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1.
Food Funct ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236173

RESUMO

Promoting cholesterol efflux from foam cells represents one of the therapeutic strategies for ameliorating atherosclerosis. Urolithin A (UA) has been shown before to attenuate ox-LDL induced endothelial dysfunction in endothelial cells with its anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate whether UA could promote cholesterol efflux via modulating related microRNA (miR) and signaling pathways. RAW264.7 cells were treated with 50 µg mL-1 ox-LDL to induce foam cell formation. After treatment with UA at different concentrations, intercellular and extracellular cholesterol levels were determined. Expression of Erk1/2, AMPKα and their phosphorylation forms, and SREBP1, was analyzed by western-blotting. The effect of UA on miR-33a expression and the involvement of miR-33a in cholesterol efflux regulation were also investigated. UA reduced ox-LDL induced cholesterol accumulation in macrophage cells and promoted cholesterol efflux from cells. Compared with ox-LDL treated cells, UA treatment reduced the level of phosphorylated ERK1/2, increased the expression of phosphorylated AMPKα and decreased the SREBP1 expression. Moreover, UA decreased the miR-33a expression at the transcriptional level but increased the transcriptional expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ABCG1, two genes contributing to reverse cholesterol transport. Furthermore, pre-miR-33a attenuated cholesterol efflux induced by UA. Collectively, UA promoted the reverse cholesterol transport in macrophage-derived foam cells and interfered with cholesterol metabolism possibly through regulating the miRNA-33 expression and interaction with the ERK/AMPKα/SREBP1 signaling pathway.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144534

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aberrant DNA methylation could regulate the expression of tumor suppressor gene DLEC1 and oncogene PBX3 and was related to the occurrence and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC). In this study, the associations between DLEC1 and PBX3 promoter methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the risk and prognosis of GC were investigated. METHODS: The methylation status of DLEC1 and PBX3 promoter in PBLs of 368 GC cases and 382 controls was detected by the methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) method. Logistic and Cox regression were adopted to analyze the associations of DLEC1 and PBX3 methylation with GC risk and prognosis, respectively. Confounding biases were controlled by propensity score (PS). RESULTS: Compared with negative methylation (Nm), DLEC1-positive methylation (Pm) was associated with increased GC risk in PS (OR 2.083, 95% CI 1.220-3.558, P = 0.007), but PBX3 Pm was not associated with GC risk. In the elderly group (≥ 60 years), DLEC1 Pm was associated with increased GC risk (OR 2.951, 95% CI 1.426-6.104, P = 0.004). The combined effects between DLEC1 methylation and consumption of dairy products, fried food intake and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on GC risk were discovered (ORc 3.461, 95% CI 1.847-6.486, P < 0.001, ORc 3.246, 95% CI 1.708-6.170, P < 0.001 and ORc 2.964, 95% CI 1.690-5.197, P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, DLEC1 and PBX3 methylation were not associated with GC prognosis. CONCLUSION: DLEC1 methylation in PBLs and the combined effects of gene-environment can influence GC risk.

3.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are widely prescribed antihypertensive agents. Intriguingly, case reports and clinical trials have indicated that ACEIs, including captopril and lisinopril, may have a rapid mood-elevating effect in certain patients, but few experimental studies have investigated their value as fast-onset antidepressants. METHODS: The present study consisted of a series of experiments using biochemical assays, immunohistochemistry, and behavioral techniques to examine the effect and mechanism of captopril on depressive-like behavior in 2 animal models, the chronic unpredictable stress model and the chronic social defeat stress model. RESULTS: Captopril (19.5 or 39 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) exerted rapid antidepressant activity in mice treated under the chronic unpredictable stress model and mice treated under the chronic social defeat stress model. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that captopril crossed the blood-brain barrier and that lisinopril, another ACEI with better blood-brain barrier permeability, exerted a faster and longer-lasting effect at a same molar equivalent dose. This antidepressant effect seemed to be independent of the renin-angiotensin system, but dependent on the bradykinin (BK) system, since the decreased BK detected in the stressed mice could be reversed by captopril. The hypofunction of the downstream effector of BK, Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42) homolog, contributed to the stress-induced loss of dendritic spines, which was rapidly reversed by captopril via activating the mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the BK-dependent activation of mTORC1 may represent a promising mechanism underlying antidepressant pharmacology. Considering their affordability and availability, ACEIs may emerge as a novel fast-onset antidepressant, especially for patients with comorbid depression and hypertension.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that can promote the development of various cancers. The STAT1 and SOCS3 have been observed to be hypermethylated in tumor tissues and peripheral blood. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the methylation status of the STAT1 and SOCS3 in peripheral blood and gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: This hospital-based case-control study involved 372 patients with GC and 379 controls. The methylation status of the STAT1 and SOCS3 was semiquantitatively determined using the methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting method. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the STAT1 and SOCS3 methylation status and GC susceptibility. Moreover, propensity scores were used to control confounding factors. RESULTS: Compared with negative methylation, the positive methylation of SOCS3 significantly increased the risk of GC (ORa  = 1.820, 95% CI: 1.247-2.658, P = 0.002). This trend was also found via stratified analysis, and methylation positivity of the SOCS3 significantly increased the risk of GC in the < 60 years group, in the ≥ 60 years group, and in the positive Helicobacter pylori infection group (ORa  = 1.654, 95% CI: 1.029-2.660, P = 0.038; ORa  = 1.957, 95% CI: 1.136-3.376, P = 0.016; ORa  = 2.084, 95% CI: 1.270-3.422, P = 0.004, respectively). Additionally, no significant association was found between STAT1 methylation and GC risk (ORa  = 0.646, 95% CI: 0.363-1.147, P = 0.135). This study found that the interaction between the methylation status of STAT1 and SOCS3 and environmental factors did not have an impact on GC risk. CONCLUSION: SOCS3 methylation may serve as a new potential biomarker for GC susceptibility.

5.
Gene ; 737: 144434, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018015

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol (ethanol) use has long been known to affect human health negatively. However, the underlying molecular basis is incompletely understood. Moreover, consumption of alcohol is often mixed with kynurenic acid (KYNA), an abundant tryptophan metabolite produced during fermentation. The combined effect of ethanol and KYNA on host gene expression has not been investigated. The current study used mice as the model to interrogate the impact of ethanol and/or KYNA on global gene transcription. Adult male mice were administered with 2 g/kg ethanol and/or 0.1 mg/kg KYNA by gavage once a day for a week. Three organs: brain, kidney, and liver were collected and their total RNAs extracted for transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. Gene ontology, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes, and genomes pathway analyses revealed that alcohol affects the three organs differentially. Furthermore, the gene expression profile from alcohol and KYNA co-administration was significantly different from that of alcohol or KYNA administration alone. Strikingly, Indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan metabolism, was significantly increased in the brain after a combined exposure of alcohol and KYNA, suggesting that Trp metabolism was skewed towards the kynurenine pathway in the brain. Our systemic analysis provides new insights into the mechanism whereby alcohol and KYNA affects organ functions.

6.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921417, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in one-lung ventilation (OLV) is most commonly used in thoracotomy, but pressure-controlled ventilation-volume guaranteed (PCV-VG) is used in elderly patients to improve arterial oxygenation, reduce inflammatory factors, and decrease acute lung injury (ALI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of these 2 different ventilation modes - VCV versus PCV-VG - during OLV in elderly patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty patients undergoing thoracoscopic lobectomy from September 2018 to February 2019 at Cangzhou Central Hospital, Hebei, China were randomly assigned to a VCV group or a PCV-VG group. Pulmonary dynamic compliance (Cdyn), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), arterial blood gas, and inflammatory factors were monitored to assess lung function. The Clinical Trial Registration Identifier number is ChiCTR1800017835. RESULTS Compared with the VCV group, PIP in the PCV-VG group was significantly lower (P=0.01) and Cdyn was significantly higher at 30 min after one-lung ventilation (P=0.01). MAP of the PCV-VG group was higher than in the VCV group (P=0.01). MAP of the PCV-VG group was also higher than in the VCV group at 30 min after one-lung ventilation (P=0.01). The concentration of neutrophil elastase (NE) in the PCV-VG group was significantly lower than in the VCV group (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS Compared with VCV, PCV-VG mode reduced airway pressure in patients undergoing thoracotomy and also decreased the release of NE and reduced inflammatory response and lung injury. We conclude that PCV-VG mode can protect the lung function of elderly patients undergoing thoracotomy.

7.
Anal Chem ; 92(4): 3324-3331, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944091

RESUMO

The design and exploration of highly efficient organic luminophores for an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor is a fascinating and promising subject. Herein, we present a surfactant-assisted self-assembly of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP) J-aggregate as a robust organic luminophore to construct the solid-state ECL sensing platform with significantly enhanced and constantly stable signals, by using peroxydisulfate (S2O82-) as the coreactant, and l-cysteine capped zinc oxide nanoflowers (ZnO@Cys NFs) as the multifunctional energy donor and coreactant accelerator. Compared with TCPP monomer, this TCPP J-aggregate possesses a unique aggregation-induced electrochemiluminescence (AIECL) performance, which results in 5-fold enhancement in red-light ECL emission at 675 nm. The resonance energy transfer from the ZnO@Cys NFs (energy donor) to the TCPP J-aggregate (energy acceptor) substantially improves the ECL intensity and stability. ZnO@Cys NFs have also been used as a coreactant accelerator to promote the conversion of more S2O82- into SO4•-. The corresponding ECL mechanism has been investigated by UV-vis absorption spectrum, photoluminescence, ECL, and density functional theory. Since l-cysteine on ZnO@Cys NFs can efficiently realize bidentate chelation with Cu2+, the proposed ECL sensor shows a highly selective and sensitive quenching effect for the detection of Cu2+ with a wide linear range from 1.0 pmol·L-1 to 500 nmol·L-1 and a detection limit of 0.33 pmol·L-1, paving a bright research direction for the development of TCPP aggregates in ECL field.

8.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(2): 92-99, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine (CM) improving pregnancy outcomes after surgery for endometriosis-associated infertility. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo parallel controlled clinical trial was designed. A total of 202 patients who had laparoscopy for endometriosis-associated infertility with qi stagnation and blood stasis syndrome were included and randomly divided into the CM treatment group and placebo control group at a ratio of 1:1 using a central block randomization from May 2014 to September 2017, 101 patients in each group. The two groups received continuous intervention at 1-5 days after surgery, for 6 menstrual cycles. Before ovulation, the CM group was treated Huoxue Xiaoyi Granule (); after ovulation, Bushen Zhuyun Granule ( was involved. The control group was treated with placebo. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed every menstrual cycle during the treatment, and female hormone levels in the follicular and luteal phases were measured during the 1st, 3rd and 6th menstrual cycles. The analysis was continued until pregnancy. The primary outcomes were clinical pregnancy rate and pregnancy outcome, and the secondary outcomes were follicular development and endometrial receptivity. Safety evaluations were performed before and after treatment. RESULTS: (1) Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates: the clinical pregnancy and live birth rates of the CM group were significantly higher than those of the placebo group [44.6% (45/101) vs. 29.7% (30/101), 34.7% (35/101) vs. 20.8% (21/101), both P<0.05]. (2) Follicle development: the incidence of dominant follicles, rate of cumulative cycle ovulation, and rate of cumulative cycle mature follicle ovulation were significantly higher in the CM group than those in the placebo group [93.8% (350/373) vs. 89.5% (341/381), 80.4% (275/342) vs. 69.1% (253/366), 65.8% (181/275) vs 56.1% (142/253), P<0.05 or P<0.01]). The incidence of cumulative cycle luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome was significantly lower in the CM group than in the placebo group [11.7% (40/342) vs. 17.8% (65/366), P<0.05). (3) Endometrial receptivity: after treatment, both endometrial types and endometrial blood flow types in the CM group were mainly types A and B, while those in the placebo group were mainly types B and C, with a significant difference between the two groups (both P<0.05). (4) Adverse events: the incidence of adverse events between the two groups was not significantly different (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Strategies for activating blood circulation-regulating Gan (Liver)-tonifying Shen (Kidney) sequential therapy can effectively improve the clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate of endometriosis-associated infertility with qi stagnation and blood stasis after laparoscopy, improve follicular development, promote ovulation, improve endometrial receptivity, while being a safe treatment option. (Trial registration No. NCT02676713).

9.
Acta Trop ; 204: 105343, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954135

RESUMO

The odorant receptors (ORs) play a critical role for mosquitoes in the identification of blood-feeding hosts and other physiological processes. The OR8 subfamily in mosquitoes has been shown to be strongly involved in the detection the mammalian host associated odor, 1-octen-3-ol. CquiOR114/117 has been shown to be an orthologous OR8 in Culex quinquefasciatus Say. In this study, the expression of CquiOR114/117 in the different developmental stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus was detected by the amplification of CquiOR114/117 with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to interfere with the expression of CquiOR114/117 in females to observe the blood-feeding behavior change. The results showed that the expression level of CquiOR114/117 in the egg-to-pupa stage was significantly lower than that in the adult stage and that the expression level of the female mosquitoes peaked on the third day after emergence. The expression of CquiOR114/117 was significantly decreased in the 2-6 days after the injection of dsRNA compared with the control groups. The analysis of the blood-feeding behavior showed a significant positive correlation between CquiOR114/117 expression and the engorgement rate of the mosquitoes. CquiOR114/117 is speculated to have an effect on the blood-feeding behavior of Cx. quinquefasciatus.

10.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 188: 105617, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to explore the efficacy and safety of different surgical interventions in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracranial hemorrhage (SSICH) and determine which intervention is most suitable for such patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Medline, OVID, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. The quality of the included studies was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using the software Stata 13.0 and RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: Endoscopic surgery (ES), minimally invasive surgery combined with urokinase (MIS + UK), minimally invasive surgery combined with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (MIS + rt-PA), and craniotomy were associated with higher survival rates and a lower risk of intracranial rebleeding than standard medical care (SMC) in patients with SSICH, especially in younger patients with few comorbidities. The order from highest to lowest survival rate was ES, MIS + UK, MIS + rt-PA, craniotomy, and SMC. The order from lowest to highest intracranial rebleeding risk was ES, MIS + UK, craniotomy, MIS + rt-PA, and SMC. Additionally, compared with SMC, all four surgical interventions (ES, MIS + rt-PA, MIS + UK, and craniotomy) improved the prognosis and reduced the proportion of patients with serious disability. The order from most to least favorable prognosis was MIS + rt-PA, ES, MIS + UK, craniotomy, and SMC. The order from highest to lowest proportion of patients with serious disability was ES, MIS + rt-PA, MIS + UK, craniotomy, and SMC. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the efficacy and safety of different surgical interventions (ES, MIS + UK, MIS + rt-PA, craniotomy) were superior to those of SMC in the patients with SSICH, especially in younger patients with few comorbidities. Among them, ES was the most reasonable and effective intervention. ES was found not only to improve the survival rate and prognosis but also to have the lowest risk of intracranial rebleeding and the lowest proportion of patients with serious disability.

11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 1305049, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885770

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown beneficial effects in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Nonetheless, the biological properties of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) from patients with AAA (AAA-ASCs) remain unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the properties of cell phenotype and function of AAA-ASCs compared with ASCs from age-matched healthy donors (H-ASCs). H-ASCs and AAA-ASCs were studied for cell phenotype, differentiation capacity, senescence, and mitochondrial and autophagic functions. Cellular senescence was examined by senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) staining. Mitochondrial morphology was determined by MitoTracker staining. Despite the similar surface markers of AAA-ASCs and H-ASCs, AAA-ASCs exhibited altered multidifferentiation potential. Compared with H-ASCs, AAA-ASCs displayed enhanced senescence manifested by increased SA-ß-gal activity and decreased proliferation and migration ability. Furthermore, AAA-ASCs showed increased mitochondrial fusion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, AAA-ASCs exhibited decreased autophagy level, upregulation of IL-6 and TNF-α secretion, and downregulation of IL-10 secretion compared with H-ASCs. Nonetheless, treatment of AAA-ASCs with rapamycin (an autophagy activator) dramatically reduced secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and enhanced secretion of IL-10. In conclusion, our study showed that AAA-ASCs exhibit senescence phenomena and decreased cell function. Understanding the specific alterations in AAA-ASCs will help explore novel strategies to restore cell function for AAA treatment.

12.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709623

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) is associated with drug resistance in human lung adenocarcinoma cells, but its specific mechanism has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the effect of miRNA-146b on EMT in cisplatin (DDP) resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells and the corresponding mechanism. Cisplatin resistant (CR) human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549/DDP and H1299/DDP) were established, and the EMT characteristics and invasion and metastasis ability of CR cells were determined by tumor cell-related biological behavior experiments. The role of miR-146b in EMT of CR cells was determined by in vitro functional test. The targeted binding of miR-146b to protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) was verified by biological information and double luciferin gene reporting experiments. The effect of miR-146b on tumor growth and EMT phenotype in vivo was investigated by establishing the xenotransplantation mouse model. Compared with the control group, H1299/DDP and A549/DDP cells showed the enhanced EMT phenotypes, invasion and migration ability. Besides, miR-146b was lowly expressed in H1299/DDP and A549/DDP cells. More importantly, overexpressed miR-146b could specifically bind to PTP1B, thus inhibiting the EMT process and ultimately reducing CR in H1299/DDP and A549/DDP cells. Finally, overexpressed miR-146b observably inhibited tumor growth in xenograft model mice and inhibited the EMT phenotype of A549/DDP cells in vivo by regulating the expressions of EMT-related proteins. Overexpressed miR-146b could reverse the EMT phenotype of CR lung adenocarcinoma cells by targeting PTP1B, providing new therapeutic directions for CR of lung adenocarcinoma cells.

13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 553, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The northern fowl mite (NFM), Ornithonyssus sylviarum, is an obligatory hematophagous ectoparasite of birds and one of the most important pests in the poultry industry on several continents. Although NFM poses a serious problem, it remains a neglected pest of poultry in China and other Asian countries. Therefore, a molecular analysis was conducted to provide baseline information on the occurrence, genetic diversity and emergence of NFM in poultry farms from China. METHODS: This study focused on morphological description and identification of adults based on electron microscopy, molecular sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene and phylogenetic analysis. We have also used the DNA sequences of the cox1 gene to study the genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history. The neutrality tests were used to analyze signatures of historical demographic events. RESULTS: The mites collected were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum based on external morphological characterization using electron microscopy. Molecular analysis using a 756-bp long partial fragment of the cox1 gene revealed 99-100% sequence identity with NFM and phylogenetic inferences showed a bootstrap value of 99% indicating a well-supported monophyletic relationship. Molecular diversity indices showed high levels of haplotype diversity dominated by private haplotypes, but low nucleotide divergence between haplotypes. The Tajima's D test and Fu's Fs test showed negative value, indicating deviations from neutrality and both suggested recent population expansion of mite populations supported by a star-like topology of the isolates in the network analysis. Our genetic data are consistent with a single introduction of NFM infestations and the spread of NFM infestation in Hainan poultry farms and a private haplotype dominance, which suggest that infestations are recycled within the farms and transmission routes are limited between farms. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first time a molecular report of NFM in chicken from China including other Asian countries using DNA barcoding. The findings have potential implications with respect to understanding the transmission patterns, emergence and populations trends of parasitic infestations of poultry farms that will help for setting the parameters for integrated pest management (IPM) tactics against mite infestations.

14.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(25): 2318-2333, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629395

RESUMO

The enzyme L-DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), also called aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the biosynthesis of dopamine, serotonin, and trace amines. Its deficiency or perturbations in expression result in severe motor dysfunction or a range of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. A DDC substrate, L-DOPA, combined with an inhibitor of the enzyme is still the most effective treatment for symptoms of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we provide an update regarding the structures, functions, and inhibitors of DDC, particularly with regards to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. This information will provide insight into the pharmacological treatment of Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Doença de Parkinson/enzimologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109664, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536914

RESUMO

Effects of sewage sludge biochars (SSBCs) on the growth of wheat and the specific toxicological mechanisms were investigated from a metabolic perspective for better ecological risk assessment. We observed that conversion of sludge to biochar remarkably changed the properties, and also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of the toxicity towards wheat. Wheat growth under exposure to SSBCs was influenced by the pyrolysis temperature (300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C), with root length being promoted by SSBCs prepared at higher temperatures (500 °C and 700 °C). In addition to the contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) detected in SSBCs, the morphological characteristics of biochars contributed substantially to the wheat growth. Metabolomics analysis revealed the remarkable differences in the metabolic profiles among the control (CK), SS300- and SS700-treated samples. The toxicological mechanisms involved were found to be associated with the regulation of metabolisms pathways of protein, fatty acids and carbohydrates, among which protein metabolism was most affected by SSBCs. This work presents an innovative concept that SSBCs produced at a proper temperature may minimize the toxic effects on plant growth by regulating the metabolic fluxes in vivo.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Esgotos/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Pirólise , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277409

RESUMO

We report the development of a new colorimetric probe (L-ol) for investigations of the redox process regulated by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and glutathione (GSH). The HOCl/GSH redox-switching cycle process was investigated in detail by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, colorimetric analysis assay and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The switchable absorbance responses were attributed to the HOCl-induced oxidation of the p-methoxyphenol unit to the benzoquinone derivative (L-one) and sequential reduction of L-one to hydroquinone (L-ol') by GSH. In phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer, the absorbance of L-ol at 619 nm underwent a remarkable bathochromic-shift, accompanied by a color change from pale yellow to blue in the presence of HOCl. With further addition of GSH, the absorbance of L-one exclusively recovered to the original level. Meanwhile, the blue-colored solution returned to the naive pale yellow color in the presence of GSH. The detection limits for HOCl and GSH were calculated to be 6.3 and 96 nM according to the IUPAC criteria. Furthermore, L-ol-loaded chromatography plates have been prepared and successfully applied to visualize and quantitatively analyze HOCl in several natural waters.


Assuntos
Colorimetria/métodos , Glutationa/análise , Ácido Hipocloroso/análise , Benzoquinonas/química , Cor , Hidroquinonas/química , Sondas Moleculares/síntese química , Sondas Moleculares/química , Oxirredução , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 350, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-human primates are often infected with human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes, but rarely with Cryptosporidium parvum. In this study, 1452 fecal specimens were collected from farmed crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Hainan, China during the period April 2016 to January 2018. These specimens were analyzed for Cryptosporidium species and subtypes by using PCR and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes, respectively. RESULTS: Altogether, Cryptosporidium was detected using 18S rRNA-based PCR in 132 (9.1%) sampled animals, with significantly higher prevalence in females (12.5% or 75/599 versus 6.1% or 43/706), younger animals (10.7% or 118/1102 in monkeys 1-3-years-old versus 4.0% or 14/350 in those over 3-years-old) and animals with diarrhea (12.6% or 46/365 versus 7.9% or 86/1087). Four Cryptosporidium species were identified, namely C. hominis, C. parvum, Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in 86, 30, 15 and 1 animal, respectively. The identified C. parvum, C. hominis and C. ubiquitum were further subtyped by using gp60 PCR. Among them, C. parvum belonged to subtypes in two known subtype families, namely IIoA14G1 (in 18 animals) and IIdA19G1 (in 2 animals). In contrast, C. hominis mostly belonged to two new subtype families Im and In, which are genetically related to Ia and Id, respectively. The C. hominis subtypes identified included ImA18 (in 38 animals), InA14 (in six animals), InA26 (in six animals), InA17 (in one animal) and IiA17 (in three animals). The C. ubiquitum isolates belonged to subtype family XIId. By subtype, ImA18 and IIoA14G1 were detected in animals with diarrhea whereas the remaining ones were mostly found in asymptomatic animals. Compared with C. parvum and C. muris, higher oocyst shedding intensity was observed in animals infected with C. hominis, especially those infected with the Im subtype family. CONCLUSIONS: Data from the study suggest that crab-eating macaques are infected with diverse C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes. The C. parvum IIo subtype family previously seen in rodents in China has apparently expanded its host range.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Cryptosporidium/genética , Macaca fascicularis/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Doenças dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 311, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cuticle is an indispensable structure that protects the mosquito against adverse environmental conditions and prevents pathogen entry. While most cuticles are hard and rigid, some parts of cuticle are soft and flexible to allow movement and blood-feeding. It has been reported that 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) synthase is associated with flexible cuticle formation in Aedes aegypti. However, the molecular function of DOPAL synthase in the ontogenesis of mosquito remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized gene expression profiles of DOPAL synthase and investigated its functions in larvae and female adults of Aedes agypti by RNAi. RESULTS: Our results suggest that the expression of DOPAL synthase is different during development and the transcriptional level reached its peak at the female white pupal stage, and DOPAL synthase was more highly expressed in the cuticle and midgut than other tissues in the adult. The development process from larva to pupa was slowed down strikingly by feeding the first-instar larvae with chitosan/DOPAL synthase dsRNA nanoparticles. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that the dsRNA-mediated transcription of the DOPAL synthase was reduced > 50% in fourth-instar larvae. Meanwhile, larval molt was abnormal during development. Transmission electron microscopy results indicated that the formation of endocuticle and exocuticle was blocked. In addition, we detected that the dsDOPAL synthase RNA caused significant mortality when injected into the female adult mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that DOPAL synthase plays a critical role in mosquito larval development and adult survival and suggest that DOPAL synthase could be a good candidate gene in RNAi intervention strategies in mosquito control.


Assuntos
Aedes/enzimologia , Aedes/genética , Descarboxilases de Aminoácido-L-Aromático/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interferência de RNA , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
19.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(12): 22321-22330, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099423

RESUMO

The purpose of this current study is to elucidate whether altered microRNA-365 (miR-365) has an association with the initiation and development of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by targeting TRIM25 expression. The expression of miR-365 and TRIM25 in NSCLC tissues, adjacent normal tissues, and NSCLC cell lines were detected. The relationship between miR-365 expression and TRIM25 with the clinicopathological characteristics of NSCLC was analyzed. The putative binding site between miR-365 and TRIM25 was determined by luciferase activity assay. miR-365 inhibitors and miR-365 mimics were transfected to human NSCLC A549 cells, and the cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 assay; flow cytometry was carried out to determine cell cycle and apoptosis rate. Poorly expressed miR-365 and overexpressed TRIM25 was found in NSCLC tissues. TRIM25 was determined as a target gene of miR-365. The miR-365 and TRIM25 expression were related to the clinicopathological features of NSCLC, such as pathological classification, differentiation degree, TNM stage as well as lymph node metastasis. miR-365 suppressed the expression of TRIM25 and elevated the expression of the proapoptotic protein in NSCLC cells. Our study demonstrates that altered expression of miR-365 has a close association with the occurrence and development of NSCLC by inhibiting TRIM25 expression.

20.
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