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1.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 80(6): 323-330, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38150716

RESUMO

Infectious diseases socially imply individual and community medical problems. Therefore, they require actions aimed at social processes that affect the well-being of the individuals without losing sight of social groups. Faced with this panorama, we ask ourselves: is there a direct relationship between ethics and infectious diseases? To elucidate an answer, let us remember the peak period of the COVID-19 pandemic when guidelines based on ethical principles were issued to facilitate medical decisions on allocating scarce resources in periods of maximum demand. In those moments, since there was no inclusive component of society, the decisions made produced massive criticism. The reactions demonstrated the need to analyze in detail the criteria that had been considered correct. Consequently, we affirm that bioethical principles are transcendental in medical decisions and must be examined, not only for the individual but also with a view to public health. Moreover, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has lived with us for decades, and it continues to show its tragic face in the form of new cases, chronic illnesses, and deaths. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS brings us closer to a complex reality where the fight against disease and global health are interrelated with other problems, such as the need to reduce inequality, for which human rights, gender equality, social protection, and the development of research projects, where the ethics committees in research in community processes are constituents.


Las enfermedades infecciosas implican problemas médicos individuales y comunitarios, por lo que requieren acciones dirigidas a procesos sociales que incidan en el bienestar de los individuos, sin perder de vista a los grupos sociales. Nos preguntamos: ¿existe relación directa entre la ética y las enfermedades infecciosas? Para dilucidar una respuesta, recordemos el periodo más álgido de la pandemia por COVID-19, cuando se emitieron guías fundamentadas en principios éticos para facilitar las decisiones médicas en la asignación de recursos escasos en periodos de máxima demanda. Al no haber un componente inclusivo con la sociedad, las decisiones que se tomaron produjeron críticas masivas, que demostraron la necesidad de analizar a detalle los criterios que se habían considerado correctos. En consecuencia, afirmamos que los principios bioéticos son trascendentales en las decisiones médicas y deben ser examinados, no solo frente al individuo, sino de cara a la salud pública (bien común e individualidad). Por otra parte, la epidemia del SIDA (síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida) convive con nosotros desde hace décadas. ONUSIDA (Programa Conjunto de las Naciones Unidas sobre el VIH/SIDA) nos acerca una realidad compleja, como es que la lucha contra la enfermedad y por la salud global se interrelaciona con otros problemas como la necesidad de reducer la desigualdad, por los derechos humanos, la igualdad de género, la protección social y el desarrollo de proyectos de investigación, donde los comités de Ética en investigación en procesos comunitarios son constituyentes.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Humanos , Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Saúde Pública
2.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 80(6): 339-344, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38150715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are the primary caregivers of children in palliative care. Research has shown that the presence of intimate partner violence at home exacerbates the vulnerability of the caregiver. Current statistics indicate a high prevalence of violence in Mexico present in the intersectionality between intimate partner violence and the role of the primary caregiver. This study aimed to describe the frequency of intimate partner violence among primary palliative caregivers at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional and prospective study with convenience sampling; no sample calculation was performed. All female primary caregivers of children in the palliative care unit were invited to participate. The Scale of Violence and Index of Severity of Violence was used as the measuring instrument. RESULTS: One hundred women participated in the study by submitting their survey in a designated mailbox. No sociodemographic data or patient diagnoses were collected. The frequency of intimate partner violence was 28%, of which 16% were considered severe cases. Women reported psychological violence (36%), sexual violence (23%), and physical violence (22%). CONCLUSIONS: Almost one-third of female primary caregivers of pediatric patients at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez have been victims of some form of violence by current partners. This study highlights a previously unreported problem and opens the door for studies to correlate intimate partner violence among primary caregivers and the quality of life of children in palliative care.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Las mujeres son las principales cuidadoras de los niños en cuidados paliativos. Las investigaciones han demostrado que la violencia de pareja en el hogar exacerba la vulnerabilidad del cuidador. Las estadísticas actuales sobre violencia en México indican una alta prevalencia presente en la interseccionalidad entre la violencia de pareja y el rol de cuidador principal. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la frecuencia de violencia de pareja entre los cuidadores primarios del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG). MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal y prospectivo con muestreo por conveniencia; no se realizó ningún cálculo de muestra. Se invitó a participar a todas las mujeres cuidadoras primarias de niños en la Unidad de Cuidados Paliativos. Se utilizó como instrumento la Escala de Violencia e Índice de Severidad de la Violencia. RESULTADOS: Cien mujeres participaron en el estudio; no se recogieron sus datos sociodemográficos ni diagnósticos. La frecuencia de violencia de pareja fue del 28%: 16% se consideraron casos graves. Las mujeres reportaron violencia psicológica (36%), violencia sexual (23%) y violencia física (22%). CONCLUSIONES: Alrededor de la tercera parte de las mujeres cuidadoras principales de pacientes pediátricos del HIMFG han sido víctimas de algún tipo de violencia por parte de sus parejas actuales. Este estudio destaca un problema no informado previamente y abre la puerta a estudios para correlacionar la violencia de pareja íntima entre los cuidadores primarios y la calidad de vida de los niños en cuidados paliativos.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Estudos Prospectivos , Cuidados Paliativos , Estudos Transversais , México , Hospitais Pediátricos , Qualidade de Vida , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia
3.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 80(6): 323-330, Nov.-Dec. 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527959

RESUMO

Abstract Infectious diseases socially imply individual and community medical problems. Therefore, they require actions aimed at social processes that affect the well-being of the individuals without losing sight of social groups. Faced with this panorama, we ask ourselves: is there a direct relationship between ethics and infectious diseases? To elucidate an answer, let us remember the peak period of the COVID-19 pandemic when guidelines based on ethical principles were issued to facilitate medical decisions on allocating scarce resources in periods of maximum demand. In those moments, since there was no inclusive component of society, the decisions made produced massive criticism. The reactions demonstrated the need to analyze in detail the criteria that had been considered correct. Consequently, we affirm that bioethical principles are transcendental in medical decisions and must be examined, not only for the individual but also with a view to public health. Moreover, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has lived with us for decades, and it continues to show its tragic face in the form of new cases, chronic illnesses, and deaths. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS brings us closer to a complex reality where the fight against disease and global health are interrelated with other problems, such as the need to reduce inequality, for which human rights, gender equality, social protection, and the development of research projects, where the ethics committees in research in community processes are constituents.


Resumen Las enfermedades infecciosas implican problemas médicos individuales y comunitarios, por lo que requieren acciones dirigidas a procesos sociales que incidan en el bienestar de los individuos, sin perder de vista a los grupos sociales. Nos preguntamos: ¿existe relación directa entre la ética y las enfermedades infecciosas? Para dilucidar una respuesta, recordemos el periodo más álgido de la pandemia por COVID-19, cuando se emitieron guías fundamentadas en principios éticos para facilitar las decisiones médicas en la asignación de recursos escasos en periodos de máxima demanda. Al no haber un componente inclusivo con la sociedad, las decisiones que se tomaron produjeron críticas masivas, que demostraron la necesidad de analizar a detalle los criterios que se habían considerado correctos. En consecuencia, afirmamos que los principios bioéticos son trascendentales en las decisiones médicas y deben ser examinados, no solo frente al individuo, sino de cara a la salud pública (bien común e individualidad). Por otra parte, la epidemia del SIDA (síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida) convive con nosotros desde hace décadas. ONUSIDA (Programa Conjunto de las Naciones Unidas sobre el VIH/SIDA) nos acerca una realidad compleja, como es que la lucha contra la enfermedad y por la salud global se interrelaciona con otros problemas como la necesidad de reducer la desigualdad, por los derechos humanos, la igualdad de género, la protección social y el desarrollo de proyectos de investigación, donde los comités de Ética en investigación en procesos comunitarios son constituyentes.

4.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 80(6): 339-344, Nov.-Dec. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527961

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Women are the primary caregivers of children in palliative care. Research has shown that the presence of intimate partner violence at home exacerbates the vulnerability of the caregiver. Current statistics indicate a high prevalence of violence in Mexico present in the intersectionality between intimate partner violence and the role of the primary caregiver. This study aimed to describe the frequency of intimate partner violence among primary palliative caregivers at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional and prospective study with convenience sampling; no sample calculation was performed. All female primary caregivers of children in the palliative care unit were invited to participate. The Scale of Violence and Index of Severity of Violence was used as the measuring instrument. Results: One hundred women participated in the study by submitting their survey in a designated mailbox. No sociodemographic data or patient diagnoses were collected. The frequency of intimate partner violence was 28%, of which 16% were considered severe cases. Women reported psychological violence (36%), sexual violence (23%), and physical violence (22%). Conclusions: Almost one-third of female primary caregivers of pediatric patients at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez have been victims of some form of violence by current partners. This study highlights a previously unreported problem and opens the door for studies to correlate intimate partner violence among primary caregivers and the quality of life of children in palliative care.


Resumen Introducción: Las mujeres son las principales cuidadoras de los niños en cuidados paliativos. Las investigaciones han demostrado que la violencia de pareja en el hogar exacerba la vulnerabilidad del cuidador. Las estadísticas actuales sobre violencia en México indican una alta prevalencia presente en la interseccionalidad entre la violencia de pareja y el rol de cuidador principal. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir la frecuencia de violencia de pareja entre los cuidadores primarios del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG). Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal y prospectivo con muestreo por conveniencia; no se realizó ningún cálculo de muestra. Se invitó a participar a todas las mujeres cuidadoras primarias de niños en la Unidad de Cuidados Paliativos. Se utilizó como instrumento la Escala de Violencia e Índice de Severidad de la Violencia. Resultados: Cien mujeres participaron en el estudio; no se recogieron sus datos sociodemográficos ni diagnósticos. La frecuencia de violencia de pareja fue del 28%: 16% se consideraron casos graves. Las mujeres reportaron violencia psicológica (36%), violencia sexual (23%) y violencia física (22%). Conclusiones: Alrededor de la tercera parte de las mujeres cuidadoras principales de pacientes pediátricos del HIMFG han sido víctimas de algún tipo de violencia por parte de sus parejas actuales. Este estudio destaca un problema no informado previamente y abre la puerta a estudios para correlacionar la violencia de pareja íntima entre los cuidadores primarios y la calidad de vida de los niños en cuidados paliativos.

5.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 80(5): 279-287, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37963295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric cancer patients in the final phase of life receive antibiotics empirically. The decision to start, maintain, or stop the antibiotic administration as part of care at this stage is a dilemma. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study including cancer patients in the final phase of life, hospitalized during the last 5 to 7 days of life. We included demographic variables, diagnoses, days of hospitalization, cultures, antibiotics used, prevalent symptoms in the last week of life, and principal diagnosis at the time of death, and performed descriptive statistics and a chord diagram. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were included; 18 (81.81%) received antibiotic treatment. The mean age was 8.75 years. The predominant pathologies were central nervous system tumors in seven patients (31.81%). Of the total, 18 (81.81%) had an infectious diagnosis reported as bloodstream infection, followed by pneumonia in three (13.63%). The main cause of death was respiratory failure (40.9%). Of the 18 patients with an infectious diagnosis, 16 (88.88%) received empiric therapy. Predominant factors for antibiotic use were more than 7 days of hospitalization (75%), ICU admission (100%), invasive devices (88.8%), and aminergic support (100%). The predominant symptoms were dyspnea (68.18%), pain (50%), and fever (40.9%), which persisted in nine (60%), two (18.18%), and five (55.5%) patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of guidelines for antibiotic administration leads to excessive and potentially unnecessary use, which can lead to discomfort, prolonged hospitalization, bacterial resistance, excessive cost, and suffering without symptom control.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Los pacientes pediátricos oncológicos en la fase final de vida reciben antibióticos de forma empírica. La decisión de iniciar, mantener o suspender la administración del antibiótico como parte del cuidado en esta etapa es un dilema. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y transversal que incluyó pacientes oncológicos en fase final de vida, hospitalizados durante los últimos 5 a 7 días de vida. Se incluyeron variables demográficas, diagnósticos, días de estancia hospitalaria, cultivos, antibióticos utilizados, síntomas prevalentes en la última semana de vida y diagnóstico principal al momento de fallecer. Se realizó estadística descriptiva y un gráfico de cuerdas. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 22 pacientes: 18 (81.81%) recibieron manejo antibiótico. La media de edad fue de 8.75 años. Las patologías predominantes fueron tumores de sistema nervioso central en siete pacientes (31.81%). Del total, 18 (81.81%) pacientes presentaron infección del torrente sanguíneo; tres (13.63%) presentaron neumonía. La principal causa de muerte fue insuficiencia respiratoria (40.9%). De los 18 pacientes con diagnóstico infeccioso, 16 (88.88%) recibieron terapia empírica. Los factores prevalentes para el uso antibiótico fueron una estancia hospitalaria mayor a 7 días (75%), hospitalización en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (100%), dispositivos invasivos (88.8%) y apoyo aminérgico (100%). El síntoma prevalente fue disnea (68.18%), dolor (50%) y fiebre (40.9%), mismos que persistieron en nueve (60%), dos (18.18%) y cinco pacientes (55.5%), respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: La falta de pautas respecto a la administración de antibióticos conlleva a su uso excesivo y potencialmente innecesario, lo cual puede ocasionar incomodidad, prolongar la hospitalización, resistencia bacteriana, costos excesivos y sufrimiento, sin control de los síntomas.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Neoplasias , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Morte
6.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 80(5): 279-287, Sep.-Oct. 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1527952

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Pediatric cancer patients in the final phase of life receive antibiotics empirically. The decision to start, maintain, or stop the antibiotic administration as part of care at this stage is a dilemma. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study including cancer patients in the final phase of life, hospitalized during the last 5 to 7 days of life. We included demographic variables, diagnoses, days of hospitalization, cultures, antibiotics used, prevalent symptoms in the last week of life, and principal diagnosis at the time of death, and performed descriptive statistics and a chord diagram. Results: Twenty-two patients were included; 18 (81.81%) received antibiotic treatment. The mean age was 8.75 years. The predominant pathologies were central nervous system tumors in seven patients (31.81%). Of the total, 18 (81.81%) had an infectious diagnosis reported as bloodstream infection, followed by pneumonia in three (13.63%). The main cause of death was respiratory failure (40.9%). Of the 18 patients with an infectious diagnosis, 16 (88.88%) received empiric therapy. Predominant factors for antibiotic use were more than 7 days of hospitalization (75%), ICU admission (100%), invasive devices (88.8%), and aminergic support (100%). The predominant symptoms were dyspnea (68.18%), pain (50%), and fever (40.9%), which persisted in nine (60%), two (18.18%), and five (55.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusions: The lack of guidelines for antibiotic administration leads to excessive and potentially unnecessary use, which can lead to discomfort, prolonged hospitalization, bacterial resistance, excessive cost, and suffering without symptom control.


Resumen Introducción: Los pacientes pediátricos oncológicos en la fase final de vida reciben antibióticos de forma empírica. La decisión de iniciar, mantener o suspender la administración del antibiótico como parte del cuidado en esta etapa es un dilema. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y transversal que incluyó pacientes oncológicos en fase final de vida, hospitalizados durante los últimos 5 a 7 días de vida. Se incluyeron variables demográficas, diagnósticos, días de estancia hospitalaria, cultivos, antibióticos utilizados, síntomas prevalentes en la última semana de vida y diagnóstico principal al momento de fallecer. Se realizó estadística descriptiva y un gráfico de cuerdas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 22 pacientes: 18 (81.81%) recibieron manejo antibiótico. La media de edad fue de 8.75 años. Las patologías predominantes fueron tumores de sistema nervioso central en siete pacientes (31.81%). Del total, 18 (81.81%) pacientes presentaron infección del torrente sanguíneo; tres (13.63%) presentaron neumonía. La principal causa de muerte fue insuficiencia respiratoria (40.9%). De los 18 pacientes con diagnóstico infeccioso, 16 (88.88%) recibieron terapia empírica. Los factores prevalentes para el uso antibiótico fueron una estancia hospitalaria mayor a 7 días (75%), hospitalización en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (100%), dispositivos invasivos (88.8%) y apoyo aminérgico (100%). El síntoma prevalente fue disnea (68.18%), dolor (50%) y fiebre (40.9%), mismos que persistieron en nueve (60%), dos (18.18%) y cinco pacientes (55.5%), respectivamente. Conclusiones: La falta de pautas respecto a la administración de antibióticos conlleva a su uso excesivo y potencialmente innecesario, lo cual puede ocasionar incomodidad, prolongar la hospitalización, resistencia bacteriana, costos excesivos y sufrimiento, sin control de los síntomas.

7.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 76(5): 203-209, sep.-oct. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089133

RESUMO

Resumen Desde su concepción, el enfoque del curso de vida se ha utilizado ampliamente en la investigación sociodemográfica y en los estudios sociológicos. El empleo de esta perspectiva se ha difundido desde hace algunos años en la investigación en salud. Sin embargo, su uso ha sido muy limitado en pediatría. Este trabajo presenta una exposición de los principales conceptos del enfoque del curso de vida y algunos principios metodológicos para el desarrollo de investigaciones desde esta perspectiva. Además, se incluyen una serie de proyectos de investigación que se han valido de este enfoque como fundamentación conceptual en su diseño e implementación y algunas fuentes de información que pueden ser utilizadas para el desarrollo de investigaciones desde esta conceptualización en México.


Abstract Since its inception, the life course approach has been widely used in the socio-demographic research and sociological studies. The use of this perspective in health research has spread for some years, although its use in pediatrics has been limited. This work presents the main concepts of the life course approach and some methodological principles for the development of research from this perspective. In addition, a series of research projects that have used this approach as a conceptual basis in their design and implementation are included, as well as some sources of information that can be used for the development of research since this conceptualization in Mexico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pediatria/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , México
8.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 76(5): 203-209, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536042

RESUMO

Since its inception, the life course approach has been widely used in the socio-demographic research and sociological studies. The use of this perspective in health research has spread for some years, although its use in pediatrics has been limited. This work presents the main concepts of the life course approach and some methodological principles for the development of research from this perspective. In addition, a series of research projects that have used this approach as a conceptual basis in their design and implementation are included, as well as some sources of information that can be used for the development of research since this conceptualization in Mexico.


Desde su concepción, el enfoque del curso de vida se ha utilizado ampliamente en la investigación sociodemográfica y en los estudios sociológicos. El empleo de esta perspectiva se ha difundido desde hace algunos años en la investigación en salud. Sin embargo, su uso ha sido muy limitado en pediatría. Este trabajo presenta una exposición de los principales conceptos del enfoque del curso de vida y algunos principios metodológicos para el desarrollo de investigaciones desde esta perspectiva. Además, se incluyen una serie de proyectos de investigación que se han valido de este enfoque como fundamentación conceptual en su diseño e implementación y algunas fuentes de información que pueden ser utilizadas para el desarrollo de investigaciones desde esta conceptualización en México.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Pediatria/organização & administração , Humanos , México
9.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 75(3): 166-177, May.-Jun. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-974041

RESUMO

Resumen: Introducción: Las leyes refieren que los menores no tienen la capacidad para dar su consentimiento informado para su propia atención médica; sin embargo, hay condiciones especiales en las que se les permite determinar lo referente a su salud. Cuanto mayores sean las limitaciones de juicio y experiencia en los menores, menos peso se otorga a los valores y objetivos que expresan; cuanto más adversas sean las consecuencias, se deberá exigir un nivel más alto de autoridad para decidir en nombre del menor, dejando al Estado la capacidad de garantizar el bienestar del menor. Caso clínico: Niña de 12 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfoblástica aguda LI, con antecedentes familiares y sociales precarios; evolución entorpecida por el desapego al tratamiento y sus condiciones insalubres y pobreza extrema. Ambos padres fallecieron al poco tiempo de iniciar su tratamiento, quedando ella al cuidado de su medio hermana mayor de edad. Se exponen la labor y el dilema ético del oncólogo tratante y del personal del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez en la creación de redes de apoyo con el objetivo de priorizar el bienestar de la menor, sin dar lugar al quebrantamiento y la desintegración familiar, consiguiendo exitosamente su recuperación. Conclusiones: El caso fue sometido al Comité de Bioética Hospitalaria. Se formaron redes de apoyo interinstitucionales para intervenir en la dinámica familiar, resolviendo los requerimientos de la menor, y se consiguió con éxito superar la enfermedad.


Abstract: Background: Laws refer that minors do not have the capability to give informed consent for their own medical attention. However, there are special conditions in which they are allowed to decide about their health. The greater the judgement and experience limitations in minors, the less weight is given to the values and objectives they express. Also, the more adverse consequences might be, the higher the level of authority that is demanded to decide on behalf of the minor, thus granting the State the capability to guarantee the well-being of the minor. Case report: 12-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with precarious social and family background; evolution of the disease obstructed by the disregard of the treatment due to her unsanitary and extreme poverty conditions. Both of her parents died soon after the start of the treatment and she was kept under the care of her half-sister of legal age. The work and the ethical dilemma of the pediatrician and the staff of Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez are exposed within the building of support networks with the objective of prioritizing the minor's well-being, without allowing family break-up or disintegration, thus succeeding in her recovery. Conclusions: The case was submitted to the Hospital Bioethics Committee. Inter-institutional support networks were built in order to improve dynamics of the family, thus solving the needs of the minor. Despite the misfortune of the situation, the disease was successfully overcome.


Assuntos
Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Bioética , Criança Abandonada/legislação & jurisprudência , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Pediatria/legislação & jurisprudência , Pobreza , México
10.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 75(3): 166-177, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799532

RESUMO

Background: Laws refer that minors do not have the capability to give informed consent for their own medical attention. However, there are special conditions in which they are allowed to decide about their health. The greater the judgement and experience limitations in minors, the less weight is given to the values and objectives they express. Also, the more adverse consequences might be, the higher the level of authority that is demanded to decide on behalf of the minor, thus granting the State the capability to guarantee the well-being of the minor. Case report: 12-year-old female patient with a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with precarious social and family background; evolution of the disease obstructed by the disregard of the treatment due to her unsanitary and extreme poverty conditions. Both of her parents died soon after the start of the treatment and she was kept under the care of her half-sister of legal age. The work and the ethical dilemma of the pediatrician and the staff of Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez are exposed within the building of support -networks with the objective of prioritizing the minor's well-being, without allowing family break-up or disintegration, thus succeeding in her recovery. Conclusions: The case was submitted to the Hospital Bioethics Committee. Inter-institutional support networks were built in order to improve dynamics of the family, thus solving the needs of the minor. Despite the misfortune of the situation, the disease was successfully overcome.


Introducción: Las leyes refieren que los menores no tienen la capacidad para dar su consentimiento informado para su propia atención médica; sin embargo, hay condiciones especiales en las que se les permite determinar lo referente a su salud. Cuanto mayores sean las limitaciones de juicio y experiencia en los menores, menos peso se otorga a los valores y objetivos que expresan; cuanto más adversas sean las consecuencias, se deberá exigir un nivel más alto de autoridad para decidir en nombre del menor, dejando al Estado la capacidad de garantizar el bienestar del menor. Caso clínico: Niña de 12 años con diagnóstico de leucemia linfoblástica aguda LI, con antecedentes familiares y sociales precarios; evolución entorpecida por el desapego al tratamiento y sus condiciones insalubres y pobreza extrema. Ambos padres fallecieron al poco tiempo de iniciar su tratamiento, quedando ella al cuidado de su medio hermana mayor de edad. Se exponen la labor y el dilema ético del oncólogo tratante y del personal del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez en la creación de redes de apoyo con el objetivo de priorizar el bienestar de la menor, sin dar lugar al quebrantamiento y la desintegración familiar, consiguiendo exitosamente su recuperación. Conclusiones: El caso fue sometido al Comité de Bioética Hospitalaria. Se formaron redes de apoyo interinstitucionales para intervenir en la dinámica familiar, resolviendo los requerimientos de la menor, y se consiguió con éxito superar la enfermedad.


Assuntos
Bioética , Criança Abandonada/legislação & jurisprudência , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , México , Pediatria/legislação & jurisprudência , Pobreza
11.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 72(5): 353-357, sep.-oct. 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-781253

RESUMO

ResumenLa decisión de los padres de no aplicar vacunas que son "obligatorias" a sus hijos genera dilemas en los médicos y pediatras. ¿Qué debe hacerse cuando los padres no consienten la aplicación de vacunas a sus niños? ¿Esto sitúa a los niños en riesgo suficientemente grave como para que amerite la notificación a los servicios de protección infantil del Estado y que se trate como negligencia de parte de los padres? ¿Qué debe hacerse cuando, por no inmunizar a sus hijos, se pone en riesgo a terceros? El principio del interés superior del menor implica velar por el beneficio del niño sobre cualquier otra situación. Al respecto, los padres antivacunas tienen argumentos para justificar su postura. Los médicos no pueden obligar a los padres a vacunar a sus hijos. Sin embargo, bajo el mismo principio, deben velar por el bienestar del niño y permanecer alerta de que los padres no rebasen el umbral de daño al menor. Si los padres ponen en riesgo de daño grave a su hijo al tomar la decisión de no vacunarlo, entonces estará justificada la intervención legal en la decisión. Este recurso debe ser la última opción, pues los conflictos, en su mayoría, deben resolverse en el seno de la relación del médico con los padres.


AbstractThe decisions of parents to forego vaccines "mandatory" for their children generate in physician and pediatricians some dilemmas and issues such as what to do when parents do not authorize administration of vaccines to their children? Do parents place their children at risk severe enough to notify governmental child protection services and treat this as parental negligence? What to do in the situation where the parental decision to forego immunization of their children affects others? The best interests of the child include ensuring the child's benefit over any other situation. Related to this, parents against vaccines have arguments to justify their position that physicians cannot force parents to immunize their children. By the same principle, physicians must ensure the welfare of children and remain alert, respecting that parental decisions do not exceed the threshold of "no harm to the child" and only if the parental decision in regard to foregoing vaccination places the child at risk of serious harm is government intervention justified. This resource should be left as the last resort because most conflicts must be resolved within the relationship of the physicians with the parents.

12.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 72(4): 284-289, jul.-ago. 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-781243

RESUMO

ResumenLa atención médica en pacientes pediátricos está condicionada a la autorización de los padres. Estos deciden el momento y tipo de tratamiento que desean que sus hijos reciban cuando enferman y, bajo su consentimiento, el médico procede a otorgar la terapia más apropiada. Cuando los padres rechazan el tratamiento ofrecido, el médico debe buscar otras alternativas de tratamiento que sean mejor aceptadas por los padres y encontrar el cauce que sea más benéfico para el niño. De no poder conciliar con los padres una terapia, entonces el médico entra en un conflicto ético relacionado con el mejor interés del menor y las decisiones paternas. De lo anterior surgen las siguientes interrogantes: ¿cómo debe actuar el médico cuando enfrenta esta situación?, ¿debe solicitar respaldo jurídico que fuerce a los padres a aceptar el tratamiento?, ¿bajo qué condiciones está justificado obligar a los padres o cuándo debe ser tolerada su decisión? ¿Cuál es papel del Comité de Bioética Hospitalaria en este tema?Esta segunda parte se enfoca en proponer cuatro criterios prácticos para que el médico y el Comité de Bioética Hospitalaria utilicen cuando todas las terapias alternativas y opciones conciliatorias se han agotado con los padres que rehúsan el tratamiento, y cuando el médico tenga que tomar una decisión porque el menor está en riesgo de daño. Dicha decisión gira en torno a si existe peligro evitable para el niño derivado de las decisiones de los padres.


AbstractMedical care in pediatric patients is conditional to parental consent. Parents decide the time and type of treatment they want their children to receive when they are ill. The physician should request parental consent before carrying out the most appropriate therapy. When parents refuse the treatment offered, the physician should seek alternative therapies that may be better accepted by parents and find the most beneficial treatment for children and their families. If physicians and parents are unable to agree on the best therapeutic methods, then the physician becomes involved in an ethical conflict related to the best interests of the child and parental choices. From the above posture, the following questions arise: What should the physician do when faced with this situation? Should the physician use legal measures to force parents to accept treatment? Under what conditions is it justified to force parents and when should the decision be tolerated? What is the role of the Hospital Bioethics Committee concerning this issue?This second part focuses on proposing four practical criteria to be used by the physician and Hospital Bioethics Committee when all alternative therapies and conciliatory options have been exhausted with parents and they continue to refuse treatment. The physician then has to make a decision because the child is placed at risk of harm. This decision focuses on whether there is danger to the minor arising from the decisions of parents and if such harm is avoidable.

13.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 72(3): 208-214, may.-jun. 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-774484

RESUMO

El consentimiento informado es un derecho de todos los individuos y nadie puede obligar a ninguna persona a recibir un tratamiento en contra de su voluntad. Este derecho de aceptar o rechazar un tratamiento no desaparece en los individuos que son incompetentes desde un punto de vista legal: este se ejerce en su nombre por un tercero. A los niños se les considera incompetentes para la toma de decisiones médicas respecto de su propia salud, y son sus padres o tutores legales quienes en nombre del niño deben tomar estas decisiones. Sin embargo la autoridad de los padres no es absoluta, y existen situaciones en las que sus decisiones no son las mejores; en ocasiones incluso llegan a poner en riesgo el bienestar y hasta la vida de sus hijos, obligando al Estado a intervenir en nombre del mejor interés del menor. Es por ello que es necesario plantearse las siguientes preguntas: ¿es el interés superior del niño lo que nos mueve a intervenir judicialmente cuando un padre se rehúsa a aceptar el tratamiento médico propuesto, o es el daño que se le causa al menor con esta decisión? ¿Qué tipo de decisiones paternas son las que no deben de tolerarse? Después de hacer una revisión del tema concluiremos que si la decisión de los padres respecto a una decisión médica a tomar en relación con la salud de sus hijos se juzga hecha con maleficencia, es decir dañina para el menor, se justifica que el Estado intervenga. En la segunda parte de este artículo exponemos cuatro criterios que pueden ser utilizados en la toma de decisiones de casos complejos, donde los padres rehúsan aceptar el tratamiento para sus hijos.


Informed consent is a right of all individuals and no one can force anyone to receive treatment against their wishes. The right to accept or refuse treatment persists in individuals who are incompetent from a legal point of view; this is exercised on their behalf by a third party. Children are considered incompetent to make medical decisions about their own health and their parents or legal guardians are empowered to make those decisions. However, parental authority is not absolute and there are situations where their decisions are not the best, sometimes leading to jeopardizing the well-being and even the lives of their children, forcing the state to intervene on behalf of the best interests of the child. This is the reason why it is necessary to ask the following questions: is it really the child's best interest that moves us to legally intervene when a parent refuses to accept the proposed medical treatment or is the damage done to make this decision? What kind of parental decisions are those that should not be tolerated? After a review of the theme, we conclude that if the decision of the parents regarding a medical decision is considered to be made with maleficence that is harmful to the child, it is justified that the State intervenes. Finally, we exposed four criteria that can be used in making decisions in complex cases where parents refuse treatment for their children.

14.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 72(2): 89-98, mar.-abr. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-781226

RESUMO

Resumen:En la práctica médica pediátrica es frecuente encontrar a pacientes en circunstancias que representan un dilema ético para los profesionales de la salud. Un dilema corresponde a una situación en la que los preceptos morales o las obligaciones de similar obligatoriedad ética se encuentran en conflicto, de forma que cualquier solución posible al dilema es moralmente intolerable.Una revisión de la literatura permitió identificar diferentes modelos que abordan esta clase de dilemas. Se localizaron artículos utilizando las bases de datos Ebsco Host, ProQuest, Ovid e InMex, así como metabuscadores como metacrawler. Algunos de los modelos analizados fueron los siguientes: el Modelo de Anne Davis, el Método de Nijmegen, el Método de Diego Gracia, el Método Integral, el Modelo del Centro de Ética Médica de Bochum, el Modelo de Brody y Payton, el Modelo de Curtin y Flaherty, el Modelo de Thompson y Thompson, la Fórmula SAD, el Modelo de Javier Morata, el Modelo de Elaine Congress, el Modelo IFSW, el Modelo de Loewenberg y Dolgoff, el Modelo de la Ley Social, el Método DOER, el Modelo de Brommer, el Modelo de Corey y Callanan, el Modelo de Pope y Vasquez, el Modelo de Bush, Connell y Denney, el Modelo de Ferrell, Gresham y Fraedrich y el Modelo de Hunt y Vitell.Los criterios compartidos entre los diferentes modelos fueron los siguientes: a) la especificación del dilema ético; b) la descripción de los hechos a considerar; c) la definición de valores, principios y la postura ética que será tomada en consideración; y d) la toma de decisiones con la identificación de alternativas de solución. De acuerdo con la literatura revisada, se explican algunos modelos con el fin de identificar y ejemplificar elementos críticos que pudieran ser utilizados de manera práctica por los Comités de Ética Clínica u Hospitalaria en las instituciones de salud pediátrica en México.


Abstract:In pediatric medical practice it is common to encounter situations that represent a dilemma for health professionals. A dilemma occurs when ethical problems found in professional practice cause serious internal conflicts because they imply actions that contradict their colleagues, employees, or their own personal values and are classified as personal value conflicts, conflicts with other professionals, conflicts with clients and with organizations.A literature review allowed identifying different models to debate these types of dilemmas. The present work is a review of the search of scientific articles using databases such as Ebsco Host, ProQuest, Ovid, and InMex as well as metasearch tools such as metacrawler. The models found are as follows: Model of Anne Davis, Nijmegen method, Method of Diego Gracia, Integral method, Bochum Center Ethics model, Model of Brody and Payton, Model of Curtin and Flaherty, Model of Thompson and Thompson, SAD method, Model of Javier Morata, Model of Elaine Congress, IFSW model, Model of Loewenberg and Dolgoff, Ley Social Model, DOER method, Model of Brommer, Model of Corey and Callanan, Model of Pope and Vasquez, Model of Bush, Connell and Denney, Model of Ferrell, Gresham and Fraedrich, and Model of Hunt and Vitell.The key criteria shared in the different models are a) specifying the ethical dilemma, b) description of the facts, c) value definition, moral code and facts, decision making and d) identifying alternative solutions. In order to review the literature, some models are explained with the purpose of identifying and representing critical elements that clinical ethics committees could use in a practical manner in pediatric health institutions in Mexico.

15.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 72(4): 284-289, 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421149

RESUMO

Medical care in pediatric patients is conditional to parental consent. Parents decide the time and type of treatment they want their children to receive when they are ill. The physician should request parental consent before carrying out the most appropriate therapy. When parents refuse the treatment offered, the physician should seek alternative therapies that may be better accepted by parents and find the most beneficial treatment for children and their families. If physicians and parents are unable to agree on the best therapeutic methods, then the physician becomes involved in an ethical conflict related to the best interests of the child and parental choices. From the above posture, the following questions arise: What should the physician do when faced with this situation? Should the physician use legal measures to force parents to accept treatment? Under what conditions is it justified to force parents and when should the decision be tolerated? What is the role of the Hospital Bioethics Committee concerning this issue? This second part focuses on proposing four practical criteria to be used by the physician and Hospital Bioethics Committee when all alternative therapies and conciliatory options have been exhausted with parents and they continue to refuse treatment. The physician then has to make a decision because the child is placed at risk of harm. This decision focuses on whether there is danger to the minor arising from the decisions of parents and if such harm is avoidable.

16.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 72(3): 208-214, 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421504

RESUMO

Informed consent is a right of all individuals and no one can force anyone to receive treatment against their wishes. The right to accept or refuse treatment persists in individuals who are incompetent from a legal point of view; this is exercised on their behalf by a third party. Children are considered incompetent to make medical decisions about their own health and their parents or legal guardians are empowered to make those decisions. However, parental authority is not absolute and there are situations where their decisions are not the best, sometimes leading to jeopardizing the well-being and even the lives of their children, forcing the state to intervene on behalf of the best interests of the child. This is the reason why it is necessary to ask the following questions: is it really the child's best interest that moves us to legally intervene when a parent refuses to accept the proposed medical treatment or is the damage done to make this decision? What kind of parental decisions are those that should not be tolerated? After a review of the theme, we conclude that if the decision of the parents regarding a medical decision is considered to be made with maleficence that is harmful to the child, it is justified that the State intervenes. Finally, we exposed four criteria that can be used in making decisions in complex cases where parents refuse treatment for their children.

17.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 72(5): 353-357, 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421535

RESUMO

The decisions of parents to forego vaccines "mandatory" for their children generate in physician and pediatricians some dilemmas and issues such as what to do when parents do not authorize administration of vaccines to their children? Do parents place their children at risk severe enough to notify governmental child protection services and treat this as parental negligence? What to do in the situation where the parental decision to forego immunization of their children affects others? The best interests of the child include ensuring the child's benefit over any other situation. Related to this, parents against vaccines have arguments to justify their position that physicians cannot force parents to immunize their children. By the same principle, physicians must ensure the welfare of children and remain alert, respecting that parental decisions do not exceed the threshold of "no harm to the child" and only if the parental decision in regard to foregoing vaccination places the child at risk of serious harm is government intervention justified. This resource should be left as the last resort because most conflicts must be resolved within the relationship of the physicians with the parents.

18.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 72(2): 89-98, 2015.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425998

RESUMO

In pediatric medical practice it is common to encounter situations that represent a dilemma for health professionals. A dilemma occurs when ethical problems found in professional practice cause serious internal conflicts because they imply actions that contradict their colleagues, employees, or their own personal values and are classified as personal value conflicts, conflicts with other professionals, conflicts with clients and with organizations. A literature review allowed identifying different models to debate these types of dilemmas. The present work is a review of the search of scientific articles using databases such as Ebsco Host, ProQuest, Ovid, and InMex as well as metasearch tools such as metacrawler. The models found are as follows: Model of Anne Davis, Nijmegen method, Method of Diego Gracia, Integral method, Bochum Center Ethics model, Model of Brody and Payton, Model of Curtin and Flaherty, Model of Thompson and Thompson, SAD method, Model of Javier Morata, Model of Elaine Congress, IFSW model, Model of Loewenberg and Dolgoff, Ley Social Model, DOER method, Model of Brommer, Model of Corey and Callanan, Model of Pope and Vasquez, Model of Bush, Connell and Denney, Model of Ferrell, Gresham and Fraedrich, and Model of Hunt and Vitell. The key criteria shared in the different models are a) specifying the ethical dilemma, b) description of the facts, c) value definition, moral code and facts, decision making and d) identifying alternative solutions. In order to review the literature, some models are explained with the purpose of identifying and representing critical elements that clinical ethics committees could use in a practical manner in pediatric health institutions in Mexico.

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