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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 15: 1374925, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606078

RESUMO

Bud sport is a common and stable somatic variation in perennial fruit trees, and often leads to significant modification of fruit traits and affects the breeding value. To investigate the impact of bud sport on the main metabolites in the fruit of white-fleshed loquat, we conducted a multi-omics analysis of loquat fruits at different developmental stages of a white-fleshed bud sport mutant of Dongting loquat (TBW) and its wild type (TBY). The findings from the detection of main fruit quality indices and metabolites suggested that bud sport resulted in a reduction in the accumulation of carotenoids, fructose, titratable acid and terpenoids at the mature stage of TBW, while leading to the accumulation of flavonoids, phenolic acids, amino acids and lipids. The comparably low content of titratable acid further enhances the balanced and pleasent taste profile of TBW. Expression patterns of differentially expressed genes involved in fructose metabolism exhibited a significant increase in the expression level of S6PDH (EVM0006243, EVM0044405) prior to fruit maturation. The comparison of protein sequences and promoter region of S6PDH between TBY and TBW revealed no structural variations that would impact gene function or expression, indicating that transcription factors may be responsible for the rapid up-regulation of S6PDH before maturation. Furthermore, correlation analysis helped to construct a comprehensive regulatory network of fructose metabolism in loquat, including 23 transcription factors, six structural genes, and nine saccharides. Based on the regulatory network and existing studies, it could be inferred that transcription factors such as ERF, NAC, MYB, GRAS, and bZIP may promote fructose accumulation in loquat flesh by positively regulating S6PDH. These findings improve our understanding of the nutritional value and breeding potential of white-fleshed loquat bud sport mutant, as well as serve as a foundation for exploring the genes and transcription factors that regulate fructose metabolism in loquat.

2.
Biomacromolecules ; 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608139

RESUMO

Over decades of development, while phosphoramidite chemistry has been known as the leading method in commercial synthesis of oligonucleotides, it has also revolutionized the fabrication of sequence-defined polymers (SDPs), offering novel functional materials in polymer science and clinical medicine. This review has introduced the evolution of phosphoramidite chemistry, emphasizing its development from the synthesis of oligonucleotides to the creation of universal SDPs, which have unlocked the potential for designing programmable smart biomaterials with applications in diverse areas including data storage, regenerative medicine and drug delivery. The key methodologies, functions, biomedical applications, and future challenges in SDPs, have also been summarized in this review, underscoring the significance of breakthroughs in precisely synthesized materials.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172229, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582115

RESUMO

Combining traditional stable isotopes (δD and δ18O) and triple oxygen isotope (δ17O) is conducive to tracing hydrological cycle processes. The application of triple oxygen isotopes primarily focuses on precipitation, which is lacking in river water and groundwater. In this study, the spatial variations of δD, δ18O, δ17O, d-excess and 17O-excess of river water and groundwater in the Golmud River basin as well as the correlation between them were investigated to elucidate water origin and assess the evaporation influence on water bodies during flood season. Spatial changes in δD, δ18O and δ17O of river water exhibit a decrease-increase-stability pattern contrary to that observed for d-excess, 17O-excess has no distinct trend but is higher at both the source and downstream regions. The results show that river water and groundwater originate from precipitation in the mountainous area, and the meltwater in the source region also contribute to the river water with high d-excess and 17O-excess during flood season. The combination of d-excess and 17O-excess reveal that river water is also affected by evaporation and mixing of river water in tributaries. It was found that the river water is recharged in the mountains, undergoes evaporation in the upstream region and leaks into groundwater in the midstream region, which is recharged by the groundwater and evaporated again in the downstream region. This study could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the potential and value of triple oxygen isotopes in the hydrological cycle.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 172354, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614330

RESUMO

Escalation of ecological concern due to biodegradable plastics has attracted the attention of many contemporary researchers. This study searched to investigate the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of polylactic acid (PLA) and polybutyleneadipate-co-terephthalate (PLA-PBAT) bio-microplastics on 3-month-old zebrafish to elucidate their potential toxic mechanisms. Acute toxicity assessments revealed 96 h-LC50 value of 12.69 mg/L for PLA-PBAT. Sub-chronic exposure of over 21 days revealed deviations in critical behavioral patterns and physiological indicators. In treated groups, weight gain and specific growth rates were significantly lower than those obtained for the control group, such that high doses induced significant reductions in total organ coefficient (p < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between zebrafish mortality and increased doses. Detailed behavioral evaluations revealed a dose-dependent decrease in the speed and range of swimming, along with modifications in shoaling behavior, anxiety-like responses, and avoidance behaviors. Brain tissues transcriptomic analyses revealed the molecular responses underlying sub-chronic exposure to PLA-PBAT. Totally 702 DEGs and 5 KEGG pathways were significantly identified in low-dose group, with the top 2 significant pathways being ribosome pathway and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway. Totally 650 DEGs and 5 KEGG pathways were significantly identified in medium-dose group, with the top 2 significant pathways being Herpes simplex virus 1 infection pathway and complement and coagulation cascades pathway. Totally 1778 DEGs and 16 KEGG pathways were significantly identified in high-dose group, with the top 2 significant pathways being metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 and drug metabolism - cytochrome P450 pathway. Most significantly enriched pathways are associated with immune responses. The validation of key gene in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway also confirmed its high correlation with behavioral indicators. These results indicate that PLA-PBAT is likely to cause behavioral abnormalities in zebrafish by triggering immune dysregulation in the brain.

5.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 69: 102441, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599008

RESUMO

The pedigree likelihood ratio (LR) can be used for determining kinship in the forensic kinship testing. LR can be obtained by analyzing the DNA data of Short tandem repeat (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. With the advancement of biotechnology, increasing number of genetic markers have been identified, thereby expanding the pedigree range of kinship testing. Moreover, some of the loci are physically closer to each other and genetic linkage between loci is inevitable. LRs can be calculated by accounting for linkage or ignoring linkage (LRlinkage and LRignore, respectively). GeneVisa is a software for kinship testing (www.genevisa.net) and adopts the Lander-Green algorithm to deal with genetic linkage. Herein, we used the simulation program of the software GeneVisa to investigate the effects of genetic linkage on 1st-degree, 2nd-degree, and 3rd-degree kinship testing. We used this software to simulate LRlinkage and LRignore values based on 43 STRs and 134 SNPs in commercial kits by using the allele frequency rate and genetic distance data of the European population. The effects of linkage on LR distribution and LRs of routine cases were investigated by comparing the LRlinkage values with the LRignore values. Our results revealed that the linkage effect on LR distributions is small, but the effect on LRs of routine cases may be large. Moreover, the results indicated that the discriminatory power of genetic markers for kinship testing can be improved by accounting for linkage.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 422, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As comprehensive surgical management for gastric cancer becomes increasingly specialized and standardized, the precise differentiation between ≤T1 and ≥T2 gastric cancer before endoscopic intervention holds paramount clinical significance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of contrast-enhanced gastric ultrasonography in differentiating ≤T1 and ≥T2 gastric cancer. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Medline were searched to collect studies published from January 1, 2000 to March 16, 2023 on the efficacy of either double contrast-enhanced gastric ultrasonography (D-CEGUS) or oral contrast-enhanced gastric ultrasonography (O-CEGUS) in determining T-stage in gastric cancer. The articles were selected according to specified inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the quality of the included literature was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 scale. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 12 software with data from the 2 × 2 crosslinked tables in the included literature. RESULTS: In total, 11 papers with 1124 patients were included in the O-CEGUS analysis, which revealed a combined sensitivity of 0.822 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.753-0.875), combined specificity of 0.964 (95% CI = 0.925-0.983), and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve (AUC) of 0.92 (95% CI = 0.89-0.94). In addition, five studies involving 536 patients were included in the D-CEGUS analysis, which gave a combined sensitivity of 0.733 (95% CI = 0.550-0.860), combined specificity of 0.982 (95% CI = 0.936-0.995), and AUC of 0.93 (95% CI = 0.91-0.95). According to the I2 and P values ​​of the forest plot, there was obvious heterogeneity in the combined specificities of the included papers. Therefore, the two studies with the lowest specificities were excluded from the O-CEGUS and D-CEGUS analyses, which eliminated the heterogeneity among the remaining literature. Consequently, the combined sensitivity and specificity of the remaining studies were 0.794 (95% CI = 0.710-0.859) and 0.976 (95% CI = 0.962-0.985), respectively, for the O-CEDUS studies and 0.765 (95% CI = 0.543-0.899) and 0.986 (95% CI = 0.967-0.994), respectively, for the D-CEGUS studies. The AUCs were 0.98 and 0.99 for O-CEGUS and D-CEGUS studies, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both O-CEGUS and D-CEGUS can differentiate ≤T1 gastric cancer from ≥T2 gastric cancer, thus assisting the formulation of clinical treatment strategies for patients with very early gastric cancer. Given its simplicity and cost-effectiveness, O-CEGUS is often favored as a staging method for gastric cancer prior to endoscopic intervention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Curva ROC
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612417

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes, and its progression is influenced by factors like oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, and fibrosis. Compared to drug treatment, exercise offers a cost-effective and low-risk approach to slowing down DN progression. Through multiple ways and mechanisms, exercise helps to control blood sugar and blood pressure and reduce serum creatinine and albuminuria, thereby alleviating kidney damage. This review explores the beneficial effects of exercise on DN improvement and highlights its potential mechanisms for ameliorating DN. In-depth understanding of the role and mechanism of exercise in improving DN would pave the way for formulating safe and effective exercise programs for the treatment and prevention of DN.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Humanos , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Albuminúria , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Morte Celular
8.
Metabolism ; : 155916, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615945

RESUMO

Exercise is an effective non-pharmacological strategy for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Kruppel-like factor 10 (Klf10) is a transcriptional factor that is expressed in multiple tissues including liver, whose role in NASH is not well defined. In our study, exercise induces hepatic Klf10 expression through the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. Hepatocyte-specific knockout of Klf10 (Klf10LKO) increases lipid accumulation, cell death, inflammation and fibrosis in NASH diet-fed mice and reduces the protective effects of treadmill exercise against NASH, while hepatocyte-specific overexpression of Klf10 (Klf10LTG) works in concert with exercise to reduce NASH in mice. Mechanistically, Klf10 promotes the expression of fumarate hydratase 1 (Fh1), thereby reducing fumarate accumulation in hepatocytes. This decreases the trimethyl (me3) levels of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) on lipogenic genes promoters to attenuate lipogenesis, thus ameliorating free fatty acids (FFAs)-induced hepatocytes steatosis, apoptosis, insulin resistance and blunting dysfunctional hepatocytes-mediated activation of macrophages and hepatic stellate cells. Therefore, by regulating the Fh1/fumarate/H3K4me3 pathway, Klf10 acts as a downstream effector of exercise to combat NASH.

9.
Cells ; 13(7)2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607002

RESUMO

(1) Background: Spermatozoa acquired motility and matured in epididymis after production in the testis. However, there is still limited understanding of the specific characteristics of sperm development across different species. In this study, we employed a comprehensive approach to analyze cell compositions in both testicular and epididymal tissues, providing valuable insights into the changes occurring during meiosis and spermiogenesis in mouse and pig models. Additionally, we identified distinct gene expression signatures associated with various spermatogenic cell types. (2) Methods: To investigate the differences in spermatogenesis between mice and pigs, we constructed a single-cell RNA dataset. (3) Results: Our findings revealed notable differences in testicular cell clusters between these two species. Furthermore, distinct gene expression patterns were observed among epithelial cells from different regions of the epididymis. Interestingly, regional gene expression patterns were also identified within principal cell clusters of the mouse epididymis. Moreover, through analysing differentially expressed genes related to the epididymis in both mouse and pig models, we successfully identified potential marker genes associated with sperm development and maturation for each species studied. (4) Conclusions: This research presented a comprehensive single-cell landscape analysis of both testicular and epididymal tissues, shedding light on the intricate processes involved in spermatogenesis and sperm maturation, specifically within mouse and pig models.


Assuntos
Sêmen , Testículo , Camundongos , Masculino , Animais , Suínos , Testículo/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Epididimo/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/genética
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; : 131285, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583841

RESUMO

Thermal stability and iron saturation of lactoferrin (LF) are of great significance not only for the evaluation of the biological activities of LF but also for the optimization of the isolation and drying process parameters. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a well-established and efficient method for thermal stability and iron saturation detection in LF. However, multiple DSC measurements are typically performed sequentially, thus time-consuming and low throughput. Herein, we introduced the differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) approach to overcome such limitations. The DSF can monitor LF thermal unfolding with a commonly available real-time PCR instrument and a fluorescent dye (SYPRO orange or Glomelt), and the measured melting temperature of LF is consistent with that determined by DSC. Such DSF method is simple, inexpensive, rapid (<15 min), and high throughput (>96 samples per experiment), and provides a valuable alternative tool for thermal stability detection of LF and other whey proteins.

11.
Water Res ; 256: 121551, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581981

RESUMO

Many antibiotic disinfection byproducts have been detected but their toxicity has not been evaluated adequately. In this report, the chlorination reaction kinetics of five common sulfamides (SAs), reaction intermediates and their toxicity were investigated. Chlorination of sulfapyridine (SPD), sulfamethazine (SMT), sulfathiazole (STZ), and sulfisoxazole (SIZ) followed the second-order kinetics, and were degraded completely within 10 min. A large number of reaction intermediates were deteced by LC-MS, among which a total of 16 intermediates were detected for the first time. Toxicity of the five SAs chlorination solutions was evaluated separately by examining their effects on the growth rate of S. salivarius K12, a commensal bacterium in the human digestive system. After 30 min chlorination, solutions of SMT, STZ and sulfadiazine (SDZ) each exhibited severe toxicity by inhibiting the bacteria growth completely, whereas the inhibition was only 50 % and 20  % by SIZ and SPD respectively. Based on the comparison between toxicity test results and mass spectra, three SA chlorination intermediates, m/z 187.2 (C10H10N4), m/z 287.2 (C9H7N3O4S2) and m/z 215 (C7H10N4O2S/C12H14N4) were proposed to be the primary toxicants in the chlorination products. Our study demonstrated the power of combined approach of chemical analysis and toxicity testing in identifying toxic disinfection byproducts, and highlighted the ne ed for more research on the toxicity evaluation and risk assessment of antibiotic disinfection byproducts.

12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 12: 1357370, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577504

RESUMO

As a crucial component of the male reproductive system, the epididymis plays multiple roles, including sperm storage and secretion of nutritive fluids for sperm development and maturation. The acquisition of fertilization capacity by sperm occurs during their transport through the epididymis. Compared with the testis, little has been realized about the importance of the epididymis. However, with the development of molecular biology and single-cell sequencing technology, the importance of the epididymis for male fertility should be reconsidered. Recent studies have revealed that different regions of the epididymis exhibit distinct functions and cell type compositions, which are likely determined by variations in gene expression patterns. In this research, we primarily focused on elucidating the cellular composition and region-specific gene expression patterns within different segments of the epididymis and provided detailed insights into epididymal function in male fertility.

13.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-9, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509703

RESUMO

Thrombosis plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases that contribute to high mortality and morbidity in patients. L-(-)-Quebrachitol (QCT), a natural product, was first isolated from quebracho bark. It can inhibit PAF receptor and decrease gastric damage induced by indomethacin, as a drug against platelet aggregation. Here, five QCT derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. Among them, compound 3a showed anticoagulant effects comparable to aspirin, while compound 4b showed dose-independent inhibitory activities in rats that were stronger than aspirin.

14.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 66(3): 484-509, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456625

RESUMO

Brassica napus, commonly known as rapeseed or canola, is a major oil crop contributing over 13% to the stable supply of edible vegetable oil worldwide. Identification and understanding the gene functions in the B. napus genome is crucial for genomic breeding. A group of genes controlling agronomic traits have been successfully cloned through functional genomics studies in B. napus. In this review, we present an overview of the progress made in the functional genomics of B. napus, including the availability of germplasm resources, omics databases and cloned functional genes. Based on the current progress, we also highlight the main challenges and perspectives in this field. The advances in the functional genomics of B. napus contribute to a better understanding of the genetic basis underlying the complex agronomic traits in B. napus and will expedite the breeding of high quality, high resistance and high yield in B. napus varieties.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica napus/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genômica , Fenótipo
15.
Heliyon ; 10(6): e27575, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509982

RESUMO

Background: Recent research has shown that lysosomes play a critical role in the onset and progression of malignancy by regulating tumor cell death through several mechanisms. Nevertheless, the involvement of lysosome-associated genes (LSAGs) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is still not well understood. Methods: LSAGs were identified in malignant lung epithelial cells, as well as biologically and functionally annotated by the comprehensive integration of single-cell and bulk RNA-sequencing data. Prognostic characterization of LSAGs was established, of which the accuracy and reliability were assessed by one-way Cox and LASSO regression. Correlations between LSAG properties and immune cell infiltration, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy were analyzed by integrated omics data. Finally, we characterized the expression of three LSAGs (KCNE1, NPC2, and SFTPD) in malignant lung epithelium and assessed their impact on tumor malignancy related phenotypes. Results: We identified 18 LSAGs associated with prognosis, of which 3 LSAGs were used to construct prognostic models. High-risk patients had worse survival and the model predicted it better than other clinical indicators. Based on the functional enrichment analyses, LSAGs were associated with binding and molecular activity functions, inhibition of DNA damage repair and tumor growth, IL7 signaling pathway, and glycolysis. M0 macrophages and M1 macrophages were substantially enriched in high-risk patients. Conversely, there was a considerable enrichment of resting dendritic cells and M2 macrophages in patients at low risk. We also found that risk scores predicted the outcome of immunotherapy. In vitro, we found that KCNE1, NPC2, and SFTPD were lowly expressed in malignant epithelial cells and patients with low expression of KCNE1, NPC2, and SFTPD had a higher percentage of M2 macrophage infiltration. Overexpression of KCNE1, NPC2, and SFTPD suppressed the proliferation and invasion of malignant cells, and M0 macrophages remarkably reduced M2 macrophage polarization and cellular secretion of pro-tumor cytokines. Conclusions: We used three LASGs-KCNE1, NPC2, and SFTPD-to develop and validate a predictive signature for LUAD patients. Furthermore, we found that low expression of KCNE1, NPC2, and SFTPD promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion and M2 macrophage polarization. Our study may provide fresh perspectives for customized immunotherapy.

16.
Discov Oncol ; 15(1): 81, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is a serious complication after hepatectomy and a major cause of death. The current criteria for PHLF diagnosis (ISGLS consensus) require laboratory data of elevated INR level and hyperbilirubinemia on or after postoperative day 5. This study aims to propose a new indicator for the early clinical prediction of PHLF. METHODS: The peri-operative arterial lactate concentration level ratios were derived from time points within the 3 days before surgery and within POD1, the patients were divided into two groups: high lactate ratio group (≥ 1) and low lactate ratio group (< 1). We compared the differences in morbidity rates between the two groups. Utilized logistic regression analysis to identify the risk factors associated with PHLF development and ROC curves to compare the predictive value of lactate ratio and other liver function indicators for PHLF. RESULTS: A total of 203 patients were enrolled in the study. Overall morbidity and severe morbidity occurred in 64.5 and 12.8 per cent of patients respectively. 39 patients (19.2%) met the criteria for PHLF, including 15 patients (7.4%) with clinically relevant Post-hepatectomy liver failure (CR-PHLF). With a significantly higher incidence of PHLF observed in the lactate ratio ≥ 1 group compared to the lactate ratio < 1 group (n = 34, 26.8% vs. n = 5, 6.6%, P < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that a lactate ratio ≥ 1 was an independent predictor for PHLF (OR: 3.239, 95% CI 1.097-9.565, P = 0.033). Additionally, lactate ratio demonstrated good predictive efficacy for PHLF (AUC = 0.792). CONCLUSIONS: Early assessment of peri-operative arterial lactate concentration level ratios may provide experience in early intervention of complications in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, which can reduce the likelihood of PHLF occurrence and improve patient prognosis.

17.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0296437, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512878

RESUMO

Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) is an environmentally friendly technology that improves soil permeability resistance through biocementation. In this study, 2D microscopic analysis and 3D volume reconstruction were performed on river sand after 24 cycles of bio-treatment based on stacked images and computed tomography (CT) scanning data, respectively, to extract biocementation patterns between particles. Based on the mutual validation findings of the two techniques, three patterns in the biocemented sand were identified as G-C-G, G-C, and G-G. Specifically, 2D microscopic analysis showed that G-C-G featured multi-particle encapsulation and bridging, with a pore filling ratio of 81.2%; G-C was characterized by locally coated particle layers, with a pore filling ratio of 19.7%; and the G-G was marked by sporadic filling of interparticle pores, with a pore filling ratio of 11.7%. G-C-G had the best cementation effect and permeability resistance (effective sealing rate of 68.5%), whereas G-C (effective sealing rate of 2.4%) had a relatively minor contribution to pore-filling and flow sealing. 3D volume reconstruction showed that G-C-G had the highest pore filling rate, followed by G-G and G-C. The average filling ratios of area and volume for G-C-G were 83.979% and 77.257%, respectively; for G-G 20.360% and 23.600%; and for G-C 11.545% and 11.250%. The analysis of the representative element volume (REV) was conducted, and the feasibility and reliability of the micro-scale pattern extraction results were confirmed to guide the analysis of macro-scale characteristics. The exploration of the effectiveness of cementation patterns in fluid sealing provides valuable insights into effective biocementation at the pore scale of porous media, which may inspire future research.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio , Areia , Cimentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Precipitação Química
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(7): 774-778, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515953

RESUMO

This research aimed to examine the diagnostic accuracy and clinical significance of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the context of small rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). A total of 108 patients with rectal subepithelial lesions (SELs) with a diameter of < 20 mm were included in the analysis. The diagnosis and depth assessment of EUS was compared to the histology findings. The prevalence of NENs in rectal SELs was 78.7% (85/108). The sensitivity of EUS in detecting rectal NENs was 98.9% (84/85), while the specificity was 52.2% (12/23). Overall, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS in identifying rectal NENs was 88.9% (96/108). The overall accuracy rate for EUS in assessing the depth of invasion in rectal NENs was 92.9% (78/84). Therefore, EUS demonstrates reasonable diagnostic accuracy in detecting small rectal NENs, with good sensitivity but inferior specificity. EUS may also assist physicians in assessing the depth of invasion in small rectal NENs before endoscopic excision.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Endossonografia , Relevância Clínica , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/patologia
19.
ACS Nano ; 18(14): 9823-9851, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546130

RESUMO

With the increasingly serious greenhouse effect, the electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) has garnered widespread attention as it is capable of leveraging renewable energy to convert CO2 into value-added chemicals and fuels. However, the performance of CO2RR can hardly meet expectations because of the diverse intermediates and complicated reaction processes, necessitating the exploitation of highly efficient catalysts. In recent years, with advanced characterization technologies and theoretical simulations, the exploration of catalytic mechanisms has gradually deepened into the electronic structure of catalysts and their interactions with intermediates, which serve as a bridge to facilitate the deeper comprehension of structure-performance relationships. Transition metal-based catalysts (TMCs), extensively applied in electrochemical CO2RR, demonstrate substantial potential for further electronic structure modulation, given their abundance of d electrons. Herein, we discuss the representative feasible strategies to modulate the electronic structure of catalysts, including doping, vacancy, alloying, heterostructure, strain, and phase engineering. These approaches profoundly alter the inherent properties of TMCs and their interaction with intermediates, thereby greatly affecting the reaction rate and pathway of CO2RR. It is believed that the rational electronic structure design and modulation can fundamentally provide viable directions and strategies for the development of advanced catalysts toward efficient electrochemical conversion of CO2 and many other small molecules.

20.
J Environ Manage ; 356: 120595, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520851

RESUMO

Direct discharge of mariculture wastewater can lead to eutrophication, posing a threat to aquatic ecosystems. A novel Bacteria-Algae Coupled Reactor (BACR) offers advantages in treating mariculture wastewater, which can effectively remove pollutants while simultaneously obtaining microalgal products. However, there is limited information available on how illumination affects the cultivation of mixotrophic microalgae in this bacteria-algae coupling system. Therefore, a combined strategy of photoperiod and light intensity regulation was employed to improve the biological mariculture wastewater remediation, promote microalgae biomass accumulation, and increase the high-value product yield in this study. Optimal light conditions could effectively enhance microalgal carbohydrate, protein, lipid accumulation and photosynthetic activity, with the carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents reached 44.11, 428.57 and 399.68 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, excellent removal rates were achieved for SCOD, NH4+-N and TP, reaching 86.68%, 87.35% and 95.13% respectively. This study proposes a comprehension of BACR processes in mariculture wastewater under different light conditions.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Ecossistema , Fotoperíodo , Nutrientes , Biomassa , Microalgas/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carboidratos , Lipídeos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
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