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1.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 13(4): 399-413, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366885

RESUMO

Intravenous administration of conditioned medium from stem cells of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) regenerates mechanically injured osteochondral tissues in mouse temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA). However, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we showed that SHED-CM alleviated injured TMJ by inducing anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the synovium. Depletion of M2 by Mannosylated Clodrosome abolished the osteochondral repair activities of SHED-CM. Administration of CM from M2-induced by SHED-CM (M2-CM) effectively ameliorated mouse TMJOA by inhibiting chondrocyte inflammation and matrix degradation while enhancing chondrocyte proliferation and matrix formation. Notably, in vitro, M2-CM directly suppressed the catabolic activities while enhancing the anabolic activities of interleukin-1ß-stimulated mouse primary chondrocytes. M2-CM also inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Secretome analysis of M2-CM and M0-CM revealed that 5 proteins related to anti-inflammation and/or osteochondrogenesis were enriched in M2-CM. Of these proteins, the Wnt signal antagonist, secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1), was the most abundant and played an essential role in the shift to anabolic chondrocytes, suggesting that M2 ameliorated TMJOA partly through sFRP1. This study suggests that secretome from SHED exerted remarkable osteochondral regeneration activities in TMJOA through the induction of sFRP1-expressing tissue-repair M2 macrophages.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite , Células-Tronco , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/terapia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Dente Decíduo
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4987, 2023 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36973292

RESUMO

Exosomes (small extracellular vesicles: EVs) have attracted increasing attention from basic scientists and clinicians since they play important roles in cell-to-cell communication in various biological processes. Various features of EVs have been elucidated regarding their contents, generation and secretion mechanisms, and functions in inflammation, regeneration, and cancers. These vesicles are reported to contain proteins, RNAs, microRNAs, DNAs, and lipids. Although the roles of individual components have been rigorously studied, the presence and roles of glycans in EVs have rarely been reported. In particular, glycosphingolipids in EVs have not been investigated to date. In this study, the expression and function of a representative cancer-associated ganglioside, GD2, in malignant melanomas was investigated. Generally, cancer-associated gangliosides have been shown to enhance malignant properties and signals in cancers. Notably, EVs derived from GD2-expressing melanomas enhanced the malignant phenotypes of GD2-negative melanomas, such as cell growth, invasion, and cell adhesion, in a dose-dependent manner. The EVs also induced increased phosphorylation of signaling molecules such as EGF receptor and focal adhesion kinase. These results suggest that EVs released from cancer-associated ganglioside-expressing cells exert many functions that have been reported as a function of these gangliosides and regulate microenvironments, including total aggravation of heterogeneous cancer tissues, leading to more malignant and advanced cancer types.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Gangliosídeos , Melanoma , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Gangliosídeos/análise , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2706, 2023 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36792628

RESUMO

Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers is frequently associated with adverse effects on the surrounding normal tissue. Irreversible damage to radiation-sensitive acinar cells in the salivary gland (SG) causes severe radiation-induced xerostomia (RIX). Currently, there are no effective drugs for treating RIX. We investigated the efficacy of treatment with conditioned medium derived from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) in a mouse RIX model. Intravenous administration of SHED-CM, but not fibroblast-CM (Fibro-CM), prevented radiation-induced cutaneous ulcer formation (p < 0.0001) and maintained SG function (p < 0.0001). SHED-CM treatment enhanced the expression of multiple antioxidant genes in mouse RIX and human acinar cells and strongly suppressed radiation-induced oxidative stress. The therapeutic effects of SHED-CM were abolished by the superoxide dismutase inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (p < 0.0001). Notably, quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry shotgun proteomics of SHED-CM and Fibro-CM identified eight proteins activating the endogenous antioxidant system, which were more abundant in SHED-CM than in Fibro-CM (p < 0.0001). Neutralizing antibodies against those activators reduced antioxidant activity of SHED-CM (anti-PDGF-D; p = 0.0001, anti-HGF; p = 0.003). Our results suggest that SHED-CM may provide substantial therapeutic benefits for RIX primarily through the activation of multiple antioxidant enzyme genes in the target tissue.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Xerostomia , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células-Tronco , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Xerostomia/etiologia , Xerostomia/terapia , Dente Decíduo
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 745020, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431971

RESUMO

In neuropathic pain (NP), injury or diseases of the somatosensory system often result in highly debilitating chronic pain. Currently, there is no effective drug for the complete and definitive treatment of NP. We investigated the therapeutic potential of conditioned medium (CM) derived from stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) against NP using a mouse partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL) model. Abnormal pain sensation, such as tactile allodynia and hyperalgesia, can be caused by PSL. In the behavioral test, intravenous administration of SHED-CM greatly improved the PSL-induced hypersensitivity. We found that treatment with SHED-CM resulted in the recruitment of M2 macrophages in the injured sciatic nerve and ipsilateral L4/L5 dorsal root ganglion and suppressed microglial activation in the spinal cord. Notably, specific depletion of the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages by mannosylated-Clodrosome markedly reduced the antinociceptive effect of SHED-CM. Intravenous administration of CM from M2 induced by SHED-CM (M2-CM) ameliorated the PSL-induced hypersensitivity. We found that M2-CM directly suppressed the expression of nociceptive receptors as well as proinflammatory mediators in Schwann cells. Taken together, our data suggest that SHED-CM ameliorates NP through the induction of the analgesic anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Thus, SHED-CM may be a novel therapeutic candidate for NP.

5.
Glycoconj J ; 39(2): 145-155, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315508

RESUMO

Immunotherapy of malignant cancers is now becoming one of representative approaches to overcome cancers. To construct strategies for immunotherapy, presence of tumor-specific antigens should be a major promise. A number of cancer specific- or cancer-associated antigens have been reported based on various experimental sets and various animal systems. The most reasonable strategy to define tumor-specific antigens might be "autologous typing" performed by Old's group, proposing three classes of tumor-antigens recognized by host immune systems of cancer patients. Namely, class 1, individual antigens that is present only in the patient's sample analyzed; class 2, shared antigens that can be found only in some group of cancers in some patients, but not in normal cells and tissues; class 3, universal antigens that are present in some cancers but also in normal cells and tissues with different densities. Sen Hakomori reported there were novel carbohydrates in cancers that could not be detected in normal cells mainly by biochemical approaches. Consequently, many of class 2 cancer-specific antigens have been revealed to be carbohydrate antigens, and been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Not only as cancer markers, but roles of those cancer-associated carbohydrates have also been recognized as functional molecules in cancer cells. In particular, roles of complex carbohydrates in the regulation of cell signaling on the cell surface microdomains, glycolipid-enriched microdomain (GEM)/rafts have been reported by Hakomori and many other researchers including us. The processes and present status of these studies on cancer-associated glycolipids were summarized.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos , Neoplasias , Animais , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Cancer Sci ; 112(9): 3756-3768, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145699

RESUMO

High expression of gangliosides GD3 and GD2 is observed in human gliomas. The functions of GD3 and GD2 in malignant properties have been reported in glioma cells in vitro, but those functions have not yet been investigated in vivo. In this study, we showed that deficiency of GD3 synthase (GD3S, St8sia1) attenuated glioma progression and clinical and pathological features in a platelet-derived growth factor B-driven murine glioma model. Lack of GD3S resulted in the prolonged lifespan of glioma-bearing mice and low-grade pathology in generated gliomas. Correspondingly, they showed reduced phosphorylation levels of Akt, Erks, and Src family kinases in glioma tissues. A DNA microarray study revealed marked alteration in the expression of various genes, particularly in MMP family genes, in GD3S-deficient gliomas. Re-expression of GD3S restored expression of MMP9 in primary-cultured glioma cells. We also identified a transcription factor, Ap2α, expressed in parallel with GD3S expression, and showed that Ap2α was critical for the induction of MMP9 by transfection of its cDNA and luciferase reporter genes, and a ChIP assay. These findings suggest that GD3S enhances the progression of gliomas by enhancement of the Ap2α-MMP9 axis. This is the first report to describe the tumor-enhancing functions of GD3S in vivo.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Sialiltransferases/genética , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Longevidade/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transfecção
7.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 48(8): 2158-2170, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514932

RESUMO

Loading is indispensable for the growth, development, and maintenance of joint tissues, including mandibular condylar cartilage, but excessive loading or reduced host adaptive capacity can considerably damage the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), leading to temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). TMJ-OA, associated with other pathological conditions and aging processes, is a highly degenerative disease affecting the articular cartilage. Many treatment modalities for TMJ-OA have been developed. Traditional clinical treatment includes mainly nonsurgical options, such as occlusal splints. However, non-invasive therapy does not achieve joint tissue repair and regeneration. Growing evidence suggests that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) accelerates bone fracture healing and regeneration, as well as having extraordinary effects in terms of soft tissue repair and regeneration. The latter have received much attention, and various studies have been performed to evaluate the potential role of LIPUS in tissue regeneration including that applied to articular cartilage. The present article provides an overview of the status of LIPUS stimulation used to prevent the onset and progression of TMJ-OA and enhance the tissue regeneration of mandibular condylar cartilage. The etiology and management of TMJ-OA are explained briefly, animal models of TMJ-OA are described, and the effectiveness of LIPUS on cell metabolism and tissue regeneration in the TMJ is discussed.


Assuntos
Côndilo Mandibular , Osteoartrite , Articulação Temporomandibular , Terapia por Ultrassom , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Humanos , Côndilo Mandibular/patologia , Côndilo Mandibular/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/terapia , Articulação Temporomandibular/patologia , Articulação Temporomandibular/fisiopatologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168753

RESUMO

Acidic glycosphingolipids, i.e., gangliosides, are predominantly and consistently expressed in nervous tissues of vertebrates at high levels. Therefore, they are considered to be involved in the development and function of nervous systems. Recent studies involving genetic engineering of glycosyltransferase genes have revealed novel aspects of the roles of gangliosides in the regulation of nervous tissues. In this review, novel findings regarding ganglioside functions and their modes of action elucidated mainly by studies of gene knockout mice are summarized. In particular, the roles of gangliosides in the regulation of lipid rafts to maintain the integrity of nervous systems are reported with a focus on the roles in the regulation of neuro-inflammation and neurodegeneration via complement systems. In addition, recent advances in studies of congenital neurological disorders due to genetic mutations of ganglioside synthase genes and also in the techniques for the analysis of ganglioside functions are introduced.


Assuntos
Glicoesfingolipídeos Acídicos/metabolismo , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Glicoesfingolipídeos Acídicos/genética , Animais , Engenharia Genética , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
9.
J Biol Chem ; 294(28): 10833-10845, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138648

RESUMO

To analyze the binding specificity of a sialic acid-recognizing lectin, sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 7 (SIGLEC7), to disialyl gangliosides (GD3s), here we established GD3-expressing cells by introducing GD3 synthase (GD3S or ST8SIA1) cDNA into a colon cancer cell line, DLD-1, that expresses no ligands for the recombinant protein SIGLEC7-Fc. SIGLEC7-Fc did not recognize newly-expressed GD3 on DLD-1 cells, even though GD3 was highly expressed, as detected by an anti-GD3 antibody. Because milk-derived GD3 could be recognized by this fusion protein when incorporated onto the surface of DLD-1 cells, we compared the ceramides in DLD-1-generated and milk-derived GD3s to identify the SIGLEC7-specific GD3 structures on the cell membrane, revealing that SIGLEC7 recognizes only GD3-containing regular ceramides but not phytoceramides. This was confirmed by knockdown/knockout of the sphingolipid delta(4)-desaturase/C4-monooxygenase (DES2) gene, involved in phytoceramide synthesis, disclosing that DES2 inhibition confers SIGLEC7 binding. Furthermore, knocking out fatty acid 2-hydroxylase also resulted in the emergence of SIGLEC7 binding to the cell surface. To analyze the effects of binding between SIGLEC7 and various GD3 species on natural killer function, we investigated cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors toward GD3S-transfected DLD-1 (DLD-1-GD3S) cells and DLD-1-GD3S cells with modified ceramides. We found that cytotoxicity is suppressed in DLD-1-GD3S cells with dehydroxylated GD3s. These results indicate that the ceramide structures in glycosphingolipids affect SIGLEC7 binding and distribution on the cell surface and influence cell sensitivity to killing by SIGLEC7-expressing effector cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/fisiologia , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Lectinas/metabolismo , Lectinas/fisiologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Gangliosídeos/química , Glicoesfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Sialiltransferases/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato/fisiologia
10.
Cancer Sci ; 110(5): 1544-1551, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895683

RESUMO

Cancer-associated glycosphingolipids have been used as markers for diagnosis and targets for immunotherapy of malignant tumors. Recent progress in the analysis of their implications in the malignant properties of cancer cells revealed that cancer-associated glycosphingolipids are not only tumor markers, but also functional molecules regulating various signals introduced by membrane microdomains, lipid rafts. In particular, a novel approach, enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources combined with mass spectrometry, has enabled us to clarify the mechanisms by which cancer-associated glycosphingolipids regulate cell signals based on the interaction with membrane molecules and formation of molecular complexes on the cell surface. Novel findings obtained from these approaches are now providing us with insights into the development of new anticancer therapies targeting membrane molecular complexes consisting of cancer-associated glycolipids and their associated membrane molecules. Thus, a new era of cancer-associated glycosphingolipids has now begun.


Assuntos
Glicoesfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Neuroscience ; 397: 94-106, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521973

RESUMO

B4GALNT1 is an enzyme essential for the synthesis of complex gangliosides, whose absence leads to progressive neurodegeneration with aging in mice. Recently, eleven cases of hereditary spastic paraplegia with mutation in the coding region of B4GALNT1 were reported. However, changes in the enzymatic activity of their products have never been studied. We have constructed expression vectors for individual mutant cDNAs, and examined their activities by cell-free in vitro enzyme assays, and flow cytometry of cells transfected with their expression vectors. Among them, almost all mutant genes showed the complete loss of B4GALNT1 activity in both the in vitro enzyme assays and flow cytometry. Two mutants exceptionally showed weak activity. One of them, M4, had a mutation at amino acid 228 with a premature termination codon. Interestingly, the intensity of fluorescence of GM2 measured by flow cytometry was equivalent between the WT and M4 mutant, although the positive cell population was relatively small in M4. Western immunoblotting of cell lysates from transfectants with cDNA plasmids revealed 67-kDa bands except those containing premature termination codons or frame-shift mutation. Taken together with the clinical findings of patients, loss of enzyme activity may be responsible for the clinical features of hereditary spastic paraplegia, whereas the intensity of neurological disorders was relatively milder than expected. These clinical features of patients including those with male hypogonadism are very similar to the abnormal phenotypes detected in B4galnt1-deficient mice.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/deficiência , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/genética , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/enzimologia , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética , Animais , Células CHO , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cricetulus , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação , Fenótipo , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/patologia
12.
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci ; 156: 265-287, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747817

RESUMO

Gangliosides play roles in the regulation of cell signaling that are mediated via membrane microdomains, lipid rafts. In this review, functions of gangliosides in the maintenance of nervous systems with a focus on regulation of inflammation and neurodegeneration are addressed. During analyses of various ganglioside-lacking mutant mice, we demonstrated that nervous tissues exhibited inflammatory reactions and subsequent neurodegeneration. Among inflammation-related genes, factors of the complement system showed up-regulation with aging. Analyses of architectures and compositions of lipid rafts in nervous tissues from these mutant mice revealed that dysfunctions of complement regulatory proteins based on disrupted lipid rafts were main factors to induce the inflammatory reactions resulting in neurodegeneration. Ganglioside changes in development and senescence, and implication of them in the integrity of cell membranes and cellular phenotypes in physiological and pathological conditions including Alzheimer disease have been summarized. Novel directions to further analyze mechanisms for ganglioside functions in membrane microdomains have been also addressed.


Assuntos
Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos
13.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 45(Suppl 1): 39-40, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29650870

RESUMO

Recently, the combined use of multiple drugs for coexisting multiple diseases in elderly patients has become a problem. In facilities for elderly persons, pharmacists contribute to the intervention and optimization of prescriptions. However, the procedures have been conducted smoothly in only a few facilities. We established five procedures for prescription intervention by pharmacists and implemented these interventions in 80 institutionalized individuals. The total results over 2 years(January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2016)revealed 118 cases of prescription proposals from pharmacists and a reduction of 2,411,937 yen in medical expense. The purpose of prescription proposals from pharmacists is to reduce burden on patients by optimizing prescriptions, but not to reduce the number or dose of drug. In doing so, it was important to hear patients' opinions on medical care. Patient-centered prescription proposals from pharmacists are considered to have improved the quality of medical care and may enable the promotion of prescription intervention.


Assuntos
Desprescrições , Pacientes Internados , Farmacêuticos , Idoso , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Papel Profissional
14.
Cancer Sci ; 109(1): 141-153, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29151270

RESUMO

Ganglioside GD2 is specifically expressed in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells, leading to enhancement of malignant phenotypes, such as cell proliferation and migration. However, how GD2 promotes malignant phenotypes in SCLC cells is not well known. In this study, to reveal the mechanisms by which GD2 increases malignant phenotypes in SCLC cells, we used enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources combined with mass spectrometry in GD2+ SCLC cells. Consequently, we identified ASC amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), a major glutamine transporter, which coordinately works with GD2. We showed that ASCT2 was highly expressed in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts in GD2+ SCLC cells, and colocalized with GD2 in both proximity ligation assay and immunocytostaining, and bound with GD2 in immunoprecipitation/TLC immunostaining. Malignant phenotypes of GD2+ SCLC cells were enhanced by glutamine uptake, and were suppressed by L-γ-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide, a specific inhibitor of ASCT2, through reduced phosphorylation of p70 S6K1 and S6. These results suggested that ASCT2 enhances glutamine uptake in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts in GD2+ SCLC cells, leading to the enhancement of cell proliferation and migration through increased phosphorylation of the mTOR complex 1 signaling axis.


Assuntos
Sistema ASC de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Glutamina/análogos & derivados , Glutamina/metabolismo , Glutamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1861(10): 2479-2484, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602513

RESUMO

Gene knockout mice of glycosyltransferases have clearly showed roles of their products in the bodies, while there are examples where phenotype of knockout was much less severe than expected probably due to functional redundancy. The most striking novel finding obtained from ganglioside-deficient mice was that progressive inflammatory reaction took place, leading to neurodegeneration. In particular, dysfunction of complement-regulatory proteins due to deteriorated architecture of lipid rafts seemed to be essential mechanisms for the inflammation. Furthermore, roles of gangliosides in neurons were demonstrated by neuron-specific transgenic of B4galnt1 with genetic background of B4galnt1 deficiency. From study of gene knockout mice of St8sia1, new roles of b-series gangliosides in leptin secretion from adipocytes, and roles of a-series gangliosides in leptin receptor, ObR in hypothalamus were demonstrated, leading to apparent intact balance of energy. Essential roles of b-series gangliosides in malignant properties of gliomas were also shown, suggesting their roles in the regulation of inflammation and proliferation in nervous tissues. How to apply these findings for the control of newly discovered patients with ganglioside deficiency remains to be investigated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuro-glycoscience, edited by Kenji Kadomatsu and Hiroshi Kitagawa.


Assuntos
Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioma/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/genética , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Leptina/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/química , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/deficiência , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias de Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neoplasias de Tecido Nervoso/patologia , Tecido Nervoso/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Sialiltransferases/deficiência , Sialiltransferases/genética
16.
J Biol Chem ; 291(32): 16630-43, 2016 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27288875

RESUMO

To investigate mechanisms for increased malignant properties in malignant melanomas by ganglioside GD3, enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources and subsequent mass spectrometry were performed using an anti-GD3 antibody and GD3-positive (GD3+) and GD3-negative (GD3-) melanoma cell lines. Neogenin, defined as a GD3-neighbored molecule, was largely localized in lipid/rafts in GD3+ cells. Silencing of neogenin resulted in the reduction of cell growth and invasion activity. Physical association between GD3 and neogenin was demonstrated by immunoblotting of the immunoprecipitates with anti-neogenin antibody from GD3+ cell lysates. The intracytoplasmic domain of neogenin (Ne-ICD) was detected in GD3+ cells at higher levels than in GD3- cells when cells were treated by a proteasome inhibitor but not when simultaneously treated with a γ-secretase inhibitor. Exogenous GD3 also induced increased Ne-ICD in GD3- cells. Overexpression of Ne-ICD in GD3- cells resulted in the increased cell growth and invasion activity, suggesting that Ne-ICD plays a role as a transcriptional factor to drive malignant properties of melanomas after cleavage with γ-secretase. γ-Secretase was found in lipid/rafts in GD3+ cells. Accordingly, immunocyto-staining revealed that GD3, neogenin, and γ-secretase were co-localized at the leading edge of GD3+ cells. All these results suggested that GD3 recruits γ-secretase to lipid/rafts, allowing efficient cleavage of neogenin. ChIP-sequencing was performed to identify candidates of target genes of Ne-ICD. Some of them actually showed increased expression after expression of Ne-ICD, probably exerting malignant phenotypes of melanomas under GD3 expression.


Assuntos
Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Gangliosídeos/genética , Humanos , Melanoma , Microdomínios da Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética
17.
Glycobiology ; 26(9): 984-998, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27102283

RESUMO

Some gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, have been considered as tumor-associated antigens. GD1α or a GD1α synthase gene ST6GalNAc5 was reported to be involved in the metastasis of murine lymphomas or human breast cancers, respectively. But expression patterns of 0-series gangliosides GD1α and its precursor GM1b in human cancers have not yet been investigated mainly due to lack of specific antibodies. We established specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) reactive with GD1α or GM1b using gangliosides from brain tissues of GM3 synthase (St3gal5)-deficient mice as immunogens. We used GM2/GD2 synthase (B4galnt1)-deficient mice to immunize by liposomes embedded with GD1α or acidic glycolipid fractions from brain of St3gal5-deficient mice. Specificities of established mAbs as analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and thin-layer chromatography-immunostaining were very high among various gangliosides. Increased expression of GD1α and reduced GM1b in the St6galnac5 cDNA-transfected RAW117 cell line also substantiated the specificities of two mAbs. Then, we analyzed expression of GD1α and GM1b, and of relevant glycosyltransferase genes in various human cancer cell lines using generated anti-GD1α mAb 122 or anti-GM1b mAb MR155A-7. A few human cancer cell lines showed significant expression of these gangliosides with reasonable expression of relevant glycosyltransferase genes.


Assuntos
Gangliosídeo G(M1)/análogos & derivados , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/genética , Sialiltransferases/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Gangliosídeo G(M1)/biossíntese , Gangliosídeo G(M1)/genética , Gangliosídeo G(M1)/metabolismo , Gangliosídeos/genética , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Glicoesfingolipídeos/genética , Glicoesfingolipídeos/imunologia , Glicoesfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Sialiltransferases/metabolismo
18.
Glycoconj J ; 33(2): 169-80, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26883028

RESUMO

In this study, we immunized Gb3/CD77 synthase gene (A4galt) knockout (KO) mice with glycosphingolipids (GSLs) extracted from 3 renal cell cancer (RCC) cell lines to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) reactive with globo-series GSLs specifically expressed in RCCs. Although a number of mAbs reactive with globo-series GSLs were generated, they reacted with both RCC cell lines and normal kidney cells. When we analyzed recognized antigens by mAbs that were specifically reactive with RCC, but not with normal kidney cells at least on the cell surface, many of them turned out to be reactive with sulfoglycolipids. Eight out of 11 RCC-specific mAbs were reactive with SM2 alone, and the other 3 mAbs were more broadly reactive with sulfated glycolipids, i.e. SM3 and SM4 as well as SM2. In the immunohistochemistry, these anti-sulfoglycolipids mAbs showed RCC-specific reaction, with no or minimal reaction with adjacent normal tissues. Thus, immunization of A4galt KO mice with RCC-derived GSLs resulted in the generation of anti sulfated GSL mAbs, and these mAbs may be applicable for the therapeutics for RCC patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/imunologia , Anticorpos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Galactosiltransferases/deficiência , Imunização , Neoplasias Renais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glicolipídeos/química , Glicolipídeos/imunologia , Glicolipídeos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/química , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Nus
19.
J Biol Chem ; 290(26): 16043-58, 2015 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25940087

RESUMO

There have been a few studies on the ganglioside expression in human glioma tissues. However, the role of these gangliosides such as GD3 and GD2 has not been well understood. In this study we employed a genetically engineered mouse model of glioma to clarify the functions of GD3 in gliomas. Forced expression of platelet-derived growth factor B in cultured astrocytes derived from p53-deficient mice resulted in the expression of GD3 and GD2. GD3-positive astrocytes exhibited increased cell growth and invasion activities along with elevated phosphorylation of Akt and Yes kinase. By enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources reaction and mass spectrometry, we identified PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) as a GD3-associated molecule. GD3-positive astrocytes showed a significant amount of PDGFRα in glycolipid-enriched microdomains/rafts compared with GD3-negative cells. Src kinase family Yes was co-precipitated with PDGFRα, and its pivotal role in the increased cell invasion of GD3-positive astrocytes was demonstrated by silencing with anti-Yes siRNA. Direct association between PDGFRα and GD3 was also shown, suggesting that GD3 forms ternary complex with PDGFRα and Yes. The fact that GD3, PDGFRα, and activated Yes were colocalized in lamellipodia and the edge of tumors in cultured cells and glioma tissues, respectively, suggests that GD3 induced by platelet-derived growth factor B enhances PDGF signals in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts, leading to the promotion of malignant phenotypes such as cell proliferation and invasion in gliomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Glioma/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-yes/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioma/enzimologia , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-yes/genética , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética
20.
J Neurosci ; 35(6): 2452-64, 2015 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25673840

RESUMO

Engrafted mesenchymal stem cells from human deciduous dental pulp (SHEDs) support recovery from neural insults via paracrine mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we show that the conditioned serum-free medium (CM) from SHEDs, administered intrathecally into rat injured spinal cord during the acute postinjury period, caused remarkable functional recovery. The ability of SHED-CM to induce recovery was associated with an immunoregulatory activity that induced anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages. Secretome analysis of the SHED-CM revealed a previously unrecognized set of inducers for anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages: monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (ED-Siglec-9). Depleting MCP-1 and ED-Siglec-9 from the SHED-CM prominently reduced its ability to induce M2-like macrophages and to promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The combination of MCP-1 and ED-Siglec-9 synergistically promoted the M2-like differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro, and this effect was abolished by a selective antagonist for CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) or by the genetic knock-out of CCR2. Furthermore, MCP-1 and ED-Siglec-9 administration into the injured spinal cord induced M2-like macrophages and led to a marked recovery of hindlimb locomotor function after SCI. The inhibition of this M2 induction through the inactivation of CCR2 function abolished the therapeutic effects of both SHED-CM and MCP-1/ED-Siglec-9. Macrophages activated by MCP-1 and ED-Siglec-9 extended neurite and suppressed apoptosis of primary cerebellar granule neurons against the neurotoxic effects of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Our data suggest that the unique combination of MCP-1 and ED-Siglec-9 repairs the SCI through anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophage induction.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/farmacologia , Quimiocina CCL2/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lectinas Semelhantes a Imunoglobulina de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/farmacologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerebelo/citologia , Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Criança , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Citocinas/metabolismo , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Polpa Dentária/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores CCR2/antagonistas & inibidores , Lectinas Semelhantes a Imunoglobulina de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Dente Decíduo
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