are physically distressing to the child or youth (eg, panic attacks). ED health care providers play a vital role in assessing the safety and well-being of the child or youth and referring them to services for ongoing care.3,4 During the ED visit, assessment and care should pinpoint risks, inform treatment, and consider family needs and preferences as part of a patient-centered approach. Yet, this approach to care is not widely adopted in EDs. Most EDs do not require the use of pediatric-specific mental health tools to guide assessments or have patient-centered procedures in place to guide the care of patients with mental health emergencies.5-7 Our team believes these limitations have led to the provision of acute mental health care that can lack sufficient quality and efficiency. This study protocol describes a trial designed to evaluate if a novel mental health care bundle that was co-designed with parents and youth results in greater improvements in the well-being of children and youth 30 days after seeking ED care for mental health and/or substance misuse concerns compared with existing care protocols. We hypothesize that the bundle will positively impact child and youth well-being, while also providing cost-effective health care system benefits.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Canadá , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e059689, 2022 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715176

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patient engagement in healthcare research is a necessity to ensure that research objectives align with priorities, outcomes and needs of the population under study, and to facilitate ease of implementation and adoption of findings. In clinical trials, there is an increasing focus on patient engagement during the planning and conduct of clinical trials due to the potential for ethical and methodological benefits. As patient engagement in clinical trials increases, there is a need to evaluate the approaches of these activities to contribute evidence on what is most appropriate and successful. The purpose of this study is to evaluate patient engagement processes and the activities of patient partners during and after a paediatric mental healthcare trial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using a mixed-methods study design, we will evaluate patient partners' engagement activities across set time-points during the trial and after trial completion. In this study, the term 'patient partner' is inclusive of two groups of people with lived experience: (1) caregivers (parents, formal/informal caregivers and family), and (2) youth (aged 15-24 years). Engagement will be evaluated using the participant and project questionnaires of the Public and Patient Engagement Evaluation Tool (PPEET), followed sequentially by semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data from the PPEET questionnaire will be analysed and reported using descriptive statistics. Data from open-ended questions from the PPEET questionnaires and semi-structured interviews will be analysed using thematic analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval from Athabasca University Research Ethics Board will be obtained for this project. Findings will be disseminated at both academic and public venues whether in-person or online, and using platforms that are caregiver and youth friendly. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04902391.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pais , Adolescente , Cuidadores , Humanos , Participação do Paciente , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
5.
Prev Med ; 152(Pt 1): 106737, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538378

RESUMO

Suicide was the second­leading cause of US deaths in 2018 among 15-24-year-olds. Suicide attempts, a risk factor for completions, and suicide ideation have doubled among pediatric emergency room (ER) patients during the past decade. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), a comorbid condition, has a 10% suicide rate. We examined the 4-year outcome of a cohort of suicidal adolescents, many also suffering from BPD and having undergone some form of treatment, to identify baseline factors which could inform intervention that would minimize suicidality 4 years post-discharge. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of suicidality at twelve points (four assessment occasions) for 286 suicidal youth presenting to a pediatric ER, most suffering from BPD, with 36 suicide ratings from baseline to 2-, 6- and 48-month follow-up evaluations. We examined the trajectory and predictors of persisting suicidality. RESULTS: Suicidality rapidly decreased within 2 months post-ER-discharge, subsequently remaining low throughout 48 months. Baseline functioning, female sex, stressful life events and BPD impulsiveness were most predictive of persisting suicidality at 48-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Most suicidal youth, many meeting BPD criteria, no longer feel suicidal 2 months after ER discharge. Management of participants' baseline poor functioning stressful life events and the impulsiveness component of BPD specifically in females could impact suicidality 4 years later, and guide treatment options. The absence of the BPD cognitive and affective subscales as predictors of suicidality at 4-year follow-up may reflect treatment received. Further investigation of treatment effects is warranted and under way.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Adolescente , Assistência ao Convalescente , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 24(4): 397-406, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25084977

RESUMO

This article examines a large cohort of previously suicidal adolescents, identifying those that surpassed threshold criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD), according to the Abbreviated Diagnostic Interview of Borderlines (Ab-DIB), and determining the stability, correlates and predictors of BPD from early-to-late adolescence. Two hundred and eighty-six youth (mean baseline age 14.6 years; SD 1.5), presenting consecutively to a metropolitan pediatric hospital emergency department for evaluation of suicidality, were assessed at initial consultation for Axis I and II disorders and demographic and clinical variables. Two hundred and twenty-nine (80%) were re-assessed for those variables 4 years later and 204 (70.3%) had complete data sets at recruitment and follow-up. Previously suicidal youths who met BPD threshold on the Ab-DIB at recruitment were distinguishable at baseline from those who did not in conduct disorder symptoms (p < 0.003), lower levels of functioning (p < 0.001), drug use (p < 0.001), stressful life events (p < 0.003) and family relations (p < 0.001). The BPD diagnosis was consistent, according to this measure, at baseline and follow-up for 76% of participants. Four groups with respect to borderline pathology (persisting, remitting, emerging and never) were identified (ICC = 0.603, 95% CI = 0.40-0.78). Persistent BPD status was predictable by older age at presentation (p < 0.01) and level of functioning (p < 0.05). Eight percent were also suicidal at the 4-year follow-up. Using a self-report measure of BPD, we suggest that suicidal youth can indeed be diagnosed with the disorder at 14 years old, supporting the shift from DSM-IV to DSM-5, given what appears to be its temporal stability, differentiation of those suffering with considerable symptomatology or not, and predictors of its status in late adolescence. The low suicidality rate at follow-up indicates a good short-term prognosis.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
9.
Can J Psychiatry ; 59(6): 310-8, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25007405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of a rapid response team (RRT), compared with usual care (UC), for treating suicidal adolescents. METHODS: Suicidal adolescents (n = 286) presenting at an emergency department were enrolled in a trial to compare UC with enhanced outpatient care provided by an RRT of health professionals. Functioning (Child Global Assessment Scale) and suicidality (Spectrum of Suicidal Behavior Scale) scores were measured at baseline and 6 months later. Resource use and cost data were collected from several sources during the same period. RESULTS: As previously reported, there was no statistically or clinically significant difference in either functioning or suicidality between the groups. Costs of the RRT were lower by $1886, thus -$1886 (95% CI -$4238 to $466), from the perspective of the treating hospital, and by $991, thus -$991 (95% CI -$5580 to $3598), from the perspective of society. If decision makers are not willing to pay for any improvement in functioning or suicidality, the RRT has a 95% probability of being cost-effective from the perspective of the treating hospital. From the point of view of society, the probability of the intervention being cost-effective is about 70% for functioning and 63% for suicidality. The difference between the 2 perspectives is mainly attributable to the cost of hospitalizations outside the treating hospital. CONCLUSIONS: An RRT intervention appears to be cost-effective, compared with UC, from the point of view of the treating hospital, but there is no difference from the point of view of society.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Prevenção ao Suicídio , Tentativa de Suicídio/economia , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/economia , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Pediátricos/economia , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Gravidez , Quebeque , Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Revisão da Utilização de Recursos de Saúde
10.
J Palliat Care ; 30(1): 5-15, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24826438

RESUMO

Despite the frequent occurrence of head and neck cancer (HNC) disfigurement, little is known about its psychosocial impact on patients. This study aimed to understand the lived experience of disfigurement in HNC and explore what patients considered to be its influences. Fourteen disfigured HNC patients participated in a 45-to-120-minute in-depth, semistructured interview, which was analyzed qualitatively using interpretive phenomenology. A majority of participants (64 percent) were considered to be at an advanced cancer stage (stage III or stage IV). Patients' experiences revolved around the concept of a ruptured self-image (a discontinuity in sense of self). Forces triggering this ruptured self-image created a sense of "embodied angst", in which disfigurement served as a constant reminder of the patient's cancer and associated foundational malaise. Other influences fostered a sense of normalcy, balance, and acceptance. Participants oscillated between these two states as they grew to accept their disfigurement. This study's findings could guide supportive interventions aimed at helping patients face head and neck surgery.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/psicologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Autoimagem , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 23(9): 835-9, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24488239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the differences in achieving puberty between ADHD and non-ADHD participants and the effects of medication on that process among ADHD participants. PROCEDURE: A subset of participants with ADHD from the Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (n = 342) were compared with respect to Tanner staging to participants from a comparison group without ADHD (n = 159) at the 36-month follow-up assessment. Further comparisons were made for Tanner stages and Auxology of the participants in the ADHD group who were always (n = 61), never (n = 56), newly (n = 74) and inconsistently (n = 116) treated with stimulants. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in Tanner stages of sexual development were found between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups at the age of assessment (between 10 and 14 years of age) or among the ADHD medication subgroups, although a trend was observed for stimulant-associated delayed pubertal initiation using auxological analysis. CONCLUSION: Children with or without ADHD did not differ in Tanner stages at the 3-year follow-up assessment, and exposure to stimulant medication does not appear to affect sexual development within this age range.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Puberdade/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Canadá , Criança , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Psychiatry Res ; 209(3): 471-8, 2013 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23664663

RESUMO

Following reports of a potential association between antidepressants (ADs) and suicidal behaviour in youth, regulatory warnings were issued in May 2004, and clinical recommendations on medical follow-up were published in November 2007. Our study aimed at assessing the association between these communication interventions and medical follow-up of children (age 10-14) and adolescents (age 15-19) who initiate an AD treatment. A retrospective cohort study (1998-2008) was conducted among youth members of the Quebec public drug plan. Study outcomes consisted of adequate follow-up practice, defined as at least 1 medical visit per month during the first 3 months of treatment. The effect of each intervention on follow-up practices was determined through multivariate logistic regression analysis. The cohort included 4576 children and 12,419 adolescents. Two thirds of both children and adolescents had at least one medical visit during the first trimester of treatment, but only 20% had a frequency of at least one visit per month (i.e. adequate). The occurrence and frequency of visits did not change after either the warning nor the publication of the guidelines. Further interventions designed to optimize monitoring practices should be envisaged.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Comunicação , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Suicídio , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychother Res ; 23(2): 232-46, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23113821

RESUMO

Given the dearth of pediatric outcome measures, Wallerstein's "scales of psychological capacities" (SPC), measuring psychotherapy changes with adults and reflecting shifts in character without specific adherence to a school of personality, was adapted to adolescents (Ad-SPC) and examined psychometrically. Twelve child psychoanalysts were consulted for content validity. Two investigators determined it to have high face validity after administering it to 40 adolescents. High inter-rater reliability was achieved for individual scale items. Construct validity was determined using Pearson correlations between multiple Ad-SPC items and co-administered validated measures of psychopathology. Preliminary psychometric properties support the Ad-SPC's potential for applicability in adolescent psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Caráter , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Terapia Psicanalítica , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 12: 30, 2012 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22480189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of psychological treatment in adults with ADHD have not controlled for medication status and include either medicated participants or mixed samples of medicated and unmedicated participants. The objective of this study is to examine whether use of medication improves outcome of therapy. METHOD: This was a secondary analysis comparing 23 participants randomized to CBT and Dextroamphetamine vs. 25 participants randomized to CBT and placebo. Both patients and investigators were blind to treatment assignment. Two co-primary outcomes were used: ADHD symptoms on the ADHD-RS-Inv completed by the investigator and improvement in functioning as reported by the patient on the Sheehan Disability Scale. RESULTS: Both groups showed robust improvement in both symptoms and functioning, but the use of medication did not significantly improve outcome over and above use of CBT and placebo. CONCLUSION: This study replicates previous work demonstrating that CBT is an effective treatment for ADHD in adults. Within the limits of this pilot, secondary analysis we were not able to demonstrate that medication significantly augments the outcome of CBT therapy for adults with ADHD. The study was funded by GlaxoSmithKline, Clinical Trials Registry #GSK707.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Dextroanfetamina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Can J Psychiatry ; 56(10): 621-9, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22014695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present an overview of promising strategies to prevent repetition of suicidal behaviours. METHOD: This literature review on tertiary preventive interventions of suicide attempts was produced using the computerized databases PubMed and PsycINFO from January 1966 to September 2010, using French- and English-language limits and the key words: suicid* or deliberate self-harm and treatment* or therapy or intervention* or management. RESULTS: Thirteen of the 35 included studies showed statistically significant effects of fewer repeated attempts or suicides in the experimental condition. Overall, 22 studies focused on more traditional approaches, that is, pharmacological or psychological approaches. Only 2 of the 6 pharmacological treatments proved significantly superior to a placebo- a study of lithium with depression and flupenthixol with personality disorders. Eight out of 16 psychological treatments proved superior to treatment as usual or another approach: cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) (n = 4), (including dialectical behaviour therapy [n = 2]); psychodynamic therapy (n = 2); mixed (CBT plus psychodynamic therapy [n = 1]); and motivational approach and change in therapist (n = 1). Among the 8 studies using visit, postal, or telephone contact or green-token emergency card provision, 2 were significant: one involving telephone follow-up and the other telephone follow-up or visits. Hospitalization was not related to fewer attempts, and 1 of the 4 outreach approaches had significant results: a program involving individualized biweekly treatment. The rationale behind these single or multiple approaches still needs to be clarified. There were methodological flaws in many studies and some had very specific limited samples. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for more research addressing the problem in definitions of outcomes and measurement of the dependent variables, gender-specific effects, and inclusion of high-risk groups. There is a need for the development and evaluation of new approaches that support collaboration with community resources and more careful assessment and comparisons of existing treatments with different populations.


Assuntos
Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Psicoterapia , Prevenção Secundária , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
16.
J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 20(2): 107-11, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21541099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few psychosocial treatment methods have been empirically validated as effective for the prevention of suicide in suicidal adolescents, in part due to concerns that research could compromise quality of care. The study assessed the impact of research batteries on satisfaction with psychiatric care in suicidal adolescents and their parents. METHOD: Suicidal adolescents presenting to the emergency department of a major urban pediatric hospital were divided into two groups, one receiving treatment as usual and the other exposed to psychometric testing of the type typically used in research protocols both before and after their treatment. Following treatment, the patients of both groups and their parents were given questionnaires to assess satisfaction with the services they had received. Differences between the two groups were analyzed. RESULTS: No significant intergroup differences were found (p>0.05) in either patients or their parents regarding treatment received from the emergency-room team, regardless of whether they had been subjected to the psychometric testing. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence in the study to support concerns that extensive psychometric testing of the type frequently encountered in research studies undermines patient satisfaction with the care they receive.

17.
Postgrad Med ; 123(2): 177-84, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21474906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in both children and adolescents. Although there is research demonstrating that ADHD persists into adulthood, less is known about the frequency of its persistence, clinical characteristics, and impairment when associated with comorbid ODD in adults with ADHD. METHOD: Data from a randomized clinical trial of adults with ADHD were analyzed to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of comorbid ODD. As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria, patients who reported having ≥ 4 symptoms "often" or "very often" were classified as meeting the symptom criteria for the disorder. RESULTS: Forty percent of this sample met symptom criteria for ODD. Subjects with ODD were more likely to have other comorbid disorders, lower investigator ratings of overall functioning, and lower patient life satisfaction (P < 0.05). A regression analysis using these variables predicted 40% of the variance of ODD as a comorbid condition in addition to ADHD. Although the presence or absence of ODD at baseline does not moderate response of ADHD symptoms with treatment, improvement in ODD symptoms was mediated by improvement in ADHD symptoms (P < 0.0001). Oppositional defiant disorder treatment was more responsive to dextroamphetamine than paroxetine, despite the contribution of irritability and reactive tantrums, as symptoms of the disorder. CONCLUSION: Oppositional defiant disorder is a valid and impairing disorder requiring evaluation and treatment in adults.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Anthropol Med ; 17(2): 173-85, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20721755

RESUMO

This paper focuses on psychiatric medication experiences among a sample of North American university students to explore a new cultural and social landscape of medication 'compliance.' In this landscape, patients assume significant personal decision-making power in terms of dosages, when to discontinue use and even what medications to take. Patients carefully monitor and regulate their moods, and actively gather and circulate newly legitimated blends of expert and experiential knowledge about psychiatric medications among peers, family members and their physicians. The medications too, take a vital role in shaping this landscape, and help to create the spaces for meaning-making and interpretation described and explored in this article. In concluding the article, the authors claim that two popular academic discourses in medical anthropology, one of patient empowerment and shared decision-making and the other of technologies of self and governmentality, may fail to account for other orders of reality that this paper describes - orders shaped and influenced by unconscious, unexpressed and symbolic motivations.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Fluoxetina/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Fluoxetina/efeitos adversos , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , América do Norte , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Autoadministração/psicologia , Automedicação/psicologia , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 179(1): 57-63, 2010 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20621363

RESUMO

Antidepressants are highly prescribed in youth although most products have not been approved for use in this population. Furthermore, regulatory warnings have led to changes in antidepressant use that might have differed across various countries. Our study aimed at determining factors associated with antidepressant prescribing practices and at assessing trends in use from 1997 to 2005 in Quebec youth.A retrospective cohort study was conducted through claims databases of the Quebec public health care program (RAMQ). The study included 5094 children (age 2-14) and 11,121 adolescents (age 15-19) who were incident users of antidepressant between 1997 and 2005. The characteristics of users and prescribers were the main independent variables.Tricyclics were the most frequently dispensed products among children (50.9%) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors among adolescents (58.8%). Selection of an antidepressant class was associated with patient characteristics and with prescriber specialty. The number of antidepressant users increased from 1997 until 2001 then decreased thereafter.The selection of an antidepressant class was associated with clinical and non-clinical characteristics. Although antidepressant use decreased after regulatory warnings, there appears to be a care gap between the evidence generated by efficacy studies and the products prescribed in a real-life setting.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antidepressivos/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 18(9): 575-81, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19390770

RESUMO

Examine the reliability as well as the concurrent validity and diagnostic efficiency of the Abbreviated version of the diagnostic interview for borderlines revised (Ab-DIB) as a screening measure of borderline psychopathology in an adolescent clinical population. The Ab-DIB is a DIB-R-derived self-report covering the impulsiveness as well as the affect and cognitive components of the borderline construct. Its administration lasts 10 min. The Ab-DIB was tested on 139 suicidal youths for reliability and concurrent validity against the DIB-R and the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS). Internal consistencies and test-retest Intra-Class-Correlations ranged from 0.80 to 0.86 and 0.77 to 0.95, respectively. ROC analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.87 (p < 0.001). Sensitivity was 0.88 and specificity ranged from 0.82 to 0.73 depending on the age-range. Correlation of the Ab-DIB's continuous score with the CIS was 0.42 (p < 0.001). In conclusion, The Ab-DIB's brief duration and psychometric properties suggest its utility in time-limited settings.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...