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1.
Zoolog Sci ; 41(2): 167-176, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587911

RESUMO

The treehoppers (Hemiptera, Membracidae) are known for possessing a large three-dimensional structure called a helmet. Although some ecological functions of the helmet have already been elucidated, the developmental mechanisms underlying the complex and diverse morphology of the helmet are still largely unknown. The process of helmet formation was first described in Antianthe expansa, which possesses a simple roof-shaped helmet. However, the developmental process in species with more complex helmet morphologies remains largely unexplored. Hence, in this study, we used Poppea capricornis, which possesses a more complex helmet structure than A. expansa, to investigate the helmet development using paraffin sections, micro-CT, and scanning electronic microscopy. Our focus was on the overall helmet developmental process common to both species and formation of structures unique to Poppea and its comparison to Antianthe. As a result, we discovered that miniature structures were also formed in Poppea, similar to Antianthe, during the helmet formation. Common structures that were shared between the two species were discernible at this stage. Additionally, we observed that suprahumeral horns and posterior horns, two morphological traits specific to the Poppea helmet that are apparently similar anatomically, are formed through two distinctly different developmental mechanisms. The suprahumeral horns appeared to be formed by utilizing the nymphal suprahumeral bud as a mold, while we could not detect any nymphal structures potentially used for a mold in the posterior horns formation. Our findings suggest that the helmet formation mechanisms of Antianthe and Poppea employ a common mechanism but form species-specific structures by multiple mechanisms.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Zootaxa ; 5406(3): 441-450, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480141

RESUMO

As a result of continuing research on the ichneumonid wasps of Costa Rica, two new species of Epirhyssa (Rhyssinae) are described: E. leonoreae and E. lewisi. A key is provided for the identification of all 14 species now known to occur in the country.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Vespas , Animais , Costa Rica
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(11): 5003-5013, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446785

RESUMO

Lake and reservoir surface areas are an important proxy for freshwater availability. Advancements in machine learning (ML) techniques and increased accessibility of remote sensing data products have enabled the analysis of waterbody surface area dynamics on broad spatial scales. However, interpreting the ML results remains a challenge. While ML provides important tools for identifying patterns, the resultant models do not include mechanisms. Thus, the "black-box" nature of ML techniques often lacks ecological meaning. Using ML, we characterized temporal patterns in lake and reservoir surface area change from 1984 to 2016 for 103,930 waterbodies in the contiguous United States. We then employed knowledge-guided machine learning (KGML) to classify all waterbodies into seven ecologically interpretable groups representing distinct patterns of surface area change over time. Many waterbodies were classified as having "no change" (43%), whereas the remaining 57% of waterbodies fell into other groups representing both linear and nonlinear patterns. This analysis demonstrates the potential of KGML not only for identifying ecologically relevant patterns of change across time but also for unraveling complex processes that underpin those changes.


Assuntos
Lagos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Estados Unidos
4.
New Phytol ; 242(3): 1333-1347, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515239

RESUMO

Warming and elevated CO2 (eCO2) are expected to facilitate vascular plant encroachment in peatlands. The rhizosphere, where microbial activity is fueled by root turnover and exudates, plays a crucial role in biogeochemical cycling, and will likely at least partially dictate the response of the belowground carbon cycle to climate changes. We leveraged the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Changing Environments (SPRUCE) experiment, to explore the effects of a whole-ecosystem warming gradient (+0°C to 9°C) and eCO2 on vascular plant fine roots and their associated microbes. We combined trait-based approaches with the profiling of fungal and prokaryote communities in plant roots and rhizospheres, through amplicon sequencing. Warming promoted self-reliance for resource uptake in trees and shrubs, while saprophytic fungi and putative chemoorganoheterotrophic bacteria utilizing plant-derived carbon substrates were favored in the root zone. Conversely, eCO2 promoted associations between trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Trees mostly associated with short-distance exploration-type fungi that preferentially use labile soil N. Additionally, eCO2 decreased the relative abundance of saprotrophs in tree roots. Our results indicate that plant fine-root trait variation is a crucial mechanism through which vascular plants in peatlands respond to climate change via their influence on microbial communities that regulate biogeochemical cycles.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 924: 171666, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490418

RESUMO

Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids whose distribution in peatland soils serves as an important proxy for past climate changes due to strong linear correlations with temperature in modern environments. However, commonly used brGDGT-based temperature models are characterized by high uncertainty (ca. 4 °C) and these calibrations can show implausible correlations when applied at an ecosystem level. This lack of accuracy is often attributed to our limited understanding of the exact mechanisms behind the relationship between brGDGTs and temperature and the potential effect of temperature-independent factors on brGDGT distribution. Here, we examine the abundance and distribution of brGDGTs in a boreal peatland after four years of in-situ warming (+0, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75 and +9 °C). We observed that with warming, concentrations of total brGDGTs increased. Furthermore, we determined a shift in brGDGT distribution in the surface aerobic layers of the acrotelm (0-30 cm depth), whereas no detectable change was observed at deeper anaerobic depths (>40 cm), possibly due to limited microbial activity. The response of brGDGTs to warming was also reflected by a strong increase in the methylation index of 5-methyl brGDGTs (MBT'5Me), classically used as a temperature proxy. Further, the relationship between the MBT'5Me index and soil temperature differed between 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm depth, highlighting depth-specific response of brGDGTs to warming, which should be considered in paleoenvironmental and paleoecological studies. As the bacterial community composition was generally unaltered, the rapid changes in brGDGT distribution argue for a physiological adaptation of the microorganisms producing these lipids. Finally, soil temperature and water table depth were better predictors of brGDGT concentration and distribution, highlighting the potential for these drivers to impact brGDGT-based proxies. To summarize, our results provide insights on the response of brGDGT source microorganisms to soil warming and underscore brGDGTs as viable temperature proxies for better understanding of climatic perturbation in peatlands.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Glicerol , Temperatura , Bactérias , Lipídeos de Membrana , Solo
6.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0295258, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206918

RESUMO

Many plant species in high montane ecosystems rely on animal pollination for sexual reproduction, however, our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions in tropical montane habitats is still limited. We compared species diversity and composition of blooming plants and floral visitors, and the structure of plant-floral visitor networks between the Montane Forest and Paramo ecosystems in Costa Rica. We also studied the influence of seasonality on species composition and interaction structure. Given the severe climatic conditions experienced by organisms in habitats above treeline, we expected lower plant and insect richness, as well as less specialized and smaller pollination networks in the Paramo than in Montane Forest where climatic conditions are milder and understory plants are better protected. Accordingly, we found that blooming plants and floral visitor species richness was higher in the Montane Forest than in the Paramo, and in both ecosystems species richness of blooming plants and floral visitors was higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Interaction networks in the Paramo were smaller and more nested, with lower levels of specialization and modularity than those in the Montane Forest, but there were no seasonal differences within either ecosystem. Beta diversity analyses indicate that differences between ecosystems are likely explained by species turnover, whereas within the Montane Forest differences between seasons are more likely explained by the rewiring of interactions. Results indicate that the decrease in species diversity with elevation affects network structure, increasing nestedness and reducing specialization and modularity.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Flores , Animais , Estações do Ano , Costa Rica , Plantas , Polinização
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 14: 1237966, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38126017

RESUMO

Several specialised insects can manipulate normal plant development to induce a highly organised structure known as a gall, which represents one of the most complex interactions between insects and plants. Thus far, the mechanism for insect-induced plant galls has remained elusive. To study the induction mechanism of insect galls, we selected the gall induced by Iatrophobia brasiliensis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in cassava (Euphorbiaceae: Manihot esculenta Crantz) as our model. PCR-based molecular markers and deep metagenomic sequencing data were employed to analyse the gall microbiome and to test the hypothesis that gall cells are genetically transformed by insect vectored bacteria. A shotgun sequencing discrimination approach was implemented to selectively discriminate between foreign DNA and the reference host plant genome. Several known candidate insertion sequences were identified, the most significant being DNA sequences found in bacterial genes related to the transcription regulatory factor CadR, cadmium-transporting ATPase encoded by the cadA gene, nitrate transport permease protein (nrtB gene), and arsenical pump ATPase (arsA gene). In addition, a DNA fragment associated with ubiquitin-like gene E2 was identified as a potential accessory genetic element involved in gall induction mechanism. Furthermore, our results suggest that the increased quality and rapid development of gall tissue are mostly driven by microbiome enrichment and the acquisition of critical endophytes. An initial gall-like structure was experimentally obtained in M. esculenta cultured tissues through inoculation assays using a Rhodococcus bacterial strain that originated from the inducing insect, which we related to the gall induction process. We provide evidence that the modification of the endophytic microbiome and the genetic transformation of plant cells in M. esculenta are two essential requirements for insect-induced gall formation. Based on these findings and having observed the same potential DNA marker in galls from other plant species (ubiquitin-like gene E2), we speculate that bacterially mediated genetic transformation of plant cells may represent a more widespread gall induction mechanism found in nature.

8.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 7533, 2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37985767

RESUMO

Peatlands are an important carbon (C) reservoir storing one-third of global soil organic carbon (SOC), but little is known about the fate of these C stocks under climate change. Here, we examine the impact of warming and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) on the molecular composition of SOC to infer SOC sources (microbe-, plant- and fire-derived) and stability in a boreal peatland. We show that while warming alone decreased plant- and microbe-derived SOC due to enhanced decomposition, warming combined with eCO2 increased plant-derived SOC compounds. We further observed increasing root-derived inputs (suberin) and declining leaf/needle-derived inputs (cutin) into SOC under warming and eCO2. The decline in SOC compounds with warming and gains from new root-derived C under eCO2, suggest that warming and eCO2 may shift peatland C budget towards pools with faster turnover. Together, our results indicate that climate change may increase inputs and enhance decomposition of SOC potentially destabilising C storage in peatlands.

9.
mSystems ; 8(5): e0033723, 2023 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37819069

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Microbial community changes in response to climate change drivers have the potential to alter the trajectory of important ecosystem functions. In this paper, we show that while microbial communities in peatland systems responded to manipulations of temperature and CO2 concentrations, these changes were not associated with similar responses in peat decomposition rates over 3 years. It is unclear however from our current studies whether this functional resiliency over 3 years will continue over the longer time scales relevant to peatland ecosystem functions.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Temperatura , Mudança Climática
11.
Plant Environ Interact ; 4(4): 188-200, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37583877

RESUMO

Predicting vegetation phenology in response to changing environmental factors is key in understanding feedbacks between the biosphere and the climate system. Experimental approaches extending the temperature range beyond historic climate variability provide a unique opportunity to identify model structures that are best suited to predicting phenological changes under future climate scenarios. Here, we model spring and autumn phenological transition dates obtained from digital repeat photography in a boreal Picea-Sphagnum bog in response to a gradient of whole ecosystem warming manipulations of up to +9°C, using five years of observational data. In spring, seven equally best-performing models for Larix utilized the accumulation of growing degree days as a common driver for temperature forcing. For Picea, the best two models were sequential models requiring winter chilling before spring forcing temperature is accumulated. In shrub, parallel models with chilling and forcing requirements occurring simultaneously were identified as the best models. Autumn models were substantially improved when a CO2 parameter was included. Overall, the combination of experimental manipulations and multiple years of observations combined with variation in weather provided the framework to rule out a large number of candidate models and to identify best spring and autumn models for each plant functional type.

12.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 4667, 2023 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37537190

RESUMO

Warming shifts the thermal optimum of net photosynthesis (ToptA) to higher temperatures. However, our knowledge of this shift is mainly derived from seedlings grown in greenhouses under ambient atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) conditions. It is unclear whether shifts in ToptA of field-grown trees will keep pace with the temperatures predicted for the 21st century under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here, using a whole-ecosystem warming controlled experiment under either ambient or elevated CO2 levels, we show that ToptA of mature boreal conifers increased with warming. However, shifts in ToptA did not keep pace with warming as ToptA only increased by 0.26-0.35 °C per 1 °C of warming. Net photosynthetic rates estimated at the mean growth temperature increased with warming in elevated CO2 spruce, while remaining constant in ambient CO2 spruce and in both ambient CO2 and elevated CO2 tamarack with warming. Although shifts in ToptA of these two species are insufficient to keep pace with warming, these boreal conifers can thermally acclimate photosynthesis to maintain carbon uptake in future air temperatures.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Temperatura Alta , Larix , Picea , Aquecimento Global , Picea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Picea/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Larix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larix/metabolismo
13.
Cell Rep ; 42(8): 112917, 2023 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37537843

RESUMO

A previously undescribed mechanism underlying butterfly wing coloration patterns was discovered in two distantly related butterfly species, Siproeta stelenes and Philaethria diatonica. These butterflies have bright green wings, but the color pattern is not derived from solid pigments or nanostructures of the scales or from the color of the cuticular membrane but rather from a liquid retained in the wing membrane. Wing structure differs between the green and non-green areas. In the non-green region, the upper and lower cuticular membranes are attached to each other, whereas in the green region, we observed a space of 5-10 µm where green liquid is held and living cells are present. A pigment analysis and tracer experiment revealed that the color of the liquid is derived from hemolymph components, bilin and carotenoid pigments. This discovery broadens our understanding of the diverse ways in which butterfly wings obtain their coloration and patterns.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Nanoestruturas , Animais , Pigmentação , Asas de Animais , Membranas
14.
Insects ; 14(6)2023 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37367386

RESUMO

The genus Dirphys Howard 1914 syn. n. is synonymized with Encarsia Förster, and treated as a species-group of Encarsia, referred to henceforth as the Encarsia mexicana species-group. The monophyly of Encarsia is discussed in relation to Dirphys. The new synonymy is based on phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal 28S-D2 gene region (43 taxa, 510 bp). The Encarsia mexicana species-group is recovered as strongly monophyletic within Encarsia. All species of the Encarsia mexicana species-group are revised. The group includes six previously described species, and fourteen newly described species. All species are described (or redescribed) and illustrated. Detailed distributional data, and, where available, plant associate and host records are provided for all species. Encarsia myartsevae Kresslein and Polaszek nom. nov. is here proposed as a replacement name for Encarsia mexicana Myartseva, now preoccupied by Encarsia mexicana (Howard). A dichotomous identification key, supplemented by an online multiple-entry key, is provided for all species.

15.
Glob Chang Biol ; 29(11): 3159-3176, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36999440

RESUMO

Peat mosses (Sphagnum spp.) are keystone species in boreal peatlands, where they dominate net primary productivity and facilitate the accumulation of carbon in thick peat deposits. Sphagnum mosses harbor a diverse assemblage of microbial partners, including N2 -fixing (diazotrophic) and CH4 -oxidizing (methanotrophic) taxa that support ecosystem function by regulating transformations of carbon and nitrogen. Here, we investigate the response of the Sphagnum phytobiome (plant + constituent microbiome + environment) to a gradient of experimental warming (+0°C to +9°C) and elevated CO2 (+500 ppm) in an ombrotrophic peatland in northern Minnesota (USA). By tracking changes in carbon (CH4 , CO2 ) and nitrogen (NH4 -N) cycling from the belowground environment up to Sphagnum and its associated microbiome, we identified a series of cascading impacts to the Sphagnum phytobiome triggered by warming and elevated CO2 . Under ambient CO2 , warming increased plant-available NH4 -N in surface peat, excess N accumulated in Sphagnum tissue, and N2 fixation activity decreased. Elevated CO2 offset the effects of warming, disrupting the accumulation of N in peat and Sphagnum tissue. Methane concentrations in porewater increased with warming irrespective of CO2 treatment, resulting in a ~10× rise in methanotrophic activity within Sphagnum from the +9°C enclosures. Warming's divergent impacts on diazotrophy and methanotrophy caused these processes to become decoupled at warmer temperatures, as evidenced by declining rates of methane-induced N2 fixation and significant losses of keystone microbial taxa. In addition to changes in the Sphagnum microbiome, we observed ~94% mortality of Sphagnum between the +0°C and +9°C treatments, possibly due to the interactive effects of warming on N-availability and competition from vascular plant species. Collectively, these results highlight the vulnerability of the Sphagnum phytobiome to rising temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, with significant implications for carbon and nitrogen cycling in boreal peatlands.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Sphagnopsida , Nitrogênio/análise , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Solo , Dióxido de Carbono , Oxirredução , Carbono , Microbiota/fisiologia , Metano
16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 29(10): 2759-2775, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36799318

RESUMO

Large across-model spread in simulating land carbon (C) dynamics has been ubiquitously demonstrated in model intercomparison projects (MIPs), and became a major impediment in advancing climate change prediction. Thus, it is imperative to identify underlying sources of the spread. Here, we used a novel matrix approach to analytically pin down the sources of across-model spread in transient peatland C dynamics in response to a factorial combination of two atmospheric CO2 levels and five temperature levels. We developed a matrix-based MIP by converting the C cycle module of eight land models (i.e., TEM, CENTURY4, DALEC2, TECO, FBDC, CASA, CLM4.5 and ORCHIDEE) into eight matrix models. While the model average of ecosystem C storage was comparable to the measurement, the simulation differed largely among models, mainly due to inter-model difference in baseline C residence time. Models generally overestimated net ecosystem production (NEP), with a large spread that was mainly attributed to inter-model difference in environmental scalar. Based on the sources of spreads identified, we sequentially standardized model parameters to shrink simulated ecosystem C storage and NEP to almost none. Models generally captured the observed negative response of NEP to warming, but differed largely in the magnitude of response, due to differences in baseline C residence time and temperature sensitivity of decomposition. While there was a lack of response of NEP to elevated CO2 (eCO2 ) concentrations in the measurements, simulated NEP responded positively to eCO2 concentrations in most models, due to the positive responses of simulated net primary production. Our study used one case study in Minnesota peatland to demonstrate that the sources of across-model spreads in simulating transient C dynamics can be precisely traced to model structures and parameters, regardless of their complexity, given the protocol that all the matrix models were driven by the same gross primary production and environmental variables.


Assuntos
Carbono , Ecossistema , Dióxido de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Simulação por Computador
17.
Ecol Evol ; 13(1): e9592, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36620398

RESUMO

The Environmental Data Initiative (EDI) is a trustworthy, stable data repository, and data management support organization for the environmental scientist. In a bottom-up community process, EDI was built with the premise that freely and easily available data are necessary to advance the understanding of complex environmental processes and change, to improve transparency of research results, and to democratize ecological research. EDI provides tools and support that allow the environmental researcher to easily integrate data publishing into the research workflow. Almost ten years since going into production, we analyze metadata to provide a general description of EDI's collection of data and its data management philosophy and placement in the repository landscape. We discuss how comprehensive metadata and the repository infrastructure lead to highly findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR) data by evaluating compliance with specific community proposed FAIR criteria. Finally, we review measures and patterns of data (re)use, assuring that EDI is fulfilling its stated premise.

18.
Glob Chang Biol ; 29(7): 2015-2029, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600482

RESUMO

Soil and atmospheric droughts increasingly threaten plant survival and productivity around the world. Yet, conceptual gaps constrain our ability to predict ecosystem-scale drought impacts under climate change. Here, we introduce the ecosystem wilting point (ΨEWP ), a property that integrates the drought response of an ecosystem's plant community across the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Specifically, ΨEWP defines a threshold below which the capacity of the root system to extract soil water and the ability of the leaves to maintain stomatal function are strongly diminished. We combined ecosystem flux and leaf water potential measurements to derive the ΨEWP of a Quercus-Carya forest from an "ecosystem pressure-volume (PV) curve," which is analogous to the tissue-level technique. When community predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd ) was above ΨEWP (=-2.0 MPa), the forest was highly responsive to environmental dynamics. When Ψpd fell below ΨEWP , the forest became insensitive to environmental variation and was a net source of carbon dioxide for nearly 2 months. Thus, ΨEWP is a threshold defining marked shifts in ecosystem functional state. Though there was rainfall-induced recovery of ecosystem gas exchange following soaking rains, a legacy of structural and physiological damage inhibited canopy photosynthetic capacity. Although over 16 growing seasons, only 10% of Ψpd observations fell below ΨEWP , the forest is commonly only 2-4 weeks of intense drought away from reaching ΨEWP , and thus highly reliant on frequent rainfall to replenish the soil water supply. We propose, based on a bottom-up analysis of root density profiles and soil moisture characteristic curves, that soil water acquisition capacity is the major determinant of ΨEWP , and species in an ecosystem require compatible leaf-level traits such as turgor loss point so that leaf wilting is coordinated with the inability to extract further water from the soil.


Assuntos
Carya , Quercus , Ecossistema , Secas , Quercus/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Florestas , Água/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Solo
19.
J Org Chem ; 88(2): 805-817, 2023 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602547

RESUMO

Two synthetic strategies employing phosphate tether-mediated one-pot sequential protocols for the total synthesis of the polyketide nonribosomal peptide macrolide, sanctolide A, and the formal synthesis of the (2S)-epimer of sanctolide A are reported. In this work, a phosphate tether-mediated one-pot sequential ring-closing metathesis/cross metathesis/substrate-controlled "H2"/tether removal approach was developed to accomplish the total synthesis of the natural product sanctolide A.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Macrolídeos , Fosfatos
20.
PeerJ ; 11: e14445, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650840

RESUMO

The Costa Rican Paramo is a unique ecosystem with high levels of endemism that is geographically isolated from the Andean Paramos. Paramo ecosystems occur above Montane Forests, below the permanent snow level, and their vegetation differs notably from that of adjacent Montane Forests. We compared the composition and beta diversity of blooming plant species using phenological data from functional plant groups (i.e., insect-visited, bird-visited and insect + bird-visited plants) between a Paramo and a Montane Forest site in Costa Rica and analyzed seasonal changes in blooming plant diversity between the rainy and dry seasons. Species richness was higher in the Montane Forest for all plant categories, except for insect-visited plants, which was higher in the Paramo. Beta diversity and blooming plant composition differed between both ecosystems and seasons. Differences in species richness and beta diversity between Paramo and the adjacent Montane Forest are likely the result of dispersal events that occurred during the last glacial period and subsequent isolation, as climate turned to tropical conditions after the Pleistocene, and to stressful abiotic conditions in the Paramo ecosystem that limit species establishment. Differences in blooming plant composition between both ecosystems and seasons are likely attributed to differential effects of climatic cues triggering the flowering events in each ecosystem, but phylogenetic conservatism cannot be discarded. Analyses of species composition and richness based on flowering phenology data are useful to evaluate potential floral resources for floral visitors (insects and birds) and how these resources change spatially and temporarily in endangered ecosystems such as the Paramo.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Florestas , Costa Rica , Filogenia , Plantas
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