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Opt Express ; 24(13): 14895-914, 2016 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27410641


In this paper, we present a comprehensive simulation-based analysis of the two photonic effects of a Bragg stack - a modified local density of photon states (LDOS) and an enhanced local irradiance - on the upconversion (UC) luminescence and quantum yield of the upconverter ß-NaYF4 doped with 25% Er3+. The investigated Bragg stack consists of alternating layers of TiO2 and Poly(methylmethacrylate), the latter containing upconverter nanoparticles. Using experimentally determined input parameters, the photonic effects are first simulated separately and subsequently coupled in a rate equation model, describing the dynamics of the UC processes within ß-NaYF4:25% Er3+. With this integrated simulation model, the Bragg stack design is optimized to maximize either the UC quantum yield (UCQY) or UC luminescence. We find that in an optimized Bragg stack, due to the modified LDOS, the maximum UCQY is enhanced from 14% to 16%, compared to an unstructured layer of upconverter material. Additionally, this maximum UCQY can already be reached at an incident irradiance as low as 100 W/m2. With a Bragg stack design that maximizes UC luminescence, enhancement factors of up to 480 of the UC luminescence can be reached.

Opt Express ; 21 Suppl 5: A883-900, 2013 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24104583


In upconversion processes, two or more low-energy photons are converted into one higher-energy photon. Besides other applications, upconversion has the potential to decrease sub-band-gap losses in silicon solar cells. Unfortunately, upconverting materials known today show quantum yields, which are too low for this application. In order to improve the upconversion quantum yield, two parameters can be tuned using photonic structures: first, the irradiance can be increased within the structure. This is beneficial, as upconversion is a non-linear process. Second, the rates of the radiative transitions between ionic states within the upconverter material can be altered due to a varied local density of photonic states. In this paper, we present a theoretical model of the impact of a photonic structure on upconversion and test this model in a simulation based analysis of the upconverter material ß -NaYF(4):20% Er(3+) within a dielectric waveguide structure. The simulation combines a finite-difference time-domain simulation model that describes the variations of the irradiance and the change of the local density of photonic states within a photonic structure, with a rate equation model of the upconversion processes. We find that averaged over the investigated structure the upconversion luminescence is increased by a factor of 3.3, and the upconversion quantum yield can be improved in average by a factor of 1.8 compared to the case without the structure for an initial irradiance of 200 Wm(-2).

Opt Express ; 20 Suppl 2: A157-67, 2012 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22418664


Luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) are used in photovoltaic applications to concentrate direct and diffuse sunlight without tracking. We employed 2D FDTD simulations to investigate the concept of a photonic LSC (PLSC), where the luminescent material is embedded in a photonic crystal to mitigate the primary losses in LSCs: the escape cone and reabsorption. We obtain suppressed emission inside the photonic band gap, which can be utilized to reduce reabsorption. Furthermore, the efficiency of light guiding is strongly enhanced in a broad spectral range, reaching up to 99.7%. Our optimization of design parameters suggests emitting layers of sub-wavelength thickness.