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1.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 13(1): 50, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An important component in fostering the responsible use of antibiotics is training of new and future prescribers in this interdisciplinary topic. Because podcasts are playing an increasing role in medical education, we aimed to develop and evaluate a podcast format with practice and guideline-oriented learning content on antibiotic therapy for medical students and young medical professionals. METHODS: We developed the concept for the podcast with the direct involvement of medical students and medical experts with teaching experience. We used video conferencing when recording the episodes in order to have quick, easy, and nationwide access to the experts involved. We released an episode every 2 to 4 weeks on the popular podcast platforms. The podcast was promoted through mailing lists, social and print media, and at conferences. The evaluation of episodes was based on user data provided by the platforms and an anonymous feedback questionnaire linked to each episode in the podcast notes. RESULTS: Between December 2021 and December 2022 19 episodes of InfectEd: der Antibiotika-Podcast were released. The mean duration of an episode was 91 min. By March 9, 2023, a total of 38,829 downloads and streams had been recorded. The majority of users listened to the podcast on a mobile device. The average playing time per episode was 65%. The feedback questionnaire was completed 135 times. 60.7% of respondents were female, 38.5% male. The majority of respondents were in their twenties and thirties (66.7%). 31.1% were medical students, 25.9% were residents, and 25.2% were specialists. Listeners were asked to rate episodes on a scale from 1 to 6, where 1 was "very good" and 6 was "insufficient." Ratings did not differ significantly between female and male respondents or between medical students and others. 118 respondents (87.4%) reported an increase in knowledge. Free-text feedback frequently emphasized clinical and also exam relevance. CONCLUSION: Our podcast format, developed with a user-centered approach, was broadly distributed and has been well accepted by both medical students and physicians alike. It provides a large number of learners with low-threshold access to current, guideline-orientated content and could be a useful supplement to conventional teaching formats.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Estudantes de Medicina , Webcasts como Assunto , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Educação Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Feminino , Masculino
2.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e082512, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38670599

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is frequently detected in the respiratory tract of mechanically ventilated patients and is associated with a worse outcome. The aim of this study is to determine whether antiviral therapy in HSV-positive patients improves outcome. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Prospective, multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial in parallel-group design. Adult, mechanically ventilated patients with pneumonia and HSV type 1 detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (≥105 copies/mL) are eligible for participation and will be randomly allocated (1:1) to receive acyclovir (10 mg/kg body weight every 8 hours) for 10 days (or until discharge from the intensive care unit if earlier) or no intervention (control group). The primary outcome is mortality measured at day 30 after randomisation (primary endpoint) and will be analysed with Cox mixed-effects model. Secondary endpoints include ventilator-free and vasopressor-free days up to day 30. A total of 710 patients will be included in the trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial was approved by the responsible ethics committee and by Germany's Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices. The clinical trial application was submitted under the new Clinical Trials Regulation through CTIS (The Clinical Trials Information System). In this process, only one ethics committee, whose name is unknown to the applicant, and Germany's Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices are involved throughout the entire approval process. Results will be published in a journal indexed in MEDLINE and CTIS. With publication, de-identified, individual participant data will be made available to researchers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT06134492.


Assuntos
Aciclovir , Antivirais , Respiração Artificial , Humanos , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Aciclovir/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Masculino , Adulto , Resultado do Tratamento , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 1/isolamento & purificação , Simplexvirus/isolamento & purificação
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(7): e033404, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38533941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis represents a life-threatening disease with high mortality rates. A fraction of patients receives exclusively conservative antibiotic treatment due to their comorbidities and high operative risk, despite fulfilling criteria for surgical therapy. The aim of the present study is to compare outcomes in patients with infective endocarditis and indication for surgical therapy in those who underwent or did not undergo valve surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three databases were systematically assessed. A pooled analysis of Kaplan-Meier-derived reconstructed time-to-event data from studies with longer follow-up comparing conservative and surgical treatment was performed. A landmark analysis to further elucidate the effect of surgical intervention on mortality was carried out. Four studies with 3003 patients and median follow-up time of 7.6 months were included. Overall, patients with an indication for surgery who were surgically treated had a significantly lower risk of mortality compared with patients who received conservative treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.27 [95% CI, 0.24-0.31], P<0.001). The survival analysis in the first year showed superior survival for patients who underwent surgery when compared with those who did not at 1 month (87.6% versus 57.6%; HR, 0.31 [95% CI, 0.26-0.37], P<0.01), at 6 months (74.7% versus 34.6%) and at 12 months (73.3% versus 32.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of this study-level meta-analysis, patients with infective endocarditis and formal indication for surgical intervention who underwent surgery are associated with a lower risk of short- and long-term mortality when compared with conservative treatment.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/cirurgia , Endocardite Bacteriana/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida
4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 13(3)2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38534678

RESUMO

Early identification of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) pathogens via PCR may improve the management of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). In this study, we evaluated the implementation of a testing algorithm for ED patients with AGE using the BD MAX automated PCR system. Data from 133 patients were analyzed. A total of 56 patients (42%) tested positive via PCR for at least one bacterial or viral pathogen. The median time to report PCR results was 6.17 h compared to 57.28 h for culture results for bacterial pathogens. The most common pathogen was Clostridioides difficile (n = 20, 15%). In total, 14 of the 20 C. difficile-positive patients were aged >65 years and 17 of the 20 patients (85%) were diagnosed with a clinically relevant infection based on typical symptoms and laboratory values. They received antibiotics, mostly oral vancomycin, starting a median of 11.37 h after ED admission. The introduction of PCR for the diagnosis of AGE infection in patients presenting to the ED may have the greatest impact on the rapid identification of C. difficile and the timely administration of antibiotics if necessary.

5.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 65(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multi-organ failure is one of the leading causes of mortality after cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis (IE). Although the randomized evidence does not support the use of haemoadsorption during cardiac surgery for IE, observational studies suggest a beneficial effect in selected patient groups. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen, and its presence is an independent mortality predictor. We aimed to analyse the effect of haemoadsorption in patients with IE caused by S. aureus. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the REMOVE trial that randomized 288 patients with IE who underwent cardiac surgery with haemoadsorption using CytoSorb® or control. The primary outcome was ΔSequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), defined as the difference between the mean total postoperative and baseline SOFA score within 24 h of surgery. RESULTS: Among the total of 282 patients included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis of the REMOVE trial, 73 (25.9%) had S. aureus IE (38 patients in the haemoadsorption group and 35 patients in the control group). The overall ΔSOFA did not differ between the intervention groups in patients with S. aureus IE (mead difference = -0.4, 95% confidence interval -2.3 to 1.4, P = 0.66) and neither did 30-day mortality (hazard ratios = 1.32, 95% confidence interval 0.53-3.28, P = 0.55). No differences were observed with regard to any of the other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a post hoc analysis from REMOVE trial, the intraoperative use of haemoadsorption in patients with S. aureus IE was not associated with reduction of postoperative organ dysfunction, 30-day mortality or other major clinical end points.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos
6.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 6(1): dlae015, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328266

RESUMO

Objectives: Post-traumatic osteomyelitis attributed to metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria presents a challenging clinical scenario. Cefiderocol emerges as a viable treatment option within the limited therapeutic options available. Patient/case description: In this brief report, we present a case of a Ukrainian patient with osteomyelitis caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which was successfully treated with cefiderocol, facilitated in part by outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT). Results and discussion: Administration of Cefiderocol via OPAT can present a safe and effective option for treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis with multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A possible effect on iron homeostasis of extended treatment duration with cefiderocol may be taken into consideration.

7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 24(5): 523-534, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection is treated with at least 14 days of intravenous antimicrobials. We assessed the efficacy and safety of an early switch to oral therapy in patients at low risk for complications related to S aureus bloodstream infection. METHODS: In this international, open-label, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial done in 31 tertiary care hospitals in Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Spain, adult patients with low-risk S aureus bloodstream infection were randomly assigned after 5-7 days of intravenous antimicrobial therapy to oral antimicrobial therapy or to continue intravenous standard therapy. Randomisation was done via a central web-based system, using permuted blocks of varying length, and stratified by study centre. The main exclusion criteria were signs and symptoms of complicated S aureus bloodstream infection, non-removable foreign devices, and severe comorbidity. The composite primary endpoint was the occurrence of any complication related to S aureus bloodstream infection (relapsing S aureus bloodstream infection, deep-seated infection, and mortality attributable to infection) within 90 days, assessed in the intention-to-treat population by clinical assessors who were masked to treatment assignment. Adverse events were assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study medication (safety population). Due to slow recruitment, the scientific advisory committee decided on Jan 15, 2018, to stop the trial after 215 participants were randomly assigned (planned sample size was 430 participants) and to convert the planned interim analysis into the final analysis. The decision was taken without knowledge of outcome data, at a time when 126 participants were enrolled. The new sample size accommodated a non-inferiority margin of 10%; to claim non-inferiority, the upper bound of the 95% CI for the treatment difference (stratified by centre) had to be below 10 percentage points. The trial is closed to recruitment and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01792804), the German Clinical trials register (DRKS00004741), and EudraCT (2013-000577-77). FINDINGS: Of 5063 patients with S aureus bloodstream infection assessed for eligibility, 213 were randomly assigned to switch to oral therapy (n=108) or to continue intravenous therapy (n=105). Mean age was 63·5 (SD 17·2) years and 148 (69%) participants were male and 65 (31%) were female. In the oral switch group, 14 (13%) participants met the primary endpoint versus 13 (12%) in the intravenous group, with a treatment difference of 0·7 percentage points (95% CI -7·8 to 9·1; p=0·013). In the oral switch group, 36 (34%) of 107 participants in the safety population had at least one serious adverse event compared with 27 (26%) of 103 participants in the intravenous group (p=0·29). INTERPRETATION: Oral switch antimicrobial therapy was non-inferior to intravenous standard therapy in participants with low-risk S aureus bloodstream infection. However, it is necessary to carefully assess patients for signs and symptoms of complicated S aureus bloodstream infection at the time of presentation and thereafter before considering early oral switch therapy. FUNDING: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. TRANSLATIONS: For the German, Spanish, French and Dutch translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus aureus , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração Oral , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Administração Intravenosa
8.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 37(2): 95-104, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38085707

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review comments on the current guidelines for the treatment of wound infections under definition of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). However, wound infections around a catheter, such as driveline infections of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are not specifically listed under this definition in any of the existing guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: Definitions and classification of LVAD infections may vary across countries, and the existing guidelines and recommendations may not be equally interpreted among physicians, making it unclear if these infections can be considered as ABSSSI. Consequently, the use of certain antibiotics that are approved for ABSSSI may be considered as 'off-label' for LVAD infections, leading to rejection of reimbursement applications in some countries, affecting treatment strategies, and hence, patients' outcomes. However, we believe driveline exit site infections related to LVAD can be included within the ABSSSI definition. SUMMARY: We argue that driveline infections meet the criteria for ABSSSI which would enlarge the 'on-label' antibiotic armamentarium for treating these severe infections, thereby improving the patients' quality of life.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Dermatopatias Infecciosas , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles , Infecção dos Ferimentos , Humanos , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/complicações , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/complicações , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(22)2023 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38003500

RESUMO

Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (MSSA) bacteremia remains a global challenge, despite the availability of antibiotics. Primary treatments include ß-lactam agents such as cefazolin and flucloxacillin. Ongoing discussions have focused on the potential synergistic effects of combining these agents with rifampicin or fosfomycin to combat infections associated with biofilm formation. Managing staphylococcal infections is challenging due to antibacterial resistance, biofilms, and S. aureus's ability to invade and replicate within host cells. Intracellular invasion shields the bacteria from antibacterial agents and the immune system, often leading to incomplete bacterial clearance and chronic infections. Additionally, S. aureus can assume a dormant phenotype, known as the small colony variant (SCV), further complicating eradication and promoting persistence. This study investigated the impact of antibiotic combinations on the persistence of S. aureus 6850 and its stable small colony variant (SCV strain JB1) focusing on intracellular survival and biofilm formation. The results from the wild-type strain 6850 demonstrate that ß-lactams combined with RIF effectively eliminated biofilms and intracellular bacteria but tend to select for SCVs in planktonic culture and host cells. Higher antibiotic concentrations were associated with an increase in the zeta potential of S. aureus, suggesting reduced membrane permeability to antimicrobials. When using the stable SCV mutant strain JB1, antibiotic combinations with rifampicin successfully cleared planktonic bacteria and biofilms but failed to eradicate intracellular bacteria. Given these findings, it is reasonable to report that ß-lactams combined with rifampicin represent the optimal treatment for MSSA bacteremia. However, caution is warranted when employing this treatment over an extended period, as it may elevate the risk of selecting for small colony variants (SCVs) and, consequently, promoting bacterial persistence.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Meticilina/farmacologia , Rifampina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Biofilmes , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
10.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 12(7)2023 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37508207

RESUMO

Various studies have reported insufficient beta-lactam concentrations in critically ill patients. The optimal dosing strategy for beta-lactams in critically ill patients, particularly in septic patients, is an ongoing matter of discussion. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the success of software-guided empiric meropenem dosing (CADDy, Calculator to Approximate Drug-Dosing in Dialysis) with subsequent routine meropenem measurements and expert clinical pharmacological interpretations. Adequate therapeutic drug exposure was defined as concentrations of 8-16 mg/L, whereas concentrations of 16-24 mg/L were defined as moderately high and concentrations >24 mg/L as potentially harmful. A total of 91 patients received meropenem as a continuous infusion (229 serum concentrations), of whom 60% achieved 8-16 mg/L, 23% achieved 16-24 mg/L, and 10% achieved unnecessarily high and potentially harmful meropenem concentrations >24 mg/L in the first 48 h using the dosing software. No patient showed concentrations <2 mg/L using the dosing software in the first 48 h. With a subsequent TDM-guided dose adjustment, therapeutic drug exposure was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhanced to 70%. No patient had meropenem concentrations >24 mg/L with TDM-guided dose adjustments. The combined use of dosing software and consecutive TDM promised a high rate of adequate therapeutic drug exposures of meropenem in patients with sepsis and septic shock.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(7): e2326366, 2023 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37523190

RESUMO

Importance: Practice guidelines often provide recommendations in which the strength of the recommendation is dissociated from the quality of the evidence. Objective: To create a clinical guideline for the diagnosis and management of adult bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) that addresses the gap between the evidence and recommendation strength. Evidence Review: This consensus statement and systematic review applied an approach previously established by the WikiGuidelines Group to construct collaborative clinical guidelines. In April 2022 a call to new and existing members was released electronically (social media and email) for the next WikiGuidelines topic, and subsequently, topics and questions related to the diagnosis and management of adult bacterial IE were crowdsourced and prioritized by vote. For each topic, PubMed literature searches were conducted including all years and languages. Evidence was reported according to the WikiGuidelines charter: clear recommendations were established only when reproducible, prospective, controlled studies provided hypothesis-confirming evidence. In the absence of such data, clinical reviews were crafted discussing the risks and benefits of different approaches. Findings: A total of 51 members from 10 countries reviewed 587 articles and submitted information relevant to 4 sections: establishing the diagnosis of IE (9 questions); multidisciplinary IE teams (1 question); prophylaxis (2 questions); and treatment (5 questions). Of 17 unique questions, a clear recommendation could only be provided for 1 question: 3 randomized clinical trials have established that oral transitional therapy is at least as effective as intravenous (IV)-only therapy for the treatment of IE. Clinical reviews were generated for the remaining questions. Conclusions and Relevance: In this consensus statement that applied the WikiGuideline method for clinical guideline development, oral transitional therapy was at least as effective as IV-only therapy for the treatment of IE. Several randomized clinical trials are underway to inform other areas of practice, and further research is needed.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Humanos , Consenso , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/terapia , Endocardite Bacteriana/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Intensive Care Med ; 49(8): 966-976, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37439872

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inadequate piperacillin (PIP) exposure in intensive care unit (ICU) patients threatens therapeutic success. Model-informed precision dosing (MIPD) might be promising to individualize dosing; however, the transferability of published models to external populations is uncertain. This study aimed to externally evaluate the available PIP population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) models. METHODS: A multicenter dataset of 561 ICU patients (11 centers/3654 concentrations) was used for the evaluation of 24 identified models. Model performance was investigated for a priori (A) predictions, i.e., considering dosing records and patient characteristics only, and for Bayesian forecasting, i.e., additionally including the first (B1) or first and second (B2) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) samples per patient. Median relative prediction error (MPE) [%] and median absolute relative prediction error (MAPE) [%] were calculated to quantify accuracy and precision. RESULTS: The evaluation revealed a large inter-model variability (A: MPE - 135.6-78.3% and MAPE 35.7-135.6%). Integration of TDM data improved all model predictions (B1/B2 relative improvement vs. A: |MPE|median_all_models 45.1/67.5%; MAPEmedian_all_models 29/39%). The model by Kim et al. was identified to be most appropriate for the total dataset (A/B1/B2: MPE - 9.8/- 5.9/- 0.9%; MAPE 37/27.3/23.7%), Udy et al. performed best in patients receiving intermittent infusion, and Klastrup et al. best predicted patients receiving continuous infusion. Additional evaluations stratified by sex and renal replacement therapy revealed further promising models. CONCLUSION: The predictive performance of published PIP models in ICU patients varied considerably, highlighting the relevance of appropriate model selection for MIPD. Our differentiated external evaluation identified specific models suitable for clinical use, especially in combination with TDM.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Piperacilina , Humanos , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estado Terminal/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos
13.
Infection ; 51(6): 1749-1758, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37462895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare treatment outcomes for bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by a piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZ)-susceptible E. coli among three patient groups: BSI caused by ampicillin/sulbactam (AMP/SLB)-resistant isolates treated with PIP/TAZ, BSI caused by AMP/SLB-sensitive isolates treated with PIP/TAZ, and BSI caused by AMP/SLB-resistant isolates treated with another monotherapy. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in two academic centres in Europe. Adult patients with E. coli BSI were screened from 2014 to 2020. Inclusion criteria were non-ESBL BSI and initial monotherapy for ≥ 72 h. To reduce the expected bias between the patient groups, propensity score matching was performed. The primary outcome was early treatment response after 72 h and required absence of SOFA score increase in ICU/IMC patients, as well as resolution of fever, leukocytosis, and bacteraemia. RESULTS: Of the 1707 patients screened, 315 (18.5%) were included in the final analysis. Urinary tract infection was the most common source of BSI (54.9%). Monotherapies other than PIP/TAZ were cephalosporins (48.6%), carbapenems (34.3%), and quinolones (17.1%). Enhanced early treatment response rate was detected (p = 0.04) in patients with BSI caused by AMP/SLB-resistant isolates treated with another monotherapy (74.3%) compared to those treated with PIP/TAZ (57.1%), and was mainly driven by the use of cephalosporins and quinolones (p ≤ 0.03). Clinical success, 28-day mortality, and rate of relapsing BSI did not significantly differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that initial use of PIP/TAZ may be associated with reduced early treatment response in E. coli BSI caused by AMP/SLB-resistant isolates compared to alternative monotherapies.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Quinolonas , Adulto , Humanos , Sulbactam/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Piperacilina/farmacologia , Piperacilina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Escherichia coli , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Penicilânico/farmacologia , Ácido Penicilânico/uso terapêutico , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam/uso terapêutico , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Cefalosporinas , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico
14.
ERJ Open Res ; 9(3)2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37260459

RESUMO

In Germany, the proportion of community-acquired pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae rebounded to a near-pandemic level in the second half of 2021. Vaccination uptake against respiratory pathogens, including S. pneumoniae, should be strengthened. https://bit.ly/3JMlwFt.

15.
Analyst ; 148(13): 3057-3064, 2023 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37272589

RESUMO

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) plays an important role in clinical practice. Here, pharmacokinetics has a decisive influence on the effective antibiotic concentration during treatment. Moreover, different kinetics exist for different administration forms. Accordingly, adjusting the correct concentration depends, in addition to gender, age, weight, clinical picture, etc., on the dosage form of the antibiotic. This study investigates the capability of deep UV resonance Raman spectroscopy (DUV-RRS) to simulate the pharmacokinetics of fluoroquinolone levofloxacin after two different administration forms (intravenous and oral). Three different pre-processing methods were applied, and the best agreement with the simulation was achieved using the extended multiplicative scatter correction. The resulting spectra were used for partial least squares (PLS) regression and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. The kinetic parameters were compared with the simulated data, with PLS showing the best performance for intravenous administration and a comparable result to OLS for oral administration, while the errors are smaller. The acquired results show the potential of DUV-RRS in combination with PLS regression as a promising supportive method for TDM.


Assuntos
Levofloxacino , Análise Espectral Raman , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Antibacterianos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados
16.
Aging Dis ; 14(4): 1091-1104, 2023 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37163442

RESUMO

Respiratory infections pose a significant health problem among elderly individuals, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increased mortality and morbidity rates among individuals over 65 highlight the criticality of these infections. The normal aging process in the lungs increases vulnerability to respiratory infections due to the accumulation of cellular damage and senescence. Consequently, the lung environment undergoes major changes in mechanical function and other systemic factors. This review aims to examine the influence of aging on respiratory infections from a clinical perspective by analyzing clinical studies. Additionally, the review will emphasize potential prevention and diagnostic developments to enhance therapy options available for elderly patients over 65 years of age.

17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37184673

RESUMO

One Health refers to a concept that links human, animal, and environmental health. In Germany, there is extensive data on antibiotic resistance (AMR) and multidrug-resistant (micro)organisms (MDRO) in human and veterinary medicine, as well as from studies in various environmental compartments (soil, water, wastewater). All these activities are conducted according to different specifications and standards, which makes it difficult to compare data. A focus on AMR and MDRO of human therapeutic importance is helpful to provide some guidance. Most data are available across sectors on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multiresistant Enterobacterales such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Here, the trends of resistance are heterogeneous. Antibiotic use leads to MRE selection, which is well documented. Success in minimizing antibiotic use has also been demonstrated in recent years in several sectors and could be correlated with success in containing AMR and MDRO (e.g., decrease in MRSA in human medicine). Sector-specific measures to reduce the burden of MDRO and AMR are also necessary, as not all resistance problems are linked to other sectors. Carbapenem resistance is still rare, but most apparent in human pathogens. Colistin resistance occurs in different sectors but shows different mechanisms in each. Resistance to antibiotics of last resort such as linezolid is rare in Germany, but shows a specific One Health correlation. Efforts to harmonize methods, for example in the field of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome-based pathogen and AMR surveillance, are an important first step towards a better comparability of the different data collections.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Saúde Única , Animais , Humanos , Alemanha , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla
18.
Inn Med (Heidelb) ; 64(7): 697-700, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37138097

RESUMO

A 79-year-old patient was hospitalized due to recurrent Serratia marcescens bacteremia. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) electrode infection with septic pulmonary emboli and vertebral osteomyelitis were diagnosed. In addition to antibiotic therapy, the ICD system was completely extracted. In patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) and bacteremia that cannot be adequately explained or recurs, regardless of the pathogen involved, a CIED-associated infection always needs to be ruled out.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardiopatias , Marca-Passo Artificial , Humanos , Idoso , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Serratia marcescens , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatias/terapia
19.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1046374, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37063823

RESUMO

Exposure of human monocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) induces a temporary insensitivity to subsequent LPS challenges, a cellular state called endotoxin tolerance (ET), associated with the pathogenesis of sepsis. In this study, we aimed to characterize the cellular state of human monocytes from healthy donors stimulated with Staphylococcus aureus in comparison to TLR2-specific ligands. We analyzed S. aureus induced gene expression changes after 2 and 24 hours by amplicon sequencing (RNA-AmpliSeq) and compared the pro-inflammatory response after 2 hours with the response in re-stimulation experiments. In parallel, glycoprotein expression changes in human monocytes after 24 hours of S. aureus stimulation were analyzed by proteomics and compared to stimulation experiments with TLR2 ligands Malp-2 and Pam3Cys and TLR4 ligand LPS. Finally, we analyzed peripheral blood monocytes of patients with S. aureus bloodstream infection for their ex vivo inflammatory responses towards S. aureus stimulation and their glycoprotein expression profiles. Our results demonstrate that monocytes from healthy donors stimulated with S. aureus and TLR ligands of Gram-positive bacteria entered the tolerant cell state after activation similar to LPS treatment. In particular reduced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL1ß) and chemokines (CCL20, CCL3, CCL4, CXCL2, CXCL3 and CXCL8) could be demonstrated. Glycoprotein expression changes in monocytes tolerized by the different TLR agonists were highly similar while S. aureus-stimulated monocytes shared some of the PAMP-induced changes but also exhibited a distinct expression profile. 11 glycoproteins (CD44, CD274, DSC2, ICAM1, LAMP3, LILRB1, PTGS2, SLC1A3, CR1, FGL2, and HP) were similarly up- or downregulated in all four comparisons in the tolerant cell state. Monocytes from patients with S. aureus bacteremia revealed preserved pro-inflammatory responsiveness to S. aureus stimulation ex vivo, expressed increased CD44 mRNA but no other glycoprotein of the tolerance signature was differentially expressed.


Assuntos
Monócitos , Staphylococcus aureus , Humanos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Ligantes , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo
20.
Infect Dis Ther ; 12(4): 1057-1072, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36897556

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a recognized global threat especially for vulnerable populations. It is of particular concern to healthcare providers as it is found in both hospital and community settings, with severe courses, frequent recurrence, high mortality and substantial financial impact on the healthcare system. The CDI burden in Germany has been described and compared by analysing data from four different public databases. METHODS: Data on hospital burden of CDI have been extracted, compared, and discussed from four public databases for the years 2010-2019. Hospital days due to CDI were compared to established vaccine preventable diseases, such as influenza and herpes zoster, and also to CDI hospitalisations in the United States (US). RESULTS: All four databases reported comparable incidences and trends. Beginning in 2010, population-based hospitalised CDI incidence increased to a peak of > 137/100,000 in 2013. Then, incidence declined to 81/100,000 in 2019. Hospitalised patients with CDI were predominantly > 50 years of age. The population-based incidence of severe CDI was between 1.4 and 8.4/100,000 per year. Recurrence rates were between 5.9 to 6.5%. More than 1,000 CDI deaths occurred each year, with a peak of 2,666 deaths in 2015. Cumulative CDI patient days (PD) were between 204,596 and 355,466 each year, which exceeded cumulated PD for influenza and herpes zoster in most years, though year-to-year differences were observed. Finally, hospitalized CDI incidence was higher in Germany than in the US, where the disease is well recognized as a public health threat. CONCLUSIONS: All four public sources documented a decline in CDI cases since 2013, but the disease burden remains substantial and warrants continued attention as a severe public health challenge.

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