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1.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-14, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841996

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Terbinafine is considered the gold standard for treating skin fungal infections and onychomycosis. However, recent reports suggest that dermatophytes are developing resistance to terbinafine and the other traditional antifungal agents, itraconazole and fluconazole. When there is resistance to terbinafine, itraconazole or fluconazole, or when these agents cannot used, for example, due to potential drug interactions with the patient's current medications, clinicians may need to consider off-label use of new generation azoles, such as voriconazole, posaconazole, fosravuconazole, or oteseconazole. It is essential to emphasize that we do not advocate the use of newer generation azoles unless traditional agents such as terbinafine, itraconazole, or fluconazole have been thoroughly evaluated as first-line therapies. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the clinical evidence, safety, dosage regimens, pharmacokinetics, and management algorithm of new-generation azole antifungals. EXPERT OPINION: Antifungal stewardship should be the top priority when prescribing new-generation azoles. First-line antifungal therapy is terbinafine and itraconazole. Fluconazole is a consideration but is generally less effective and its use may be off-label in many countries. For difficult-to-treat skin fungal infections and onychomycosis, that have failed terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole, we propose consideration of off-label voriconazole or posaconazole.

2.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38873787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral finasteride and topical minoxidil formulations are the only FDA-approved drug therapies for androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Research into dutasteride, topical finasteride, and nontopical minoxidil (low-dose oral and sublingual) formulations in the treatment of AGA has spiked within recent years. Early findings show that these alternative drug therapies may have similar to improved efficacy and safety profiles relative to the conventional treatment options. AIMS: Conducting a bibliometric analysis, compare trends in publications on these alternative drug therapies, identify key contributors, evaluate major findings from top-cited articles, and elucidate gaps in evidence. METHODS: A search was conducted on the Web of Science database for publications on the use of alternative drug therapies in the treatment of AGA. A total of 95 publications, published between January 2003-March 2024, and their citation metadata were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Dutasteride showed the greatest (n = 37) and longest (20+ years) history of publications, as well as the highest cumulative citations (n = 914); however, nontopical minoxidil showed a burst in research activity within the last 5 years (n = 33 publications since 2019). A relatively low number of randomized control trials (n = 3) for nontopical minoxidil suggests a need for higher-quality evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis reveals major trends, contributors, and gaps in evidence for alternative drug therapies for AGA, which can help inform researchers on their future projects in this growing field of study. There is enthusiasm for exploring off-label formulations: nontopical forms of minoxidil (oral and sublingual), topical finasteride, and mesotherapy.

3.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence base pertaining to the efficacy of monotherapies for androgenetic alopecia (AGA), the most common form of hair loss, is ever expanding-and this warrants a formal comparison therapies' effect on a frequent basis. AIMS: The objective of the current study was to determine the comparative effect of relevant monotherapies for male AGA. PATIENTS/METHODS: Our aim was achieved by conducting Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA), under a random effects model, for two outcomes: 6-month change in (1) total and (2) terminal hair density in adult (i.e., aged 18 years and above) men with AGA; these analyses were preceded by a systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature for suitable data. Interventions' surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) and pairwise relative effects (quantified as mean differences) were estimated through the NMAs. RESULTS: We determined the comparative effect of 20 active comparators and a control (i.e., placebo/vehicle). "Dutasteride 0.5 mg once daily for 24 weeks" was ranked the most effective in terms of 6-month change in (1) total hair density (SUCRA = 87%) and terminal hair density (SUCRA = 98%). Our results showed that interventions' effectiveness can be dose dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Our updated analyses of the up-to-date evidence regarding monotherapies for male AGA showed that the oral form of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are more effective than oral minoxidil and other newer agents like Botox, microneedling, and photobiomodulation. Our findings can better inform clinical decision making and design of future research studies.

4.
Mycopathologia ; 189(3): 45, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734753

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global spread of Trichophyton indotineae presents a pressing challenge in dermatophytosis management. This systematic review explores the current landscape of T. indotineae infections, emphasizing resistance patterns, susceptibility testing, mutational analysis, and management strategies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in November 2023 using Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Inclusion criteria covered clinical trials, observational studies, case series, or case reports with T. indotineae diagnosis through molecular methods. Reports on resistance mechanisms, antifungal susceptibility testing, and management were used for data extraction. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 1148 articles were identified through the systematic search process, with 45 meeting the inclusion criteria. The global spread of T. indotineae is evident, with cases reported in numerous new countries in 2023. Tentative epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs) suggested by several groups provide insights into the likelihood of clinical resistance. The presence of specific mutations, particularly Phe397Leu, correlate with higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), indicating potential clinical resistance. Azole resistance has also been reported and investigated in T. indotineae, and is a growing concern. Nevertheless, itraconazole continues to be an alternative therapy. Recommendations for management include oral or combination therapies and individualized approaches based on mutational analysis and susceptibility testing. CONCLUSION: Trichophyton indotineae poses a complex clinical scenario, necessitating enhanced surveillance, improved diagnostics, and cautious antifungal use. The absence of established clinical breakpoints for dermatophytes underscores the need for further research in this challenging field.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Tinha , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/genética , Saúde Global
5.
Mycoses ; 67(4): e13725, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a chronic nail disorder commonly seen by healthcare providers; toenail involvement in particular presents a treatment challenge. OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated estimate on the prevalence of toenail onychomycosis. METHODS: We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. Studies reporting mycology-confirmed diagnoses were included and stratified into (a) populations-based studies, and studies that included (b) clinically un-suspected and (c) clinically suspected patients. RESULTS: A total of 108 studies were included. Based on studies that examined clinically un-suspected patients (i.e., with or without clinical features suggestive of onychomycosis), the pooled prevalence rate of toenail onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes was 4% (95% CI: 3-5) among the general population; special populations with a heightened risk include knee osteoarthritis patients (RR: 14.6 [95% CI: 13.0-16.5]), chronic venous disease patients (RR: 5.6 [95% CI: 3.7-8.1]), renal transplant patients (RR: 4.7 [95% CI: 3.3-6.5]), geriatric patients (RR: 4.7 [95% CI: 4.4-4.9]), HIV-positive patients (RR: 3.7 [95% CI: 2.9-4.7]), lupus erythematosus patients (RR: 3.1 [95% CI: 1.2-6.3]), diabetic patients (RR: 2.8 [95% CI: 2.4-3.3]) and hemodialysis patients (RR: 2.8 [95% CI: 1.9-4.0]). The prevalence of onychomycosis in clinically suspected patients was significantly higher likely due to sampling bias. A high degree of variability was found in a limited number of population-based studies indicating that certain pockets of the population may be more predisposed to onychomycosis. The diagnosis of non-dermatophyte mould onychomycosis requires repeat sampling to rule out contaminants or commensal organisms; a significant difference was found between studies that performed single sampling versus repeat sampling. The advent of PCR diagnosis results in improved detection rates for dermatophytes compared to culture. CONCLUSION: Onychomycosis is an underrecognized healthcare burden. Further population-based studies using standardized PCR methods are warranted.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Transplante de Rim , Onicomicose , Humanos , Idoso , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Unhas , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia
6.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38666468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pattern hair loss, the most common form of hair loss, affects millions in the United States. Americans are increasingly seeking health information from social media. It would appear that healthcare professionals contribute relatively minimally to pattern hair loss content, thereby posing serious concerns for credibility and quality of information available to the general public. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates popular pattern hair loss-related content on Instagram, TikTok, and YouTube, aiming to understand effective engagement strategies for healthcare professionals on social media. METHODS: The top 60 short-form videos were extracted from Instagram, TikTok, and YouTube, using the search term "pattern hair loss" and inclusion of USA-based accounts only. Videos were categorized by creator type (healthcare vs. non-healthcare professional), content type (informational, interactional, and transactional), and analyzed for user engagement and quality, using engagement ratios and DISCERN scores, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare professionals, especially dermatologists, play a crucial role in delivering credible information on social media, supported by higher DISCERN scores. Multi-platform presence, frequent activity, and strategic content creation contributes to increased reach and engagement. Duration of short-form videos does not impact engagement. The "Duet" or "Remix" options on TikTok, Instagram, and YouTube serve as a valuable tool for healthcare professionals to counter misinformation. Our study underscores the importance of optimizing educational impact provided by health care professionals at a time when the public increasingly relies on social media for medical information.

7.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 25(5): 511-519, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623728

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The reports of resistance to antifungal agents used for treating onychomycosis and other superficial fungal infections are increasing. This rise in antifungal resistance poses a public health challenge that requires attention. AREAS COVERED: This review explores the prevalence of dermatophytes and the current relationship between dermatophyte species, their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for terbinafine (an allylamine) and itraconazole (an azole), and various mutations prevalent in these species. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte associated with resistance in patients with onychomycosis and dermatophytosis was T. mentagrophytes. However, T. indotineae emerged as the most prevalent isolate with mutations in the SQLE gene, exhibiting the highest MIC of 8 µg/ml for terbinafine and MICs of 8 µg/ml and ≥ 32 µg/ml for itraconazole.Overall, the most prevalent SQLE mutations were Phe397Leu, Leu393Phe, Ala448Thr, Phe397Leu/Ala448Thr, and Lys276Asn/Leu415Phe (relatively recent). EXPERT OPINION: Managing dermatophyte infections requires a personalized approach. A detailed history should be obtained including details of travel, home and occupational exposure, and clinical examination of the skin, nails and other body systems. Relevant testing includes mycological examination (traditional and molecular). Additional testing, where available, includes MIC evaluation and detection of SQLE mutations. In case of suspected terbinafine resistance, itraconazole or voriconazole (less commonly) should be considered.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Arthrodermataceae , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Terbinafina , Tinha , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/microbiologia
8.
Expert Opin Emerg Drugs ; : 1-11, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38666717

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most prevalent cause of male hair loss, often requiring medical and/or surgical intervention. The US FDA has approved topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for male AGA treatment. However, some AGA patients fail to respond satisfactorily to these FDA-approved treatments and/or may experience side effects, based on their individual profiles. To mitigate the shortcomings of these treatments, researchers are now exploring alternative treatments such as newer 5-α reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) and androgen receptor antagonists (ARAs). AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the safety and effectiveness of well-known 5-α reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) like finasteride and dutasteride, as well as the newer 5-ARIs, emerging androgen receptor antagonists (ARAs), and natural products such as saw palmetto and pumpkin seed oil in the treatment of male AGA. EXPERT OPINION: Although several newer 5-ARIs, ARAs, and natural products have exhibited promise in clinical trials, additional research is essential to confirm their safety and efficacy in treating male AGA. Until additional evidence is available for these agents, the preferred treatment choices for male AGA are the FDA-approved treatments, topical minoxidil, and oral finasteride.

9.
Skinmed ; 22(1): 35-39, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494613

RESUMO

Individuals with psoriatic nails often have a lower quality of life relative to their counterparts with healthy nails. Methotrexate (MTX), an anti-neoplastic agent, is a longstanding treatment option for nail psoriasis. In the current study, we compared the effects of MTX to that of a corticosteroid, namely, methylprednisolone acetate (i.e., Depo-Medrol®) across individuals with nail psoriasis. We used a cohort study design, and both agents were administered intralesionally. Outcome variables were based on the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI). We quantified the effect in terms of change in NAPSI, complete cure at week 16, and cure between 32 and 36 weeks. Our regressions demonstrated that reduced NAPSI scores with Depo-Medrol were, on average, greater than that with MTX by 2.27 (n = 48, P = 0.000255) at week 16. Similarly, the odds of complete cure at week 16 was greater with Depo-Medrol® than with MTX (odds ratio = 18.6, P < 0.0001). In terms of both complete cure and change in NAPSI, Depo-Medrol® was significantly more effective than MTX at a follow-up period of 32-36 weeks. Our study established that intralesional Depo-Medrol® is more effective than intralesional methotrexate for treating nail psoriasis.


Assuntos
Doenças da Unha , Unhas Malformadas , Psoríase , Humanos , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Unhas , Acetato de Metilprednisolona , Estudos de Coortes , Qualidade de Vida , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças da Unha/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Skinmed ; 22(1): 61-66, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494618

RESUMO

XdemvyTM (lotilaner ophthalmic solution) 0.25% topical solution was recently approved for the treatment of Demodex blepharitis in adults aged ≥18 years. As an antiparasitic agent, lotilaner selectively inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid chloride channels specific to the parasite and induces spastic paralysis, leading to death of Demodex blepharitis mites. In two randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, multi-center, phase-3 clinical trials (Saturn-1 and Satuirn-2), lotilaner 0.25% topical solution was investigated for the treatment of Demodex blepharitis. Patients were assigned to receive either lotilaner 0.25% topical solution or vehicle (solution that did not contain lotilaner as an active ingredient) twice daily for 6 weeks. On day 43, lotilaner group demonstrated primary efficacy in achieving collarette cure ([collarette grade 0], Saturn-1: study group 44% [92/209], vehicle 7.4% [15/204]; Saturn-2: study group 56% [108/193], vehicle 12.5% [25/200]). Secondary efficacy was achieved by eradication of mite ([0 mite/lash], Saturn-1: study group 67.9% [142/209], vehicle 17.6% [36/304]; Saturn-2: study group 51.8% [99/193], vehicle 14.6% [29/200]), composite cure ([grade 0 collarette as well as grade 0 erythema], Saturn-1: study group 13.9% [29/209], vehicle 1.0% [2/204]; Saturn-2: study group 19.2% [37/193], vehicle 4% [8/200]), and erythema cure ([grade 0 erythema], study group 19.1% [40/209], vehicle 6.9% [14/204]; Saturn-2: study group 31.1% [60/193], vehicle 9.0% [18/199]). The adverse events were mild, with the most common being pain at instillation site. The recommended regimen for lotilaner 0.25% solution is one drop in each eye twice daily for 6 weeks.


Assuntos
Blefarite , Infestações por Ácaros , Oxazóis , Tiofenos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Blefarite/tratamento farmacológico , Blefarite/parasitologia , Eritema , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Soluções Oftálmicas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto
11.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 25(2): 139-147, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315101

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treating alopecia can be challenging. The available treatments are topical minoxidil, low-dose oral minoxidil (LDOM), and 5-α reductase inhibitors like finasteride and dutasteride. Only topical minoxidil and finasteride 1 mg daily are FDA-approved, while the rest are used off-label. Recent research has suggested that oral minoxidil may be a safe and effective treatment for both female androgenetic alopecia (female AGA) and male androgenetic alopecia (male AGA). AREAS COVERED: In this review, we explore the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, safety, and efficacy of oral minoxidil. Additionally, we discuss its effectiveness compared to other treatments available for female AGA and male AGA. EXPERT OPINION: LDOM has demonstrated a favorable efficacy and safety profile in several trials. Subsequently, its use for the treatment of male AGA and female AGA is increasing. However, its use remains off-label, and through increased usage, we will get a better idea of the best dosage and monitoring guidelines. LDOM has also been used with some effectiveness in other forms of hair loss.


Assuntos
Finasterida , Minoxidil , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 10(2)2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38392821

RESUMO

Onychomycosis is an under-recognized healthcare burden. Despite the risk of misdiagnosis, confirmatory laboratory testing is under-utilized. Histopathologic examination with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is currently the most effective diagnostic method; it offers direct detection and identification of a fungal invasion. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed confirmatory testing results, with matching clinical diagnoses, in 96,293 nail specimens submitted during a 9-month period from 2022 to 2023. Toenail specimens were examined using fungal culture, histopathology and/or PCR. Clinical diagnoses were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision codes. For clinically diagnosed onychomycosis patients, the overall positivity rate was 59.4%; a similar positivity rate (59.5%) was found in patients with clinically diagnosed non-fungal nail dystrophy. Performing a histopathologic examination with PCR was more likely to provide pathogen identification results than using fungal culture. Male patients had a higher rate of onychomycosis overall; however, female patients had more non-dermatophyte mold onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus. Clinically diagnosed onychomycosis patients with a co-diagnosis of tinea pedis were more likely to test positive for onychomycosis by PCR (odds ratio [OR]: 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7-6.4), histopathology (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0-3.1) and fungal culture (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.5-6.6). Our results support the use of confirmatory laboratory testing when there is a clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis.

14.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 25(1): 15-23, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38221907

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Terbinafine has been a cornerstone in dermatophyte infection treatment. Despite its global efficacy, the emergence of terbinafine resistance raises concerns, requiring ongoing vigilance. AREAS COVERED: This paper focuses on evaluating the efficacy and safety of terbinafine in treating dermatophyte toenail infections. Continuous and pulse therapies, with a 24-week continuous regimen and a higher dosage of 500 mg/day have demonstrated superior efficacy to the FDA approved regimen of 250 mg/day x 12 weeks. Pulse therapies, though showing comparable effectiveness, present debates with regards to their efficacy as conflicting findings have been reported. Safety concerns encompass hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal, cutaneous, neurologic, hematologic and immune adverse-effects, and possible drug interactions, suggesting the need for ongoing monitoring. EXPERT OPINION: Terbinafine efficacy depends on dosage, duration, and resistance patterns. Continuous therapy for 24 weeks and a dosage of 500 mg/day may enhance outcomes, but safety considerations and resistance necessitate individualized approaches. Alternatives, including topical agents and alternative antifungals, are to be considered for resistant cases. Understanding the interplay between treatment parameters, adverse effects, and resistance mechanisms is critical for optimizing therapeutic efficacy while mitigating resistance risks. Patient education and adherence are vital for early detection and management of adverse effects and resistance, contributing to tailored and effective treatments.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Dermatoses do Pé , Doenças da Unha , Onicomicose , Humanos , Terbinafina/efeitos adversos , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Itraconazol/efeitos adversos , Naftalenos/efeitos adversos , Dermatoses do Pé/induzido quimicamente , Dermatoses do Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Unha/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Unha/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13683, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214375

RESUMO

A growing body of literature has marked the emergence and spread of antifungal resistance among species of Trichophyton, the most prevalent cause of toenail and fingernail onychomycosis in the United States and Europe. We review published data on rates of oral antifungal resistance among Trichophyton species; causes of antifungal resistance and methods to counteract it; and in vitro data on the role of topical antifungals in the treatment of onychomycosis. Antifungal resistance among species of Trichophyton against terbinafine and itraconazole-the two most common oral treatments for onychomycosis and other superficial fungal infections caused by dermatophytes-has been detected around the globe. Fungal adaptations, patient characteristics (e.g., immunocompromised status; drug-drug interactions), and empirical diagnostic and treatment patterns may contribute to reduced antifungal efficacy and the development of antifungal resistance. Antifungal stewardship efforts aim to ensure proper antifungal use to limit antifungal resistance and improve clinical outcomes. In the treatment of onychomycosis, critical aspects of antifungal stewardship include proper identification of the fungal infection prior to initiation of treatment and improvements in physician and patient education. Topical ciclopirox, efinaconazole and tavaborole, delivered either alone or in combination with oral antifungals, have demonstrated efficacy in vitro against susceptible and/or resistant isolates of Trichophyton species, with low potential for development of antifungal resistance. Additional real-world long-term data are needed to monitor global rates of antifungal resistance and assess the efficacy of oral and topical antifungals, alone or in combination, in counteracting antifungal resistance in the treatment of onychomycosis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Onicomicose , Humanos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Trichophyton , Administração Tópica
16.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 23(4): 1446-1451, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38174368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking-which often refers to recreational consumption of the nicotine-containing tobacco-is deemed a risk factor for both the development of and worsening of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). However, there is no published meta-analysis study on the effect of smoking on AGA; so, we quantitatively synthesized the evidence base pertaining to the recreational activity and this form of hair loss in men. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and Scopus to identify published studies with suitable data, and pairwise meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Our search identified eight studies-and the data thereof were used across four meta-analyses. We found that ever smokers are significantly (p < 0.05) more likely, than never smokers, to develop AGA (pooled odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.55-2.14). Our results showed that the odds of developing AGA are significantly (p < 0.05) higher in men who smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day, than in their counterparts who smoke up to 10 cigarettes per day (pooled OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.17-3.29). For men with AGA, the odds of disease progression are significantly (p < 0.05) higher among ever smokers than in never smokers (pooled OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.60). We found no significant (p ≥ 0.05) association between smoking intensity and disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the current study-which is the first meta-analysis to our knowledge reviewing the association between AGA and the extent of smoking, can guide further research and update clinical practice guidelines.


Assuntos
Alopecia , Fumar , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Alopecia/epidemiologia , Alopecia/etiologia , Progressão da Doença
17.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 23(1): 154-160, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37386777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minoxidil and the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), specifically, dutasteride and finasteride, are usually used to treat pattern hair loss (PHL), but evidence on the relative effectiveness of these drugs is far less for women than men. AIMS: We performed an age-adjusted network meta-analysis (NMA) to determine the comparative efficacy of monotherapy with the three agents-in any dosage and administrative route-on PHL in adult women. METHODS: The peer-reviewed literature was systematically reviewed to obtain data for our NMA. The outcome measure for our NMA was "change in total hair density." We referred to "regimen" as an "agent and its dosage;" our Bayesian NMA estimated regimens' surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) values and pairwise relative effects. RESULTS: Our NMA used data from 13 trials-across which the following 10 regimens were identified (in decreasing order of SUCRA): 5 mg/day finasteride for 24 weeks (SUCRA = 95.7%), 5% topical minoxidil solution twice daily for 24 weeks (SUCRA = 89.5%), 1 mg/day minoxidil for 24 weeks (SUCRA = 78.1%), 5% topical minoxidil foam 1 half capful/day for 24 weeks (SUCRA = 66.5%), 3% topical minoxidil solution 1 mL twice daily for 24 weeks (SUCRA = 45.1%), 2% topical minoxidil solution 1 mL twice daily for 24 weeks (SUCRA = 44.6%), 5% topical minoxidil solution 1 mL/day for 24 weeks (SUCRA = 41.7%), 0.25 mg/day minoxidil for 24 weeks (SUCRA = 35.5%), 1.25 mg/day finasteride for 24 weeks (SUCRA = 24.8%) and 1 mg/day finasteride for 24 weeks (SUCRA = 4.3%). CONCLUSION: Our findings can improve clinical guidelines and help dermatologists manage female PHL more optimally with the available options.


Assuntos
Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase , Minoxidil , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/uso terapêutico , Finasterida/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Teorema de Bayes , Resultado do Tratamento , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico
18.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 38(3): 480-495, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010049

RESUMO

Nondermatophyte moulds (NDMs) are widely distributed and can be detected in association with mycotic nails; however, sometimes it can be challenging to establish the role of NDMs in the pathogenesis of onychomycosis (i.e. causative vs. contaminant). In studies where the ongoing invasive presence of NDMs is confirmed through repeat cultures, the global prevalence of NDMs in onychomycosis patients is estimated at 6.9% with the 3 most common genus being: Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis and Fusarium. NDM onychomycosis can, in many cases, appear clinically indistinguishable from dermatophyte onychomycosis. Clinical features suggestive of NDMs include proximal subungual onychomycosis with paronychia associated with Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp. and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, as well as superficial white onychomycosis in a deep and diffused pattern associated with Aspergillus and Fusarium. Longitudinal streaks seen in patients with distal and lateral onychomycosis may serve as an additional indicator. For diagnosis, light microscopic examination should demonstrate fungal filaments consistent with an NDM with at least two independent isolations in the absence of a dermatophyte; the advent of molecular testing combined with histological assessment may serve as an alternative with improved sensitivity and turnover time. In most instances, antifungal susceptibility testing has limited value. Information on effective treatments for NDM onychomycosis is relatively scarce, unlike the situation in the study of dermatophyte onychomycosis. Terbinafine and itraconazole therapy (continuous and pulsed) appear effective to varying extents for treating onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus, Fusarium or Scopulariopsis. There is scant literature on oral treatments for Neoscytalidium.


Assuntos
Onicomicose , Paroniquia , Humanos , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Facial Plast Surg ; 40(2): 146-157, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37879351

RESUMO

Follicular unit excision (FUE) has emerged as the preferred method for hair transplants. Standardized terms and definitions established by members of the International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery and prominent hair restoration surgeons have become the standard, enabling effective knowledge sharing. This chapter provides an overview of the terminology relating to the field.The historical evolution of FUE and its pivotal role in modern hair transplantation is summarized. Anatomical terminology and graft-related definitions follow, providing insights into the scalp's complex structures and graft characteristics. The subsequent sections detail the terminology associated with graft excision and extraction, shedding light on the precise techniques and procedures employed. An exploration of various FUE techniques and the evolving landscape of FUE devices underscores the continual refinement of hair restoration practices. The chapter proceeds to discuss the "safe'" scalp donor zones, donor assessment terminology, and elements in identifying the optimal donor area for a successful FUE procedure. Additionally, punch dynamics and technique characteristics are examined, emphasizing their pivotal role in achieving superior FUE outcomes. The chapter concludes by discussing the classification of punches and graft evaluation terms, offering insights into the tools, and criteria used to assess graft quality and viability.


Assuntos
Alopecia , Folículo Piloso , Humanos , Folículo Piloso/transplante , Alopecia/cirurgia , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos , Cabelo/transplante , Couro Cabeludo/cirurgia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38088126

RESUMO

Antifungal stewardship refers to the rational use of antifungal agents. Historically, in some instances, the misuse or overuse of antifungal agents has predisposed patients to an elevated risk of systemic side-effects and treatment resistance, as well as increased healthcare costs. Superficial mycoses, such as onychomycosis, are sometimes treated without any diagnostic testing and is associated with a high likelihood of self-diagnosis and self-treatment, potentially leading to the emergence of resistance against commonly used antifungals like terbinafine. Practitioners need to ensure that a proper clinical diagnosis is backed up by appropriate testing. This may include the traditional light microscopy and culture; additionally, molecular techniques (such as polymerase chain reaction, terbinafine gene mutational analysis) and antifungal susceptibility testing are considerations as appropriate. The choice of antifungal agent should be guided by what is the standard of care in the location where the clinician practices as well as more broadly state and national prescription patterns. Recently, reports of treatment resistance concerning both superficial and deep fungal infections have added another layer of difficulty to clinical practice. This review aims to explore the phenomenon of antifungal drug resistance, and highlights the importance of adopting antifungal stewardship programs. We provide an overview of treatment resistance and mechanisms of resistance reported thus far in dermatophytes. Challenges of performing antifungal susceptibility testing and therapeutic drug monitoring are discussed, as well as principles, recommendations and future directions of antifungal stewardship programs.

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