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1.
Nat Genet ; 54(5): 560-572, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551307

RESUMO

We assembled an ancestrally diverse collection of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in 180,834 affected individuals and 1,159,055 controls (48.9% non-European descent) through the Diabetes Meta-Analysis of Trans-Ethnic association studies (DIAMANTE) Consortium. Multi-ancestry GWAS meta-analysis identified 237 loci attaining stringent genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-9), which were delineated to 338 distinct association signals. Fine-mapping of these signals was enhanced by the increased sample size and expanded population diversity of the multi-ancestry meta-analysis, which localized 54.4% of T2D associations to a single variant with >50% posterior probability. This improved fine-mapping enabled systematic assessment of candidate causal genes and molecular mechanisms through which T2D associations are mediated, laying the foundations for functional investigations. Multi-ancestry genetic risk scores enhanced transferability of T2D prediction across diverse populations. Our study provides a step toward more effective clinical translation of T2D GWAS to improve global health for all, irrespective of genetic background.

2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 362, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501457

RESUMO

Deficiency of the immune checkpoint lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG3) protein is significantly associated with both elevated HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and myocardial infarction risk. We determined the association of genetic variants within ±500 kb of LAG3 with plasma LAG3 and defined LAG3-associated plasma proteins with HDL-C and clinical outcomes. Whole genome sequencing and plasma proteomics were obtained from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) cohorts as part of the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program. In situ Hi-C chromatin capture was performed in EBV-transformed cell lines isolated from four MESA participants. Genetic association analyses were performed in MESA using multivariate regression models, with validation in FHS. A LAG3-associated protein network was tested for association with HDL-C, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality. We identify an association between the LAG3 rs3782735 variant and plasma LAG3 protein. Proteomics analysis reveals 183 proteins significantly associated with LAG3 with four proteins associated with HDL-C. Four proteins discovered for association with all-cause mortality in FHS shows nominal associations in MESA. Chromatin capture analysis reveals significant cis interactions between LAG3 and C1S, LRIG3, TNFRSF1A, and trans interactions between LAG3 and B2M. A LAG3-associated protein network has significant associations with HDL-C and mortality.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Medicina de Precisão , HDL-Colesterol , Cromatina , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Proteínas de Membrana
3.
HGG Adv ; 3(2): 100099, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399580

RESUMO

Hispanic/Latinos have been underrepresented in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for anthropometric traits despite their notable anthropometric variability, ancestry proportions, and high burden of growth stunting and overweight/obesity. To address this knowledge gap, we analyzed densely imputed genetic data in a sample of Hispanic/Latino adults to identify and fine-map genetic variants associated with body mass index (BMI), height, and BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (WHRadjBMI). We conducted a GWAS of 18 studies/consortia as part of the Hispanic/Latino Anthropometry (HISLA) Consortium (stage 1, n = 59,771) and generalized our findings in 9 additional studies (stage 2, n = 10,538). We conducted a trans-ancestral GWAS with summary statistics from HISLA stage 1 and existing consortia of European and African ancestries. In our HISLA stage 1 + 2 analyses, we discovered one BMI locus, as well as two BMI signals and another height signal each within established anthropometric loci. In our trans-ancestral meta-analysis, we discovered three BMI loci, one height locus, and one WHRadjBMI locus. We also identified 3 secondary signals for BMI, 28 for height, and 2 for WHRadjBMI in established loci. We show that 336 known BMI, 1,177 known height, and 143 known WHRadjBMI (combined) SNPs demonstrated suggestive transferability (nominal significance and effect estimate directional consistency) in Hispanic/Latino adults. Of these, 36 BMI, 124 height, and 11 WHRadjBMI SNPs were significant after trait-specific Bonferroni correction. Trans-ancestral meta-analysis of the three ancestries showed a small-to-moderate impact of uncorrected population stratification on the resulting effect size estimates. Our findings demonstrate that future studies may also benefit from leveraging diverse ancestries and differences in linkage disequilibrium patterns to discover novel loci and additional signals with less residual population stratification.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234888

RESUMO

Progressive dilation of the infrarenal aortic diameter is a consequence of the ageing process and is considered the main determinant of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). We aimed to investigate the genetic and clinical determinants of abdominal aortic diameter (AAD). We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in ten cohorts (n = 13 542) imputed to the 1000 Genome Project reference panel including 12 815 subjects in the discovery phase and 727 subjects (PBIO) as replication. Maximum anterior-posterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta was used as AAD. We also included exome array data (n = 14 480) from seven epidemiologic studies. Single-variant and gene-based associations were done using SeqMeta package. A Mendelian randomization analysis was applied to investigate the causal effect of a number of clinical risk factors on AAD. In GWAS on AAD, rs74448815 in the intronic region of LDLRAD4 reached genome-wide significance (beta = -0.02, SE = 0.004, p-value = 2.10 × 10-8). The association replicated in the PBIO1 cohort (p-value = 8.19 × 10-4). In exome-array single-variant analysis (p-value threshold = 9 × 10-7), the lowest p-value was found for rs239259 located in SLC22A20 (beta = 0.007, p-value =1.2 × 10-5). In the gene-based analysis (p-value threshold = 1.85 × 10-6), PCSK5 showed an association with AAD (p-value = 8.03 × 10-7). Furthermore, in Mendelian randomization analyses, we found evidence for genetic association of pulse pressure (beta = -0.003, p-value = 0.02), triglycerides (beta = -0.16, p-value = 0.008) and height (beta = 0.03, p-value<0.0001), known risk factors for AAA, consistent with a causal association with AAD. Our findings point to new biology as well as highlighting gene regions in mechanisms that have previously been implicated in the genetics of other vascular diseases.

5.
Nat Genet ; 54(3): 263-273, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256806

RESUMO

Analyses of data from genome-wide association studies on unrelated individuals have shown that, for human traits and diseases, approximately one-third to two-thirds of heritability is captured by common SNPs. However, it is not known whether the remaining heritability is due to the imperfect tagging of causal variants by common SNPs, in particular whether the causal variants are rare, or whether it is overestimated due to bias in inference from pedigree data. Here we estimated heritability for height and body mass index (BMI) from whole-genome sequence data on 25,465 unrelated individuals of European ancestry. The estimated heritability was 0.68 (standard error 0.10) for height and 0.30 (standard error 0.10) for body mass index. Low minor allele frequency variants in low linkage disequilibrium (LD) with neighboring variants were enriched for heritability, to a greater extent for protein-altering variants, consistent with negative selection. Our results imply that rare variants, in particular those in regions of low linkage disequilibrium, are a major source of the still missing heritability of complex traits and disease.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Alelos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
7.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 148, 2022 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While large genome-wide association studies have identified nearly one thousand loci associated with variation in blood pressure, rare variant identification is still a challenge. In family-based cohorts, genome-wide linkage scans have been successful in identifying rare genetic variants for blood pressure. This study aims to identify low frequency and rare genetic variants within previously reported linkage regions on chromosomes 1 and 19 in African American families from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. Genetic association analyses weighted by linkage evidence were completed with whole genome sequencing data within and across TOPMed ancestral groups consisting of 60,388 individuals of European, African, East Asian, Hispanic, and Samoan ancestries. RESULTS: Associations of low frequency and rare variants in RCN3 and multiple other genes were observed for blood pressure traits in TOPMed samples. The association of low frequency and rare coding variants in RCN3 was further replicated in UK Biobank samples (N = 403,522), and reached genome-wide significance for diastolic blood pressure (p = 2.01 × 10- 7). CONCLUSIONS: Low frequency and rare variants in RCN3 contributes blood pressure variation. This study demonstrates that focusing association analyses in linkage regions greatly reduces multiple-testing burden and improves power to identify novel rare variants associated with blood pressure traits.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Medicina de Precisão , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Ligação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
8.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202437

RESUMO

Genetically regulated gene expression has helped elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying complex traits. Improved high-throughput technology allows similar interrogation of the genetically regulated proteome for understanding complex trait mechanisms. Here, we used the Trans-omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Multi-omics pilot study, which comprises data from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), to optimize genetic predictors of the plasma proteome for genetically regulated proteome-wide association studies (PWAS) in diverse populations. We built predictive models for protein abundances using data collected in TOPMed MESA, for which we have measured 1,305 proteins by a SOMAscan assay. We compared predictive models built via elastic net regression to models integrating posterior inclusion probabilities estimated by fine-mapping SNPs prior to elastic net. In order to investigate the transferability of predictive models across ancestries, we built protein prediction models in all four of the TOPMed MESA populations, African American (n = 183), Chinese (n = 71), European (n = 416), and Hispanic/Latino (n = 301), as well as in all populations combined. As expected, fine-mapping produced more significant protein prediction models, especially in African ancestries populations, potentially increasing opportunity for discovery. When we tested our TOPMed MESA models in the independent European INTERVAL study, fine-mapping improved cross-ancestries prediction for some proteins. Using GWAS summary statistics from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study, which comprises ∼50,000 Hispanic/Latinos, African Americans, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and Native Americans, we applied S-PrediXcan to perform PWAS for 28 complex traits. The most protein-trait associations were discovered, colocalized, and replicated in large independent GWAS using proteome prediction model training populations with similar ancestries to PAGE. At current training population sample sizes, performance between baseline and fine-mapped protein prediction models in PWAS was similar, highlighting the utility of elastic net. Our predictive models in diverse populations are publicly available for use in proteome mapping methods at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4837327.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Proteínas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
9.
Circulation ; 145(4): 259-267, 2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34879218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Multisociety cholesterol guideline states that statin therapy may be withheld or delayed among intermediate-risk individuals in the absence of coronary artery calcium (CAC=0). We evaluated whether traditional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events among individuals with CAC=0 over long-term follow-up. METHODS: We included participants with CAC=0 at baseline from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), a prospective cohort study of individuals free of clinical ASCVD at baseline. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to study the association between cardiovascular risk factors (cigarette smoking, diabetes, hypertension, preventive medication use [aspirin and statin], family history of premature ASCVD, chronic kidney disease, waist circumference, lipid and inflammatory markers) and adjudicated incident ASCVD outcomes. RESULTS: We studied 3416 individuals (mean [SD] age 58 [9] years; 63% were female, 33% White, 31% Black, 12% Chinese American, and 24% Hispanic). Over a median follow-up of 16 years, there were 189 ASCVD events (composite of coronary heart disease and stroke) of which 91 were coronary heart disease, 88 were stroke, and 10 were both coronary heart disease and stroke events. The unadjusted event rates of ASCVD were ≤5 per 1000 person-years among individuals with CAC=0 for most risk factors with the exception of current cigarette smoking (7.3), diabetes (8.9), hypertension (5.4), and chronic kidney disease (6.8). After multivariable adjustment, risk factors that were significantly associated with ASCVD included current cigarette smoking: hazard ratio, 2.12 (95% CI, 1.32-3.42); diabetes: hazard ratio, 1.68 (95% CI, 1.01-2.80); and hypertension: hazard ratio, 1.57 (95% CI, 1.06-2.33). CONCLUSIONS: Current cigarette smoking, diabetes, and hypertension are independently associated with incident ASCVD over a 16-year follow-up among those with CAC=0.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Cálcio/deficiência , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
10.
Circulation ; 145(5): 357-370, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma proteins are critical mediators of cardiovascular processes and are the targets of many drugs. Previous efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of the plasma proteome have been limited by a focus on individuals of European descent and leveraged genotyping arrays and imputation. Here we describe whole genome sequence analysis of the plasma proteome in individuals with greater African ancestry, increasing our power to identify novel genetic determinants. METHODS: Proteomic profiling of 1301 proteins was performed in 1852 Black adults from the Jackson Heart Study using aptamer-based proteomics (SomaScan). Whole genome sequencing association analysis was ascertained for all variants with minor allele count ≥5. Results were validated using an alternative, antibody-based, proteomic platform (Olink) as well as replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the HERITAGE Family Study (Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics). RESULTS: We identify 569 genetic associations between 479 proteins and 438 unique genetic regions at a Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of 3.8×10-11. These associations include 114 novel locus-protein relationships and an additional 217 novel sentinel variant-protein relationships. Novel cardiovascular findings include new protein associations at the APOE gene locus including ZAP70 (sentinel single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7412-T, ß=0.61±0.05, P=3.27×10-30) and MMP-3 (ß=-0.60±0.05, P=1.67×10-32), as well as a completely novel pleiotropic locus at the HPX gene, associated with 9 proteins. Further, the associations suggest new mechanisms of genetically mediated cardiovascular disease linked to African ancestry; we identify a novel association between variants linked to APOL1-associated chronic kidney and heart disease and the protein CKAP2 (rs73885319-G, ß=0.34±0.04, P=1.34×10-17) as well as an association between ATTR amyloidosis and RBP4 levels in community-dwelling individuals without heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results provide evidence for the functional importance of variants in non-European populations, and suggest new biological mechanisms for ancestry-specific determinants of lipids, coagulation, and myocardial function.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Diabetes Care ; 45(1): 232-240, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: LDL cholesterol (LDLc)-lowering drugs modestly increase body weight and type 2 diabetes risk, but the extent to which the diabetogenic effect of lowering LDLc is mediated through increased BMI is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted summary-level univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses in 921,908 participants to investigate the effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes risk and the proportion of this effect mediated through BMI. We used data from 92,532 participants from 14 observational studies to replicate findings in individual-level MR analyses. RESULTS: A 1-SD decrease in genetically predicted LDLc was associated with increased type 2 diabetes odds (odds ratio [OR] 1.12 [95% CI 1.01, 1.24]) and BMI (ß = 0.07 SD units [95% CI 0.02, 0.12]) in univariable MR analyses. The multivariable MR analysis showed evidence of an indirect effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes through BMI (OR 1.04 [95% CI 1.01, 1.08]) with a proportion mediated of 38% of the total effect (P = 0.03). Total and indirect effect estimates were similar across a number of sensitivity analyses. Individual-level MR analyses confirmed the indirect effect of lowering LDLc on type 2 diabetes through BMI with an estimated proportion mediated of 8% (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the diabetogenic effect attributed to lowering LDLc is partially mediated through increased BMI. Our results could help advance understanding of adipose tissue and lipids in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology and inform strategies to reduce diabetes risk among individuals taking LDLc-lowering medications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , LDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco
12.
Diabetes Care ; 45(3): 674-683, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has heterogeneous patient clinical characteristics and outcomes. In previous work, we investigated the genetic basis of this heterogeneity by clustering 94 T2D genetic loci using their associations with 47 diabetes-related traits and identified five clusters, termed ß-cell, proinsulin, obesity, lipodystrophy, and liver/lipid. The relationship between these clusters and individual-level metabolic disease outcomes has not been assessed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Here we constructed individual-level partitioned polygenic scores (pPS) for these five clusters in 12 studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and the UK Biobank (n = 454,193) and tested for cross-sectional association with T2D-related outcomes, including blood pressure, renal function, insulin use, age at T2D diagnosis, and coronary artery disease (CAD). RESULTS: Despite all clusters containing T2D risk-increasing alleles, they had differential associations with metabolic outcomes. Increased obesity and lipodystrophy cluster pPS, which had opposite directions of association with measures of adiposity, were both significantly associated with increased blood pressure and hypertension. The lipodystrophy and liver/lipid cluster pPS were each associated with CAD, with increasing and decreasing effects, respectively. An increased liver/lipid cluster pPS was also significantly associated with reduced renal function. The liver/lipid cluster includes known loci linked to liver lipid metabolism (e.g., GCKR, PNPLA3, and TM6SF2), and these findings suggest that cardiovascular disease risk and renal function may be impacted by these loci through their shared disease pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support that genetically driven pathways leading to T2D also predispose differentially to clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Alelos , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Obesidade/genética , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
13.
Cell Genom ; 1(3)2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957434

RESUMO

Excess liver fat, called hepatic steatosis, is a leading risk factor for end-stage liver disease and cardiometabolic diseases but often remains undiagnosed in clinical practice because of the need for direct imaging assessments. We developed an abdominal MRI-based machine-learning algorithm to accurately estimate liver fat (correlation coefficients, 0.97-0.99) from a truth dataset of 4,511 middle-aged UK Biobank participants, enabling quantification in 32,192 additional individuals. 17% of participants had predicted liver fat levels indicative of steatosis, and liver fat could not have been reliably estimated based on clinical factors such as BMI. A genome-wide association study of common genetic variants and liver fat replicated three known associations and identified five newly associated variants in or near the MTARC1, ADH1B, TRIB1, GPAM, and MAST3 genes (p < 3 × 10-8). A polygenic score integrating these eight genetic variants was strongly associated with future risk of chronic liver disease (hazard ratio > 1.32 per SD score, p < 9 × 10-17). Rare inactivating variants in the APOB or MTTP genes were identified in 0.8% of individuals with steatosis and conferred more than 6-fold risk (p < 2 × 10-5), highlighting a molecular subtype of hepatic steatosis characterized by defective secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. We demonstrate that our imaging-based machine-learning model accurately estimates liver fat and may be useful in epidemiological and genetic studies of hepatic steatosis.

14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 230, 2021 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI), a well-known risk factor for poor cardiovascular outcomes, is associated with differential DNA methylation (DNAm). Similarly, metabolic health has also been associated with changes in DNAm. It is unclear how overall metabolic health outside of BMI may modify the relationship between BMI and methylation profiles, and what consequences this may have on downstream cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to identify cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites at which the association between BMI and DNAm could be modified by overall metabolic health. RESULTS: The discovery study population was derived from three Women's Health Initiative (WHI) ancillary studies (n = 3977) and two Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) ancillary studies (n = 3520). Findings were validated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort (n = 1200). Generalized linear models regressed methylation ß values on the interaction between BMI and metabolic health Z score (BMI × MHZ) adjusted for BMI, MHZ, cell composition, chip number and location, study characteristics, top three ancestry principal components, smoking, age, ethnicity (WHI), and sex (ARIC). Among the 429,566 sites examined, differential associations between BMI × MHZ and DNAm were identified at 22 CpG sites (FDR q < 0.05), with one site replicated in MESA (cg18989722, in the TRAPPC9 gene). Three of the 22 sites were associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in WHI. For each 0.01 unit increase in DNAm ß value, the risk of incident CHD increased by 9% in one site and decreased by 6-10% in two sites over 25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Differential associations between DNAm and BMI by MHZ were identified at 22 sites, one of which was validated (cg18989722) and three of which were predictive of incident CHD. These sites are located in several genes related to NF-kappa-B signaling, suggesting a potential role for inflammation between DNA methylation and BMI-associated metabolic health.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(6): e003460, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated cardiac troponin levels in blood are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Cardiac troponin levels are heritable, but their genetic architecture remains elusive. METHODS: We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association analysis on high-sensitivity cTnT (cardiac troponin T; hs-cTnT) and high-sensitivity cTnI (cardiac troponin I; hs-cTnI) levels in 24 617 and 14 336 participants free of coronary heart disease and heart failure from 6 population-based cohorts, followed by a series of bioinformatic analyses to decipher the genetic architecture of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI. RESULTS: We identified 4 genome-wide significant loci for hs-cTnT including a novel locus rs3737882 in PPFIA4 and 3 previously reported loci at NCOA2, TRAM1, and BCL2. One known locus at VCL was replicated for hs-cTnI. One copy of C allele for rs3737882 was associated with a 6% increase in hs-cTnT levels (minor allele frequency, 0.18; P=2.80×10-9). We observed pleiotropic loci located at BAG3 and ANO5. The proportions of variances explained by single-nucleotide polymorphisms were 10.15% and 7.74% for hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI, respectively. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were colocalized with BCL2 expression in heart tissues and hs-cTnT and with ANO5 expression in artery, heart tissues, and whole blood and both troponins. Mendelian randomization analyses showed that genetically increased hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI levels were associated with higher odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.25-1.54] for hs-cTnT and 1.21 [95% CI, 1.06-1.37] for hs-cTnI). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel genetic locus associated with hs-cTnT in a multiethnic population and found that genetically regulated troponin levels were associated with atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Troponina T , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Anoctaminas , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Biomarcadores , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Troponina I/genética , Troponina T/genética
16.
HGG Adv ; 2(1)2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734193

RESUMO

Psychological and social factors are known to influence blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases. To identify novel BP loci, we carried out genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean arterial BP taking into account the interaction effects of genetic variants with three psychosocial factors: depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and social support. Analyses were performed using a two-stage design in a sample of up to 128,894 adults from 5 ancestry groups. In the combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 59 loci (p value <5e-8), including nine novel BP loci. The novel associations were observed mostly with pulse pressure, with fewer observed with mean arterial pressure. Five novel loci were identified in African ancestry, and all but one showed patterns of interaction with at least one psychosocial factor. Functional annotation of the novel loci supports a major role for genes implicated in the immune response (PLCL2), synaptic function and neurotransmission (LIN7A, PFIA2), as well as genes previously implicated in neuropsychiatric or stress-related disorders (FSTL5, CHODL). These findings underscore the importance of considering psychological and social factors in gene discovery for BP, especially in non-European populations.

17.
HGG Adv ; 2(2)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604815

RESUMO

Genomic discovery and characterization of risk loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been conducted primarily in individuals of European ancestry. We conducted a multiethnic genome-wide association study of T2D among 53,102 cases and 193,679 control subjects from African, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian, and European population groups in the Population Architecture Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) and Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) Consortia. In individuals of African ancestry, we discovered a risk variant in the TGFB1 gene (rs11466334, risk allele frequency (RAF) = 6.8%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p = 2.06 × 10-8), which replicated in independent studies of African ancestry (p = 6.26 × 10-23). We identified a multiethnic risk variant in the BACE2 gene (rs13052926, RAF = 14.1%, OR = 1.08, p = 5.75 × 10-9), which also replicated in independent studies (p = 3.45 × 10-4). We also observed a significant difference in the performance of a multiethnic genetic risk score (GRS) across population groups (pheterogeneity = 3.85 × 10-20). Comparing individuals in the top GRS risk category (40%-60%), the OR was highest in Asians (OR = 3.08) and European (OR = 2.94) ancestry populations, followed by Hispanic (OR = 2.39), Native Hawaiian (OR = 2.02), and African ancestry (OR = 1.57) populations. These findings underscore the importance of genetic discovery and risk characterization in diverse populations and the urgent need to further increase representation of non-European ancestry individuals in genetics research to improve genetic-based risk prediction across populations.

18.
Nat Genet ; 53(10): 1504-1516, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611364

RESUMO

Fine-mapping to plausible causal variation may be more effective in multi-ancestry cohorts, particularly in the MHC, which has population-specific structure. To enable such studies, we constructed a large (n = 21,546) HLA reference panel spanning five global populations based on whole-genome sequences. Despite population-specific long-range haplotypes, we demonstrated accurate imputation at G-group resolution (94.2%, 93.7%, 97.8% and 93.7% in admixed African (AA), East Asian (EAS), European (EUR) and Latino (LAT) populations). Applying HLA imputation to genome-wide association study data for HIV-1 viral load in three populations (EUR, AA and LAT), we obviated effects of previously reported associations from population-specific HIV studies and discovered a novel association at position 156 in HLA-B. We pinpointed the MHC association to three amino acid positions (97, 67 and 156) marking three consecutive pockets (C, B and D) within the HLA-B peptide-binding groove, explaining 12.9% of trait variance.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Infecções por HIV/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Alelos , Aminoácidos/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , HIV-1/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Padrões de Referência , Seleção Genética , Carga Viral
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(2): 309-319, 2021 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415308

RESUMO

We conducted cohort- and race-specific epigenome-wide association analyses of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) copy number (mtDNA CN) measured in whole blood from participants of African and European origins in five cohorts (n = 6182, mean age = 57-67 years, 65% women). In the meta-analysis of all the participants, we discovered 21 mtDNA CN-associated DNA methylation sites (CpG) (P < 1 × 10-7), with a 0.7-3.0 standard deviation increase (3 CpGs) or decrease (18 CpGs) in mtDNA CN corresponding to a 1% increase in DNA methylation. Several significant CpGs have been reported to be associated with at least two risk factors (e.g. chronological age or smoking) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Five genes [PR/SET domain 16, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 3 (NR1H3), DNA repair protein, DNA polymerase kappa and decaprenyl-diphosphate synthase subunit 2], which harbor nine significant CpGs, are known to be involved in mitochondrial biosynthesis and functions. For example, NR1H3 encodes a transcription factor that is differentially expressed during an adipose tissue transition. The methylation level of cg09548275 in NR1H3 was negatively associated with mtDNA CN (effect size = -1.71, P = 4 × 10-8) and was positively associated with the NR1H3 expression level (effect size = 0.43, P = 0.0003), which indicates that the methylation level in NR1H3 may underlie the relationship between mtDNA CN, the NR1H3 transcription factor and energy expenditure. In summary, the study results suggest that mtDNA CN variation in whole blood is associated with DNA methylation levels in genes that are involved in a wide range of mitochondrial activities. These findings will help reveal molecular mechanisms between mtDNA CN and CVD.


Assuntos
Epigenoma , Genoma Mitocondrial , Idoso , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Epigenoma/genética , Feminino , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 136, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity. The genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing remains poorly understood. Through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, we performed the first whole-genome sequence analysis of sleep-disordered breathing. METHODS: The study sample was comprised of 7988 individuals of diverse ancestry. Common-variant and pathway analyses included an additional 13,257 individuals. We examined five complementary traits describing different aspects of sleep-disordered breathing: the apnea-hypopnea index, average oxyhemoglobin desaturation per event, average and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation across the sleep episode, and the percentage of sleep with oxyhemoglobin saturation < 90%. We adjusted for age, sex, BMI, study, and family structure using MMSKAT and EMMAX mixed linear model approaches. Additional bioinformatics analyses were performed with MetaXcan, GIGSEA, and ReMap. RESULTS: We identified a multi-ethnic set-based rare-variant association (p = 3.48 × 10-8) on chromosome X with ARMCX3. Additional rare-variant associations include ARMCX3-AS1, MRPS33, and C16orf90. Novel common-variant loci were identified in the NRG1 and SLC45A2 regions, and previously associated loci in the IL18RAP and ATP2B4 regions were associated with novel phenotypes. Transcription factor binding site enrichment identified associations with genes implicated with respiratory and craniofacial traits. Additional analyses identified significantly associated pathways. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the first gene-based rare-variant associations with objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing traits. Our results increase the understanding of the genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing and highlight associations in genes that modulate lung development, inflammation, respiratory rhythmogenesis, and HIF1A-mediated hypoxic response.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/etiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Alelos , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Pesquisa , Transdução de Sinais , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/metabolismo , Estados Unidos
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