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1.
Health Aff Sch ; 2(5): qxae049, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757003

RESUMO

Racial disparities in opioid overdose have increased in recent years. Several studies have linked these disparities to health care providers' inequitable delivery of opioid use disorder (OUD) services. In response, health care policymakers and systems have designed new programs to improve equitable OUD care delivery. Racial bias training has been 1 commonly utilized program. Racial bias training educates providers about the existence of racial disparities in the treatment of people who use drugs and the role of implicit bias. Our study evaluates a pilot racial bias training delivered to 25 hospital emergency providers treating patients with OUDs in 2 hospitals in Detroit, Michigan. We conducted a 3-part survey, including a baseline assessment, post-training assessment, and a 2-month follow-up to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of scaling the racial bias training to larger audiences. We also investigate preliminary data on changes in self-awareness of implicit bias, knowledge of training content, and equity in care delivery to patients with OUD. Using qualitative survey response data, we found that training participants were satisfied with the content and quality of the training and especially valued the small-group discussions, motivational interviewing, and historical context.

2.
Health Aff Sch ; 2(1): qxad081, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756394

RESUMO

State policymakers have long sought to improve access to mental health and substance use disorder (MH/SUD) treatment through insurance market reforms. Examining decisions made by innovative policymakers ("policy entrepreneurs") can inform the potential scope and limits of legislative reform. Beginning in 2022, New Mexico became the first state to eliminate cost-sharing for MH/SUD treatment in private insurance plans subject to state regulation. Based on key informant interviews (n = 30), this study recounts the law's passage and intended impact. Key facilitators to the law's passage included receptive leadership, legislative champions with medical and insurance backgrounds, the use of local research evidence, advocate testimony, support from health industry figures, the severity of MH/SUD, and increased attention to MH/SUD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings have important implications for states considering similar laws to improve access to MH/SUD treatment.

3.
J Subst Use Addict Treat ; 161: 209357, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554998

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medicaid managed care organizations (MCO) play a major role in addressing the nation's epidemic of drug overdose and mortality by administering substance use disorder (SUD) treatment benefits for over 50 million Americans. While it is known that some Medicaid MCO plans delegate responsibility for managing SUD treatment benefits to an outside "carve out" entity, the extent and structure of such carve out arrangements are unknown. This is an important gap in knowledge, given that carve outs have been linked to reductions in rates of SUD treatment receipt in several studies. To address this gap, we examined carve out arrangements used by Medicaid MCO plans to administer SUD treatment benefits in ten states. METHODS: Data for this study was gleaned using a purposive sampling approach through content analysis of publicly available benefits information (e.g., member handbooks, provider manuals, prescription drug formularies) from 70 comprehensive Medicaid MCO plans in 10 selected states (FL, GA, IL, MD, MI, NH, OH, PA, UT, and WV) active in 2018. Each Medicaid MCO plan's documents were reviewed and coded to indicate whether a range of SUD treatment services (e.g., inpatient treatment, outpatient treatment, residential treatment) and medications were carved out, and if so, to what type of entity (e.g., behavioral health organization). RESULTS: A large majority of Medicaid MCO plans carved out at least some (28.6 %) or all (40.0 %) SUD treatment services, with nearly all plans carving out some (77.1 %) or all (14.3 %) medications, mainly due to the carving out of methadone treatment. Medicaid MCO plans most commonly carved out SUD treatment services to behavioral health organizations, while most medications were carved out to state Medicaid fee-for-service plans. CONCLUSIONS: Carve out arrangements for SUD treatment vary dramatically across states, across plans, and even within plans. Given that some studies have linked carve out arrangements to reductions in treatment access, their widespread use among Medicaid MCO plans is cause for further consideration by policymakers and other key interest groups. Moreover, reliance on such complex arrangements for administering care may create challenges for enrollees who seek to learn about and access plan benefits.


Assuntos
Programas de Assistência Gerenciada , Medicaid , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
4.
JAMA Health Forum ; 5(3): e240198, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517423

RESUMO

Importance: On January 1, 2022, New Mexico implemented a No Behavioral Cost-Sharing (NCS) law that eliminated cost-sharing for mental health and substance use disorder (MH/SUD) treatments in plans regulated by the state, potentially reducing a barrier to treatment for MH/SUDs among the commercially insured; however, the outcomes of the law are unknown. Objective: To assess the association of implementation of the NCS with out-of-pocket spending for prescription for drugs primarily used to treat MH/SUDs and monthly volume of dispensed drugs. Design, Settings, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used a difference-in-differences research design to examine trends in outcomes for New Mexico state employees, a population affected by the NCS, compared with federal employees in New Mexico who were unaffected by NCS. Data were collected on prescription drugs for MH/SUDs dispensed per month between January 2021 and June 2022 for New Mexico patients with a New Mexico state employee health plan and New Mexico patients with a federal employee health plan. Data analysis occurred from December 2022 to January 2024. Exposure: Enrollment in a state employee health plan or federal health plan. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were mean patient out-of-pocket spending per dispensed MH/SUD prescription and the monthly volume of dispensed MH/SUD prescriptions per 1000 employees. A difference-in-differences estimation approach was used. Results: The implementation of the NCS law was associated with a mean (SE) $6.37 ($0.30) reduction (corresponding to an 85.6% decrease) in mean out-of-pocket spending per dispensed MH/SUD medication (95% CI, -$7.00 to -$5.75). The association of implementation of NCS with the volume of prescriptions dispensed was not statistically significant. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the implementation of the New Mexico NCS law was successful in lowering out-of-pocket spending on prescription medications for MH/SUDs, but that there was no association of NCS with the volume of medications dispensed in the first 6 months after implementation. A key challenge is to identify policies that protect from high out-of-pocket spending while also promoting access to needed care.


Assuntos
Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Gastos em Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde
5.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 43(1): 55-63, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190595

RESUMO

Buprenorphine is among the most effective drugs for treating opioid use disorder, yet only a quarter of Americans who need it receive it. Requiring prior authorization has been identified as an important barrier to buprenorphine access. However, the practice remains widespread in Medicaid-the largest insurer of Americans with opioid use disorder. In this study, we examined how prior authorization for buprenorphine is related to plan structure and state political environment, using data on all 266 comprehensive Medicaid managed care plans active in 2018. We found substantial variation in prior authorization use across states, with all plans requiring prior authorization in eleven states and no plans requiring it in thirteen other states. We found that for-profit plans and those located in Republican states were more likely to impose prior authorization policies. Our findings suggest that managed care plans' decisions regarding use of prior authorization may be shaped by internal pressures to control costs, as well as by differing partisan stances regarding the need to prevent criminal diversion of buprenorphine.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Medicaid , Autorização Prévia , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Subst Use Addctn J ; 45(1): 91-100, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: West Virginia entered an institution for mental disease Section 1115 waiver with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services in 2018, which allowed Medicaid to cover methadone at West Virginia's nine opioid treatment programs (OTPs) for the first time. METHODS: We conducted time trend and geospatial analyses of Medicaid enrollees between 2016 and 2019 to examine medications for opioid use disorder utilization patterns following Medicaid coverage of methadone, focusing on distance to an OTP as a predictor of initiating methadone and conditional on receiving any, longer treatment duration. RESULTS: Following Medicaid coverage of methadone in 2018, patients receiving methadone comprised 9.5% of all Medicaid enrollees with an opioid use disorder (OUD) diagnosis and 10.6% in 2019 (P < 0.01). In 2018, two-thirds of methadone patients either had no prior OUD diagnosis or were not previously enrolled in Medicaid in our observation period. Patients residing within 20 miles of an OTP were more likely to receive methadone (marginal effect [ME]: -0.041, P < 0.001). Similarly, patients residing in metropolitan areas were more likely to receive treatment than those residing in nonmetropolitan areas (ME: -0.019, P < 0.05). Metropolitan patients traveled an average of 15 miles to an OTP; nonmetropolitan patients traveled more than twice as far (P < 0.001). We found no significant association between distance and treatment duration. CONCLUSIONS: West Virginia Medicaid's new methadone coverage was associated with an influx of new enrollees with OUD, many of whom had no previous OUD diagnosis or prior Medicaid enrollment. Methadone patients frequently traveled far distances for treatment, suggesting that the state needs additional OTPs and innovative methadone delivery models to improve availability.


Assuntos
Metadona , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Idoso , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Medicaid , West Virginia/epidemiologia , Medicare , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico
7.
J Subst Use Addict Treat ; 158: 209247, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38072386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior to January of 2020, there was no Medicare reimbursement for services delivered in opioid treatment programs (OTPs). OTPs are the only authorized providers of opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment with methadone, a critical tool to address the opioid overdose crisis. While prior research has examined the availability of MOUD other than methadone for Medicare beneficiaries, research has not identified organizational and local Medicare beneficiary characteristics associated with Medicare insurance acceptance among OTPs. OBJECTIVES: This study has two objectives: 1) to determine the extent to which OTPs began accepting Medicare insurance in the first three years following the new Medicare OTP benefit; and 2) to identify organizational characteristics and local Medicare beneficiary characteristics associated with OTP acceptance of Medicare. METHODS: We used data from the 2021-2023 National Directory of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Treatment Facilities to examine OTP acceptance of Medicare. We used logistic regression to identify organizational characteristics and local Medicare beneficiary characteristics associated with OTP acceptance of Medicare (n = 4630 OTPs). RESULTS: By 2022, about 78.7 % of OTPs accepted Medicare, compared to only 41.1 % of non-OTPs. The odds of Medicare acceptance were lower among for-profit OTPs, compared to non-profit OTPs, and higher among OTPs that accepted Medicaid and private insurance. Additionally, the odds of accepting Medicare were lower for OTPs located in the Northeast, Midwest, and South, compared to OTPs located in the West. Finally, the odds of accepting Medicare were higher for OTPs located in counties with higher percentages of Non-Hispanic White Medicare beneficiaries. CONCLUSIONS: We found high rates of Medicare acceptance among OTPs in the first three years of the Medicare OTP benefit, suggesting increased access to OUD treatment via OTPs for Medicare beneficiaries. While promising, results indicate potential geographic and racial/ethnic disparities in access to OTPs.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Medicare , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos
8.
Int J Drug Policy ; 122: 104239, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37890394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The national overdose crisis is often quantified by overdose deaths, but understanding the traumatic impact for those who witness and respond to overdoses can help elucidate mental health needs and opportunities for intervention for this population. Many who respond to overdoses are people who use drugs. This study adds to the literature on how people who use drugs qualitatively experience trauma resulting from witnessing and responding to overdose, through the lens of the Trauma-Informed Theory of Individual Health Behavior. METHODS: We conducted 60-min semi-structured, in-depth phone interviews. Participants were recruited from six states and Washington, DC in March-April 2022. Participants included 17 individuals who witnessed overdose(s) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The interview guide was shaped by theories of trauma. The codebook was developed using a priori codes from the interview guide; inductive codes were added during content analysis. Transcripts were coded using ATLAS.ti. RESULTS: A vast majority reported trauma from witnessing overdoses. Participants reported that the severity of trauma varied by contextual factors such as the closeness of the relationship to the person overdosing or whether the event was their first experience witnessing an overdose. Participants often described symptoms of trauma including rumination, guilt, and hypervigilance. Some reported normalization of witnessing overdoses due to how common overdoses were, while some acknowledged overdoses will never be "normal." The impacts of witnessing overdose on drug use behaviors varied from riskier substance use to increased motivation for treatment and safer drug use practices. CONCLUSION: Recognizing the traumatic impact of witnessed overdoses is key to effectively addressing the full range of sequelae of the overdose crisis. Trauma-informed approaches should be central for service providers when they approach this subject with clients, with awareness of how normalization can reduce help-seeking behaviors and the need for psychological aftercare. We found increased motivation for behavior change after witnessing, which presents opportunity for intervention.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Pandemias , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Analgésicos Opioides
9.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 42(7): 991-996, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37406230

RESUMO

In 2020 Medicare began reimbursing for opioid treatment program (OTP) services, including methadone maintenance treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD), for the first time. Methadone is highly effective for OUD, yet its availability is restricted to OTPs. We used 2021 data from the National Directory of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Treatment Facilities to examine county-level factors associated with OTPs accepting Medicare. In 2021, 16.3 percent of counties had at least one OTP that accepted Medicare. In 124 counties the OTP was the only specialty treatment facility offering any form of medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD). Regression results showed that the odds of a county having an OTP that accepted Medicare were lower for counties with higher versus lower percentages of rural residents and lower for counties located in the Midwest, South, and West compared with the Northeast. The new OTP benefit improved the availability of MOUD treatment for beneficiaries, although geographic gaps in access remain.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Medicare , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico
10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 250: 110879, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37473698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In July 2021, Vermont removed all criminal penalties for possessing 224mg or less of buprenorphine. METHODS: Vermont residents (N=474) who used illicit opioid drugs or received treatment for opioid use disorder in the past 90 days were recruited for a mixed-methods survey on the health and criminal legal effects of decriminalization. Topics assessed included: motivations for using non-prescribed buprenorphine, awareness of and support for decriminalization, and criminal legal system experiences involving buprenorphine. We examined the frequencies of quantitative measures and qualitatively summarized themes from free-response questions. RESULTS: Three-quarters of respondents (76%) reported lifetime use of non-prescribed buprenorphine. 80% supported decriminalization, but only 28% were aware buprenorphine was decriminalized in Vermont. Respondents described using non-prescribed buprenorphine to alleviate withdrawal symptoms and avoid use of other illicit drugs. 18% had been arrested while in buprenorphine, with non-White respondents significantly more likely to report such arrests (15% v 33%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Decriminalization of buprenorphine may reduce unnecessary criminal legal system involvement, but its health impact was limited by low awareness at the time of our study.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Drogas Ilícitas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Vermont/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Atitude , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos
11.
J Subst Use Addict Treat ; 150: 209064, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37156423

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The opioid overdose crisis remains a chief public health concern in the United States, and people involved in the criminal legal system are among the most vulnerable to opioid related harms. This study aimed to identify all discretionary federal funding allocated to states, cities, and counties targeting the overdose crisis for criminal legal system-involved populations in fiscal year (FY) 2019. We then aimed to assess the extent to which federal funding was allocated to states with the highest need. METHODS: We collected data from publicly available government databases (N = 22) to identify federal funding targeting opioid use disorder in criminal legal system-involved populations. Descriptive analyses examined the extent to which funding allocated per person in the criminal legal system-involved population was associated with funding need, proxied by a composite measure of opioid mortality and drug-related arrests. We created a generosity measure and dissimilarity index to assess the degree to which funding matched need across states. RESULTS: More than 590 million dollars were allocated across 517 grants by 10 federal agencies in FY 2019. About half of states received less than $100.00 dollars per capita in the state criminal legal system-involved population. Funding generosity ranged from 0 % to 504.2 %, with more than half of states (52.9 %, n = 27) receiving fewer dollars per opioid problem than the US average. Further, a dissimilarity index indicated that about 34.2 % of funding (~$202.3 million) would have to be reallocated to distribute funding more evenly across states. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that additional efforts are needed to more equitably distribute funds to meet the needs of states with more severe opioid problems.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides , Overdose de Opiáceos/epidemiologia , Financiamento Governamental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia
12.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 10(9): 719-726, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37236218

RESUMO

In 2020, opioid overdose fatalities among Black Americans surpassed those among White Americans for the first time in US history. This Review analyses the academic literature on disparities in overdose deaths to highlight potential factors that could explain these increases in overdose deaths among Black Americans. Overall, we find that differences in structural and social determinants of health; inequality in the access, use, and continuity of substance use disorder and harm reduction services; variability in fentanyl exposure and risk; and changes in social and economic circumstances since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic are central to explaining this trend. We conclude with a discussion of opportunities for US policy reform and opportunities for future research.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Negro ou Afro-Americano , COVID-19 , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/mortalidade , Pandemias
13.
Harm Reduct J ; 20(1): 18, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36793041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Receptive injection equipment sharing (i.e., injecting with syringes, cookers, rinse water previously used by another person) plays a central role in the transmission of infectious diseases (e.g., HIV, viral hepatitis) among people who inject drugs. Better understanding these behaviors in the context of COVID-19 may afford insights about potential intervention opportunities in future health crises. OBJECTIVE: This study examines factors associated with receptive injection equipment sharing among people who inject drugs in the context of COVID-19. METHODS: From August 2020 to January 2021, people who inject drugs were recruited from 22 substance use disorder treatment programs and harm reduction service providers in nine states and the District of Columbia to complete a survey that ascertained how the COVID-19 pandemic affected substance use behaviors. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with people who inject drugs having recently engaged in receptive injection equipment sharing. RESULTS: One in four people who inject drugs in our sample reported having engaged in receptive injection equipment sharing in the past month. Factors associated with greater odds of receptive injection equipment sharing included: having a high school education or equivalent (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.14, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.24, 3.69), experiencing hunger at least weekly (aOR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.01, 3.56), and number of drugs injected (aOR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.02, 1.30). Older age (aOR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.94, 1.00) and living in a non-metropolitan area (aOR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.18, 1.02) were marginally associated with decreased odds of receptive injection equipment sharing. CONCLUSIONS: Receptive injection equipment sharing was relatively common among our sample during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings contribute to existing literature that examines receptive injection equipment sharing by demonstrating that this behavior was associated with factors identified in similar research that occurred before COVID. Eliminating high-risk injection practices among people who inject drugs requires investments in low-threshold and evidence-based services that ensure persons have access to sterile injection equipment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Usuários de Drogas , Infecções por HIV , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Humanos , Uso Comum de Agulhas e Seringas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos
14.
AIDS Behav ; 27(4): 1248-1258, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318428

RESUMO

Kentucky is one of ten states that require syringe services program (SSP) approval from local officials to operate legally. Public health leaders and local officials participated in semi-structured interviews in 2016 about the barriers and facilitators of SSP adoption and implementation (N = 22). Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and a thematic content analysis was conducted using Nvivo software. Political support, program champions who led education efforts, and access to resources and training facilitated SSP adoption. The most frequently reported barriers to adoption were often rooted in stigma and included the lack of political will to approve SSPs or lack of recognition of the need for a SSP. Requiring approval from local governing authorities could impose significant implementation delays, limits to the range of harm reduction services provided, and threaten harm reduction program sustainability. Removing barriers to the adoption and implementation of harm reduction programs is critical in order to effectively scale up harm reduction services to reduce the risks of infection and fatal overdose.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Humanos , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Kentucky , Seringas , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
15.
JAMA Health Forum ; 3(11): e224001, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331441

RESUMO

Importance: Medicaid is a key policy lever to improve opioid use disorder treatment, covering approximately 40% of Americans with opioid use disorder. Although approximately 70% of Medicaid beneficiaries are enrolled in comprehensive managed care organization (MCO) plans, little is known about coverage and prior authorization (PA) policies for medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) in these plans. Objective: To compare coverage and PA policies for buprenorphine, methadone, and injectable naltrexone across Medicaid MCO plans and fee-for-service (FFS) programs and across states. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed MOUD data from 266 Medicaid MCO plans and FFS programs in 38 states and the District of Columbia in 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: For each medication, the percentages of MCO plans and FFS programs that covered the medication without PA, covered the medication with PA, and did not cover the medication were calculated, as were the percentages of MCO, FFS, and all (MCO and FFS) beneficiaries who were covered with no PA, covered with PA, and not covered. In addition, MCO plan coverage and PA policies were mapped by state. Analyses were conducted from January 1 through May 31, 2022. Results: Coverage and PA policies were compared for MOUD in 266 MCO plans and 39 FFS programs, representing approximately 70 million Medicaid beneficiaries. Overall, FFS programs had more generous MOUD coverage than MCO plans. However, a higher percentage of FFS programs imposed PA for the 3 medications (47.0%) than did MCOs (35.9%). Furthermore, although most Medicaid beneficiaries were enrolled in a plan that covered MOUD, 53.2% of all MCO- and FFS-enrolled beneficiaries were subject to PA. Results also showed wide state variation in MCO plan coverage and PA policies for MOUD and the percentage of Medicaid beneficiaries subject to PA. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found variation in MOUD coverage and PA policies across Medicaid MCO plans and FFS programs and across states. Thus, Medicaid beneficiaries' access to MOUD may be heavily influenced by their state of residency and the Medicaid plan in which they are enrolled. Left unaddressed, PA policies are likely to remain a barrier to MOUD access in the nation's Medicaid programs.


Assuntos
Medicaid , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Autorização Prévia , Estudos Transversais , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Políticas
16.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(5): 653-661, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36136435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite increases in alcohol-related mortality, excessive drinking, and alcohol use disorder (AUD) among older adults, the availability of medications for alcohol use disorder (MAUD) for Medicare Part D beneficiaries has not yet been examined. METHOD: Prescription data from the Medicare Part D Public Use File were aggregated to the county-year level for the years 2014 to 2018. Descriptive statistics and paired t tests were used to examine changes in the availability of MAUD from 2014 to 2018. Two-part multivariable regression models were used to examine the association between county-level characteristics and MAUD availability. RESULTS: The percentage of counties across the U.S. offering any MAUD increased by 10% over the study period. The mean number of MAUD providers in counties with at least one provider increased by 1.81 providers over the study period, from 3.51 providers per county in 2014 to 5.32 providers in 2018. A higher percentage of counties had access to oral naltrexone, which was offered by at least one provider in 23% of counties in 2014 and 33% of counties in 2018. However, a majority (65%) of counties did not have any MAUD providers in 2018. Regression results showed a significant association between MAUD availability and census region, racial/ethnic composition of counties, AUD rate, and year. CONCLUSIONS: The low rates of MAUD availability for Medicare Part D beneficiaries are concerning given that older adults are particularly vulnerable to negative health implications associated with AUD. Targeted efforts are needed to appropriately address increasing AUD prevalence, morbidity, and mortality among older adults enrolled in Medicare.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Medicare Part D , Idoso , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 109, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing research in urban areas has documented a multitude of ways in which law enforcement may affect risks for bloodborne infectious disease acquisition among people who inject drugs (PWID), such as via syringe confiscation and engaging in practices that deter persons from accessing syringe services programs (SSPs). However, limited work has been conducted to explore how law enforcement may impact SSP implementation and operations in rural counties in the United States. This creates a significant gap in the HIV prevention literature given the volume of non-urban counties in the United States that are vulnerable to injection drug use-associated morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the influence of law enforcement during processes to acquire approvals for SSP implementation and subsequent program operations in rural Kentucky counties. METHODS: From August 2020 to October 2020, we conducted eighteen in-depth qualitative interviews among persons involved with SSP implementation in rural counties in Kentucky (USA). Interviews explored the factors that served as barriers and facilitators to SSP implementation and operations, including the role of law enforcement. RESULTS: Participants described scenarios in which rural law enforcement advocated for SSP implementation; however, they also reported police opposing rural SSP implementation and engaging in adverse behaviors (e.g., targeting SSP clients) that may jeopardize the public health of PWID. Participants reported that efforts to educate rural law enforcement about SSPs were particularly impactful when they discussed how SSP implementation may prevent needlestick injuries. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that there are multiple ways in which rural SSP implementation and subsequent operations in rural Kentucky counties are affected by law enforcement. Future work is needed to explore how to expeditiously engage rural law enforcement, and communities more broadly, about SSPs, their benefits, and public health necessity.


Assuntos
Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Humanos , Kentucky , Aplicação da Lei , Seringas , Estados Unidos
18.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 95, 2022 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36002850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use treatment and harm reduction services are essential components of comprehensive strategies for reducing the harms of drug use and overdose. However, these services have been historically siloed, and there is a need to better understand how programs that serve people who use drugs (PWUD) are integrating these services. In this study, we compared treatment and harm reduction services offered by a multistate sample of substance use service providers and assessed how well they align with characteristics and needs of clients they serve early in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We recruited a convenience sample of programs that deliver harm reduction and/or treatment services in ten US states. Program directors participated in a survey assessing the services offered at their program. We also recruited clients of these programs to participate in a survey assessing a range of sociodemographic and health characteristics, substance use behaviors, and health service utilization. We then cross-compared client characteristics and behaviors relative to services being offered through these programs. RESULTS: We collected and analyzed data from 511 clients attending 18 programs that we classified as either offering treatment with medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) (N = 6), syringe service programs (SSP) (N = 8), or offering both MOUD and SSP (N = 4). All programs delivered a range of treatment and harm reduction services, with MOUD & SSP programs delivering the greatest breadth of services. There were discrepancies between services provided and characteristics and behaviors reported by clients: 80% of clients of programs that offered MOUD without SSP actively used drugs and 50% injected drugs; 40% of clients of programs that offered SSP without MOUD sought drug treatment services. Approximately half of clients were unemployed and unstably housed, but few programs offered direct social services. CONCLUSIONS: In many ways, existing programs are not meeting the service needs of PWUD. Investing in innovative models that empower clients and integrate a range of accessible and flexible treatment, harm reduction and social services can pave the way for a more effective and equitable service system that considers the long-term health of PWUD.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Pandemias , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/terapia
19.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 47, 2022 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) exacerbated risks for adverse health consequences among people who inject drugs by reducing access to sterile injection equipment, HIV testing, and syringe services programs (SSPs). Several decades of research demonstrate the public health benefits of SSP implementation; however, existing evidence primarily reflects studies conducted in metropolitan areas and before the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore how the COVID-19 pandemic affected SSP operations in rural Kentucky counties. METHODS: In late 2020, we conducted eighteen in-depth, semi-structured interviews with persons (10 women, 8 men) involved in SSP implementation in rural Kentucky counties. The interview guide broadly explored the barriers and facilitators to SSP implementation in rural communities; participants were also asked to describe how COVID-19 affected SSP operations. RESULTS: Participants emphasized the need to continue providing SSP-related services throughout the pandemic. COVID-19 mitigation strategies (e.g., masking, social distancing, pre-packing sterile injection equipment) limited relationship building between staff and clients and, more broadly, the pandemic adversely affected overall program expansion, momentum building, and coalition building. However, participants offered multiple examples of innovative solutions to the myriad of obstacles the pandemic presented. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted SSP operations throughout rural Kentucky. Despite challenges, participants reported that providing SSP services remained paramount. Diverse adaptative strategies were employed to ensure continuation of essential SSP services, demonstrating the commitment and ingenuity of program staff. Given that SSPs are essential for preventing adverse injection drug use-associated health consequences, further resources should be invested in SSP operations to ensure service delivery is not negatively affected by co-occurring crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Troca de Agulhas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Seringas
20.
Psychiatr Serv ; 73(4): 418-424, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors examined whether there were positive spillovers in opioid use disorder medication prescribing to Medicare Part D beneficiaries in Medicaid expansion states. Although prior studies have shown several positive benefits of Medicaid expansion for Americans with opioid use disorder, research has not examined potential spillovers to Medicare beneficiaries who have been hit hard by the opioid crisis. METHODS: Prescribing data were taken from the Medicare Part D Prescription Public Use File (2010-2017). A difference-in-differences linear regression framework was used to identify spillovers in prescribing of buprenorphine and injectable naltrexone to Medicare Part D beneficiaries in Medicaid expansion states. Three sets of dependent variables measured medication prescribing at the county-year level (N=24,850). All models included county and year fixed effects, with standard errors clustered at the state level to address within-state serial correlation. RESULTS: Medicaid expansion was associated with an increase in the probability of a county having an injectable naltrexone provider (p<0.01). After expansion, the number of buprenorphine providers in expansion states increased by 5.6% (p<0.05), and the number of injectable naltrexone providers increased by 3.3% (p<0.01), relative to nonexpansion states. Expansion was associated with a 23.1% (p<0.01) increase in the number of daily doses of injectable naltrexone, relative to nonexpansion states. CONCLUSIONS: Medicaid expansion states may be better equipped to address the opioid crisis because of direct benefits to Medicaid beneficiaries and availability of opioid use disorder medications for Medicare Part D beneficiaries. However, additional efforts are likely needed to close the opioid use disorder treatment gap for Medicare beneficiaries.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Medicare Part D , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicaid , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
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