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1.
Curr Biol ; 34(9): 2020-2029.e6, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614080

RESUMO

Low genomic diversity is generally indicative of small population size and is considered detrimental by decreasing long-term adaptability.1,2,3,4,5,6 Moreover, small population size may promote gene flow with congeners and outbreeding depression.7,8,9,10,11,12,13 Here, we examine the connection between habitat availability, effective population size (Ne), and extinction by generating a 40× nuclear genome from the extinct blue antelope (Hippotragus leucophaeus). Historically endemic to the relatively small Cape Floristic Region in southernmost Africa,14,15 populations were thought to have expanded and contracted across glacial-interglacial cycles, tracking suitable habitat.16,17,18 However, we found long-term low Ne, unaffected by glacial cycles, suggesting persistence with low genomic diversity for many millennia prior to extinction in ∼AD 1800. A lack of inbreeding, alongside high levels of genetic purging, suggests adaptation to this long-term low Ne and that human impacts during the colonial era (e.g., hunting and landscape transformation), rather than longer-term ecological processes, were central to its extinction. Phylogenomic analyses uncovered gene flow between roan (H. equinus) and blue antelope, as well as between roan and sable antelope (H. niger), approximately at the time of divergence of blue and sable antelope (∼1.9 Ma). Finally, we identified the LYST and ASIP genes as candidates for the eponymous bluish pelt color of the blue antelope. Our results revise numerous aspects of our understanding of the interplay between genomic diversity and evolutionary history and provide the resources for uncovering the genetic basis of this extinct species' unique traits.


Assuntos
Antílopes , Extinção Biológica , Densidade Demográfica , Animais , Antílopes/genética , Antílopes/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Fluxo Gênico , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Ecossistema , Genoma
2.
Mol Ecol ; 32(17): 4829-4843, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37448145

RESUMO

The impact of post-divergence gene flow in speciation has been documented across a range of taxa in recent years, and may have been especially widespread in highly mobile, wide-ranging marine species, such as cetaceans. Here, we studied individual genomes from nine species across the three families of the toothed whale superfamily Delphinoidea (Delphinidae, Phocoenidae and Monodontidae). To investigate the role of post-divergence gene flow in the speciation process, we used a multifaceted approach, including (i) phylogenomics, (ii) the distribution of shared derived alleles and (iii) demographic inference. We found the divergence of lineages within Delphinoidea did not follow a process of pure bifurcation, but was much more complex. Sliding-window phylogenomics reveal a high prevalence of discordant topologies within the superfamily, with further analyses indicating these discordances arose due to both incomplete lineage sorting and gene flow. D-statistics and f-branch analyses supported gene flow between members of Delphinoidea, with the vast majority of gene flow occurring as ancient interfamilial events. Demographic analyses provided evidence that introgressive gene flow has likely ceased between all species pairs tested, despite reports of contemporary interspecific hybrids. Our study provides the first steps towards resolving the large complexity of speciation within Delphinoidea; we reveal the prevalence of ancient interfamilial gene flow events prior to the diversification of each family, and suggest that contemporary hybridisation events may be disadvantageous, as hybrid individuals do not appear to contribute to the parental species' gene pools.


Assuntos
Genoma , Genômica , Animais , Genoma/genética , Filogenia , Fluxo Gênico , Hibridização Genética , Baleias/genética , Especiação Genética
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(6)2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35741791

RESUMO

(1) Background: Adaptive diversification of complex traits plays a pivotal role in the evolution of organismal diversity. In the freshwater snail genus Tylomelania, adaptive radiations were likely promoted by trophic specialization via diversification of their key foraging organ, the radula. (2) Methods: To investigate the molecular basis of radula diversification and its contribution to lineage divergence, we used tissue-specific transcriptomes of two sympatric Tylomelania sarasinorum ecomorphs. (3) Results: We show that ecomorphs are genetically divergent lineages with habitat-correlated abundances. Sequence divergence and the proportion of highly differentially expressed genes are significantly higher between radula transcriptomes compared to the mantle and foot. However, the same is not true when all differentially expressed genes or only non-synonymous SNPs are considered. Finally, putative homologs of some candidate genes for radula diversification (hh, arx, gbb) were also found to contribute to trophic specialization in cichlids and Darwin's finches. (4) Conclusions: Our results are in line with diversifying selection on the radula driving Tylomelania ecomorph divergence and indicate that some molecular pathways may be especially prone to adaptive diversification, even across phylogenetically distant animal groups.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Caramujos , Animais , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Caramujos/genética , Simpatria
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253782, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170938

RESUMO

Small wind turbines (SWTs) have become increasingly common within the last decade, but their impact on wildlife, especially bats, is largely unknown. We conducted an operational experiment by sequentially placing a mobile SWT with five different operational modes at six sites of high bat activity, including roosts, commuting structures, and highly frequented hunting areas. Bat flight trajectories around the SWT were documented at each site during five consecutive nights using a specifically designed high-spatial-resolution 3D camera. The recordings showed high bat activity levels close to the SWT (7,065 flight trajectories within a 10-m radius). The minimum distance to the rotor of each trajectory varied between 0 and 18 m, with a mean of 4.6 m across all sites. Linear mixed models created to account for site differences showed that, compared to a reference pole without a SWT, bats flew 0.4 m closer to the rotor (95% CI 0.3-0.6 m) if it was out of operation and 0.3 m closer (95% CI 0.1-0.4 m) if it was moving slowly. Exploratory behavior was frequently observed, with many bats deviating from their original flight trajectory to approach the rotor. Among 7,850 documented trajectories, 176 crossed the rotor, including 65 while it was in motion. The collision of one P. pygmaeus individual occurred during the experiment. These results demonstrate that, despite the generally strong ability of bats to evade moving rotor blades, bat casualties at SWTs placed at sites of high bat activity can reach or exceed the current threshold levels set for large wind turbines. As SWTs provide less energy than large turbines, their negative impact on bats should be minimized by avoidance measures such as a bat-friendly site selection or curtailment algorithms.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Energia Renovável
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249537, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909617

RESUMO

Domestic cattle were brought to Spain by early settlers and agricultural societies. Due to missing Neolithic sites in the Spanish region of Galicia, very little is known about this process in this region. We sampled 18 cattle subfossils from different ages and different mountain caves in Galicia, of which 11 were subject to sequencing of the mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic analysis, to provide insight into the introduction of cattle to this region. We detected high similarity between samples from different time periods and were able to compare the time frame of the first domesticated cattle in Galicia to data from the connecting region of Cantabria to show a plausible connection between the Neolithization of these two regions. Our data shows a close relationship of the early domesticated cattle of Galicia and modern cow breeds and gives a general insight into cattle phylogeny. We conclude that settlers migrated to this region of Spain from Europe and introduced common European breeds to Galicia.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/classificação , Animais Domésticos/genética , Fósseis/história , Espécies Introduzidas/história , Mitocôndrias/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Domesticação , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , História Antiga , Masculino , Filogenia , Espanha
7.
Curr Biol ; 31(9): 1872-1882.e5, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848458

RESUMO

Leopards are the only big cats still widely distributed across the continents of Africa and Asia. They occur in a wide range of habitats and are often found in close proximity to humans. But despite their ubiquity, leopard phylogeography and population history have not yet been studied with genomic tools. Here, we present population-genomic data from 26 modern and historical samples encompassing the vast geographical distribution of this species. We find that Asian leopards are broadly monophyletic with respect to African leopards across almost their entire nuclear genomes. This profound genetic pattern persists despite the animals' high potential mobility, and despite evidence of transfer of African alleles into Middle Eastern and Central Asian leopard populations within the last 100,000 years. Our results further suggest that Asian leopards originated from a single out-of-Africa dispersal event 500-600 thousand years ago and are characterized by higher population structuring, stronger isolation by distance, and lower heterozygosity than African leopards. Taxonomic categories do not take into account the variability in depth of divergence among subspecies. The deep divergence between the African subspecies and Asian populations contrasts with the much shallower divergence among putative Asian subspecies. Reconciling genomic variation and taxonomy is likely to be a growing challenge in the genomics era.


Assuntos
Panthera , Animais , Ásia , Gatos , Ecossistema , Genômica , Filogeografia
8.
Nature ; 591(7849): 265-269, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597750

RESUMO

Temporal genomic data hold great potential for studying evolutionary processes such as speciation. However, sampling across speciation events would, in many cases, require genomic time series that stretch well back into the Early Pleistocene subepoch. Although theoretical models suggest that DNA should survive on this timescale1, the oldest genomic data recovered so far are from a horse specimen dated to 780-560 thousand years ago2. Here we report the recovery of genome-wide data from three mammoth specimens dating to the Early and Middle Pleistocene subepochs, two of which are more than one million years old. We find that two distinct mammoth lineages were present in eastern Siberia during the Early Pleistocene. One of these lineages gave rise to the woolly mammoth and the other represents a previously unrecognized lineage that was ancestral to the first mammoths to colonize North America. Our analyses reveal that the Columbian mammoth of North America traces its ancestry to a Middle Pleistocene hybridization between these two lineages, with roughly equal admixture proportions. Finally, we show that the majority of protein-coding changes associated with cold adaptation in woolly mammoths were already present one million years ago. These findings highlight the potential of deep-time palaeogenomics to expand our understanding of speciation and long-term adaptive evolution.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Genômica , Mamutes/genética , Filogenia , Aclimatação/genética , Alelos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Antigo/isolamento & purificação , Elefantes/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fósseis , Variação Genética/genética , Cadeias de Markov , Dente Molar , América do Norte , Datação Radiométrica , Sibéria , Fatores de Tempo
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 426, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Plant carnivory is distributed across the tree of life and has evolved at least six times independently, but sequenced and annotated nuclear genomes of carnivorous plants are currently lacking. We have sequenced and structurally annotated the nuclear genome of the carnivorous Roridula gorgonias and that of a non-carnivorous relative, Madeira's lily-of-the-valley-tree, Clethra arborea, both within the Ericales. This data adds an important resource to study the evolutionary genetics of plant carnivory across angiosperm lineages and also for functional and systematic aspects of plants within the Ericales. RESULTS: Our assemblies have total lengths of 284 Mbp (R. gorgonias) and 511 Mbp (C. arborea) and show high BUSCO scores of 84.2% and 89.5%, respectively. We used their predicted genes together with publicly available data from other Ericales' genomes and transcriptomes to assemble a phylogenomic data set for the inference of a species tree. However, groups of orthologs showed a marked absence of species represented by a transcriptome. We discuss possible reasons and caution against combining predicted genes from genome- and transriptome-based assemblies.


Assuntos
Clethraceae , Ericales , Magnoliopsida , Planta Carnívora , Carnivoridade , Genoma de Planta/genética , Filogenia
10.
Methods Enzymol ; 642: 21-33, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828254

RESUMO

Obtaining information about functional details of proteins of extinct species is of critical importance for a better understanding of the real-life appearance, behavior and ecology of these lost entries in the book of life. In this chapter, we discuss the possibilities to retrieve the necessary DNA sequence information from paleogenomic data obtained from fossil specimens, which can then be used to express and subsequently analyze the protein of interest. We discuss the problems specific to ancient DNA, including miscoding lesions, short read length and incomplete paleogenome assemblies. Finally, we discuss an alternative, but currently rarely used approach, direct PCR amplification, which is especially useful for comparatively short proteins.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Fósseis , Sequência de Bases , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 376, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitoid wasps have fascinating life cycles and play an important role in trophic networks, yet little is known about their genome content and function. Parasitoids that infect aphids are an important group with the potential for biological control. Their success depends on adapting to develop inside aphids and overcoming both host aphid defenses and their protective endosymbionts. RESULTS: We present the de novo genome assemblies, detailed annotation, and comparative analysis of two closely related parasitoid wasps that target pest aphids: Aphidius ervi and Lysiphlebus fabarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae). The genomes are small (139 and 141 Mbp) and the most AT-rich reported thus far for any arthropod (GC content: 25.8 and 23.8%). This nucleotide bias is accompanied by skewed codon usage and is stronger in genes with adult-biased expression. AT-richness may be the consequence of reduced genome size, a near absence of DNA methylation, and energy efficiency. We identify missing desaturase genes, whose absence may underlie mimicry in the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of L. fabarum. We highlight key gene groups including those underlying venom composition, chemosensory perception, and sex determination, as well as potential losses in immune pathway genes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are of fundamental interest for insect evolution and biological control applications. They provide a strong foundation for further functional studies into coevolution between parasitoids and their hosts. Both genomes are available at https://bipaa.genouest.org.


Assuntos
Afídeos/genética , Genômica , Vespas/genética , Animais , Afídeos/imunologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Sequência Rica em GC , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Peçonhas/genética , Vespas/imunologia
12.
Sci Adv ; 6(11): eaay0456, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201717

RESUMO

The genus Crocuta (African spotted and Eurasian cave hyenas) includes several closely related extinct and extant lineages. The relationships among these lineages, however, are contentious. Through the generation of population-level paleogenomes from late Pleistocene Eurasian cave hyena and genomes from modern African spotted hyena, we reveal the cross-continental evolutionary relationships between these enigmatic hyena lineages. We find a deep divergence (~2.5 Ma) between African and Eurasian Crocuta populations, suggesting that ancestral Crocuta left Africa around the same time as early Homo. Moreover, we find discordance between nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies and evidence for bidirectional gene flow between African and Eurasian Crocuta after the lineages split, which may have complicated prior taxonomic classifications. Last, we find a number of introgressed loci that attained high frequencies within the recipient lineage, suggesting some level of adaptive advantage from admixture.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Fluxo Gênico , Genética Populacional , Genoma , Hyaenidae/genética , Animais , Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Filogeografia
13.
Curr Biol ; 30(3): R110-R111, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017876

RESUMO

Xenikoudakis et al. report a partial mitochondrial genome of the extinct giant beaver Castoroides and estimate the origin of aquatic behavior in beavers to approximately 20 million years. This time estimate coincides with the extinction of terrestrial beavers and raises the question whether the two events had a common cause.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , DNA Antigo/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Roedores/fisiologia , Animais , Genoma Mitocondrial , Características de História de Vida , Roedores/genética
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906474

RESUMO

A standard practise in palaeogenome analysis is the conversion of mapped short read data into pseudohaploid sequences, frequently by selecting a single high-quality nucleotide at random from the stack of mapped reads. This controls for biases due to differential sequencing coverage, but it does not control for differential rates and types of sequencing error, which are frequently large and variable in datasets obtained from ancient samples. These errors have the potential to distort phylogenetic and population clustering analyses, and to mislead tests of admixture using D statistics. We introduce Consensify, a method for generating pseudohaploid sequences, which controls for biases resulting from differential sequencing coverage while greatly reducing error rates. The error correction is derived directly from the data itself, without the requirement for additional genomic resources or simplifying assumptions such as contemporaneous sampling. For phylogenetic and population clustering analysis, we find that Consensify is less affected by artefacts than methods based on single read sampling. For D statistics, Consensify is more resistant to false positives and appears to be less affected by biases resulting from different laboratory protocols than other frequently used methods. Although Consensify is developed with palaeogenomic data in mind, it is applicable for any low to medium coverage short read datasets. We predict that Consensify will be a useful tool for future studies of palaeogenomes.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Algoritmos , Sequência de Bases/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Filogenia
15.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0223134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568501

RESUMO

Genetic divergence is impacted by many factors, including phylogenetic history, gene flow, genetic drift, and divergent selection. Rotifers are an important component of aquatic ecosystems, and genetic variation is essential to their ongoing adaptive diversification and local adaptation. In addition to coding sequence divergence, variation in gene expression may relate to variable heat tolerance, and can impose ecological barriers within species. Temperature plays a significant role in aquatic ecosystems by affecting species abundance, spatio-temporal distribution, and habitat colonization. Recently described (formerly cryptic) species of the Brachionus calyciflorus complex exhibit different temperature tolerance both in natural and in laboratory studies, and show that B. calyciflorus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a thermotolerant species. Even within B. calyciflorus s.s., there is a tendency for further temperature specializations. Comparison of expressed genes allows us to assess the impact of stressors on both expression and sequence divergence among disparate populations within a single species. Here, we have used RNA-seq to explore expressed genetic diversity in B. calyciflorus s.s. in two mitochondrial DNA lineages with different phylogenetic histories and differences in thermotolerance. We identify a suite of candidate genes that may underlie local adaptation, with a particular focus on the response to sustained high or low temperatures. We do not find adaptive divergence in established candidate genes for thermal adaptation. Rather, we detect divergent selection among our two lineages in genes related to metabolism (lipid metabolism, metabolism of xenobiotics).


Assuntos
Genes de Helmintos , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Filogenia , Rotíferos/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ecossistema , Fluxo Gênico , Deriva Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Rotíferos/classificação , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
16.
Curr Biol ; 29(10): 1695-1700.e6, 2019 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080081

RESUMO

Historically, the giant panda was widely distributed from northern China to southwestern Asia [1]. As a result of range contraction and fragmentation, extant individuals are currently restricted to fragmented mountain ranges on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, where they are distributed among three major population clusters [2]. However, little is known about the genetic consequences of this dramatic range contraction. For example, were regions where giant pandas previously existed occupied by ancestors of present-day populations, or were these regions occupied by genetically distinct populations that are now extinct? If so, is there any contribution of these extinct populations to the genomes of giant pandas living today? To investigate these questions, we sequenced the nuclear genome of an ∼5,000-year-old giant panda from Jiangdongshan, Tengchong County in Yunnan Province, China. We find that this individual represents a genetically distinct population that diverged prior to the diversification of modern giant panda populations. We find evidence of differential admixture with this ancient population among modern individuals originating from different populations as well as within the same population. We also find evidence for directional gene flow, which transferred alleles from the ancient population into the modern giant panda lineages. A variable proportion of the genomes of extant individuals is therefore likely derived from the ancient population represented by our sequenced individual. Although extant giant panda populations retain reasonable genetic diversity, our results suggest that this represents only part of the genetic diversity this species harbored prior to its recent range contractions.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Variação Genética , Genoma , Ursidae/genética , Animais , China , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Masculino
17.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(10): 1563-1570, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150744

RESUMO

Although many large mammal species went extinct at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, their DNA may persist due to past episodes of interspecies admixture. However, direct empirical evidence of the persistence of ancient alleles remains scarce. Here, we present multifold coverage genomic data from four Late Pleistocene cave bears (Ursus spelaeus complex) and show that cave bears hybridized with brown bears (Ursus arctos) during the Pleistocene. We develop an approach to assess both the directionality and relative timing of gene flow. We find that segments of cave bear DNA still persist in the genomes of living brown bears, with cave bears contributing 0.9 to 2.4% of the genomes of all brown bears investigated. Our results show that even though extinction is typically considered as absolute, following admixture, fragments of the gene pool of extinct species can survive for tens of thousands of years in the genomes of extant recipient species.


Assuntos
Extinção Biológica , Fluxo Gênico , Hibridização Genética , Ursidae/genética , Animais , Genômica
18.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 18(6): 1469-1481, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30035363

RESUMO

The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is a highly mobile cetacean found across the Northern hemisphere. It occurs in coastal waters and inhabits basins that vary broadly in salinity, temperature and food availability. These diverse habitats could drive subtle differentiation among populations, but examination of this would be best conducted with a robust reference genome. Here, we report the first harbour porpoise genome, assembled de novo from an individual originating in the Kattegat Sea (Sweden). The genome is one of the most complete cetacean genomes currently available, with a total size of 2.39 Gb and 50% of the total length found in just 34 scaffolds. Using 122 of the longest scaffolds, we were able to show high levels of synteny with the genome of the domestic cattle (Bos taurus). Our draft annotation comprises 22,154 predicted genes, which we further annotated through matches to the NCBI nucleotide database, GO categorization and motif prediction. Within the predicted genes, we have confirmed the presence of >20 genes or gene families that have been associated with adaptive evolution in other cetaceans. Overall, this genome assembly and draft annotation represent a crucial addition to the genomic resources currently available for the study of porpoises and Phocoenidae evolution, phylogeny and conservation.


Assuntos
Genoma , Phocoena/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suécia , Sintenia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Mol Biol Evol ; 35(7): 1638-1652, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672732

RESUMO

The radula is the central foraging organ and apomorphy of the Mollusca. However, in contrast to other innovations, including the mollusk shell, genetic underpinnings of radula formation remain virtually unknown. Here, we present the first radula formative tissue transcriptome using the viviparous freshwater snail Tylomelania sarasinorum and compare it to foot tissue and the shell-building mantle of the same species. We combine differential expression, functional enrichment, and phylostratigraphic analyses to identify both specific and shared genetic underpinnings of the three tissues as well as their dominant functions and evolutionary origins. Gene expression of radula formative tissue is very distinct, but nevertheless more similar to mantle than to foot. Generally, the genetic bases of both radula and shell formation were shaped by novel orchestration of preexisting genes and continuous evolution of novel genes. A significantly increased proportion of radula-specific genes originated since the origin of stem-mollusks, indicating that novel genes were especially important for radula evolution. Genes with radula-specific expression in our study are frequently also expressed during the formation of other lophotrochozoan hard structures, like chaetae (hes1, arx), spicules (gbx), and shells of mollusks (gbx, heph) and brachiopods (heph), suggesting gene co-option for hard structure formation. Finally, a Lophotrochozoa-specific chitin synthase with a myosin motor domain (CS-MD), which is expressed during mollusk and brachiopod shell formation, had radula-specific expression in our study. CS-MD potentially facilitated the construction of complex chitinous structures and points at the potential of molecular novelties to promote the evolution of different morphological innovations.


Assuntos
Moluscos/genética , Estruturas Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Moluscos/anatomia & histologia , Moluscos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
20.
Mol Biol Evol ; 35(5): 1225-1237, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528428

RESUMO

Hyenas (family Hyaenidae), as the sister group to cats (family Felidae), represent a deeply diverging branch within the cat-like carnivores (Feliformia). With an estimated population size of <10,000 individuals worldwide, the brown hyena (Parahyaena brunnea) represents the rarest of the four extant hyena species and has been listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN. Here, we report a high-coverage genome from a captive bred brown hyena and both mitochondrial and low-coverage nuclear genomes of 14 wild-caught brown hyena individuals from across southern Africa. We find that brown hyena harbor extremely low genetic diversity on both the mitochondrial and nuclear level, most likely resulting from a continuous and ongoing decline in effective population size that started ∼1 Ma and dramatically accelerated towards the end of the Pleistocene. Despite the strikingly low genetic diversity, we find no evidence of inbreeding within the captive bred individual and reveal phylogeographic structure, suggesting the existence of several potential subpopulations within the species.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Hyaenidae/genética , Animais , Feminino , Genoma , Masculino , Filogeografia , Densidade Demográfica
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