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1.
J Cannabis Res ; 6(1): 12, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Veterans Health Administration tracks urine drug tests (UDTs) among patients on long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) and recommends discussing the health effects of cannabis use. OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of cannabis-related discussions between providers and patients on LTOT during six months following UDT positive for cannabis, and examine factors associated with documenting cannabis use. DESIGN: We identified patients prescribed LTOT with a UDT positive for cannabis in 2019. We developed a text-processing tool to extract discussions around cannabis use from their charts. SUBJECTS: Twelve thousand seventy patients were included. Chart review was conducted on a random sample of 1,946 patients. MAIN MEASURES: The presence of a cannabis term in the chart suggesting documented cannabis use or cannabis-related discussions. Content of those discussions was extracted in a subset of patients. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient factors, including state of residence legal status, with documentation of cannabis use. KEY RESULTS: Among the 12,070 patients, 65.8% (N = 7,948) had a cannabis term, whereas 34.1% (N = 4,122) of patients lacked a cannabis term, suggesting that no documentation of cannabis use or discussion between provider and patient took place. Among the subset of patients who had a discussion documented, 47% related to cannabis use for medical reasons, 35% related to a discussion of VA policy or legal issues, and 17% related to a discussion specific to medical risks or harm reduction strategies. In adjusted analyses, residents of states with legalized recreational cannabis were less likely to have any cannabis-related discussion compared to patients in non-legal states [OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.64-0.82]. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of LTOT patients did not have documentation of cannabis use in the chart in the 6 months following a positive UDT for cannabis. Discussions related to the medical risks of cannabis use or harm reduction strategies were uncommon.

2.
AIDS Behav ; 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478322

RESUMO

Heavy drinking among people living with HIV (PLWH) reduces ART adherence and worsens health outcomes. Lengthy interventions are not feasible in most HIV care settings, and patients infrequently follow referrals to outside treatment. Utilizing visual and video features of smartphone technology, we developed HealthCall as an electronic means of increasing patient involvement in a brief intervention to reduce drinking and improve ART adherence. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the efficacy of HealthCall to improve ART adherence among PLWH who drink heavily when paired with two brief interventions: the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) Clinician's Guide (CG) or Motivational Interviewing (MI). Therefore, we conducted a 1:1:1 randomized trial among 114 participants with alcohol dependence at a large urban HIV clinic. Participants were randomized to one of three groups: (1) CG only (n = 37), (2) CG and HealthCall (n = 38), or (3) MI and HealthCall (n = 39). Baseline interventions targeting drinking reduction and ART adherence were ~ 25 min, with brief (10-15 min) booster sessions at 30 and 60 days. The outcome was ART adherence assessed using unannounced phone pill-count method (possible adherence scores: 0-100%) at 30-day, 60-day, 3, 6, and 12 months. Analyses were conducted using generalized linear mixed models with pre-planned contrasts. Of the 114 enrolled patients, 58% were male, 75% identified as Black/African American, 28% were Hispanic, and 62% had less than a high school education. The mean age was 47.5 years (standard deviation [SD] 10 years) and the mean number of years since they were diagnosed with HIV was 18.6 (SD 7.6). Participants assigned to HealthCall to extend the CG had increased levels of ART adherence at 60-day and 6-month follow-up (compared to CG only), although there was no statistically significant difference by 12-month follow-up. Participants who were assigned to HealthCall to extend the MI never had statistically significant higher levels of ART adherence. These results suggest that the use of a smartphone app can be used to initially extend the reach of a brief drinking intervention to improve ART adherence over a short period of time; however, sustained long-term improvements in ART adherence after intervention activity ends remains a challenge.

3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 257: 111113, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) treatment prevalence decreased in the US between 2002 and 2019, yet structural mechanisms for this decrease are poorly understood. We tested associations between cannabis laws becoming effective and self-reported CUD treatment. METHODS: Restricted-use 2004-2019 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health included people ages 12+ classified as needing CUD treatment (i.e., past-year DSM-5-proxy CUD or last/current specialty treatment for cannabis). Time-varying indicators of medical cannabis laws (MCL) with/without cannabis dispensary provisions differentiated state-years before/after laws using effective dates. Multi-level logistic regressions with random state intercepts estimated individual- and state-adjusted CUD treatment odds by MCLs and model-based changes in specialty CUD treatment state-level prevalence. Secondary analyses tested associations between CUD treatment and MCL or recreational cannabis laws (RCL). RESULTS: Using a broad treatment need sample definition in 2004-2014, specialty CUD treatment prevalence decreased by 1.35 (95 % CI = -2.51, -0.18) points after MCL without dispensaries and by 2.15 points (95 % CI = -3.29, -1.00) after MCL with dispensaries provisions became effective, compared to before MCL. Among people with CUD in 2004-2014, specialty treatment decreased only in MCL states with dispensary provisions (aPD = -0.91, 95 % CI = -1.68, -0.13). MCL were not associated with CUD treatment use in 2015-2019. RCL were associated with lower CUD treatment among people classified as needing CUD treatment, but not among people with past-year CUD. CONCLUSIONS: Policy-related reductions in specialty CUD treatment were concentrated in states with cannabis dispensary provisions in 2004-2014, but not 2015-2019, and partly driven by reductions among people without past-year CUD. Other mechanisms (e.g., CUD symptom identification, criminal-legal referrals) could contribute to decreasing treatment trends.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356082

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To synthesize the available evidence on the extent to which area-level socioeconomic conditions are associated with drug overdose deaths in the United States. METHODS: We performed a systematic review (in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Web of Science, EconLit) for papers published prior to July 2022. Eligible studies quantitatively estimated the association between an area-level measure of socioeconomic conditions and drug overdose deaths in the US, and were published in English. We assessed study quality using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. The protocol was preregistered at Prospero (CRD42019121317). RESULTS: We identified 28 studies that estimated area-level effects of socioeconomic conditions on drug overdose deaths in the US. Studies were scored as having moderate to serious risk of bias attributed to both confounding and in analysis. Socioeconomic conditions and drug overdose death rates were moderately associated, and this was a consistent finding across a large number of measures and differences in study designs (e.g., cross-sectional versus longitudinal), years of data analyzed, and primary unit of analysis (e.g., ZIP code, county, state). CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the evidence for area-level socioeconomic conditions are an important factor underlying the geospatial distribution of drug overdose deaths in the US and the need to understand the mechanisms underlying these associations to inform future policy recommendations. The current evidence base suggests that, at least in the United States, employment, income, and poverty interventions may be effective targets for preventing drug overdose mortality rates.

5.
Psychol Med ; 54(1): 169-177, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37183659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common adolescent psychiatric symptoms cluster into two dominant domains: internalizing and externalizing. Both domains are linked to self-esteem, which serves as a protective factor against a wide range of internalizing and externalizing problems. This study examined trends in US adolescents' self-esteem and externalizing symptoms, and their correlation, by sex and patterns of time use. METHODS: Using Monitoring the Future data (N = 338 896 adolescents, grades:8/10/12, years:1991-2020), we generated six patterns of time use using latent profile analysis with 17 behavior items (e.g. sports participation, parties, paid work). Groups were differentiated by high/low engagement in sports and either paid work or high/low peer socialization. Within each group, we mapped annual, sex-stratified means of (and correlation between) self-esteem and externalizing factors. We also examined past-decade rates of change for factor means using linear regression and mapped proportions with top-quartile levels of poor self-esteem, externalizing symptoms, or both. RESULTS: We found consistent increases in poor self-esteem, decreases in externalizing symptoms, and a positive correlation between the two across nearly all activity groups. We also identified a relatively constant proportion of those with high levels of both in every group. Increases in poor self-esteem were most pronounced for female adolescents with low levels of socializing, among whom externalizing symptoms also increased. CONCLUSIONS: Rising trends in poor self-esteem are consistent across time use groups, as is the existence of a group facing poor self-esteem and externalizing symptoms. Effective interventions for adolescents' poor self-esteem/co-occurring symptoms are needed broadly, but especially among female adolescents with low peer socialization.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Saúde Mental , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Autoimagem
6.
Am J Psychiatry ; 181(2): 144-152, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38018141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cannabis use disorder diagnoses are increasing among U.S. adults and are more prevalent among people with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Recent changes in cannabis laws, increasing cannabis availability, and higher-potency cannabis may have placed people with cannabis use and psychiatric disorders at disproportionately increasing risk for cannabis use disorder. The authors used Veterans Health Administration (VHA) data to examine whether trends in cannabis use disorder prevalence among VHA patients differ by whether they have psychiatric disorders. METHODS: VHA electronic health records from 2005 to 2019 (N range, 4,332,165-5,657,277) were used to identify overall and age-group-specific (<35, 35-64, and ≥65 years) trends in prevalence of cannabis use disorder diagnoses among patients with depressive, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, bipolar, or psychotic spectrum disorders and to compare these to corresponding trends among patients without any of these disorders. Given transitions in ICD coding, differences in trends were tested within two periods: 2005-2014 (ICD-9-CM) and 2016-2019 (ICD-10-CM). RESULTS: Greater increases in prevalence of cannabis use disorder diagnoses were observed among patients with psychiatric disorders compared to those without (difference in prevalence change, 2005-2014: 1.91%, 95% CI=1.87-1.96; 2016-2019: 0.34%, 95% CI=0.29-0.38). Disproportionate increases in cannabis use disorder prevalence among patients with psychiatric disorders were greatest among those under age 35 between 2005 and 2014, and among those age 65 or older between 2016 and 2019. Among patients with psychiatric disorders, the greatest increases in cannabis use disorder prevalences were observed among those with bipolar and psychotic spectrum disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight disproportionately increasing disparities in risk of cannabis use disorder among VHA patients with common psychiatric disorders. Greater public health and clinical efforts are needed to monitor, prevent, and treat cannabis use disorder in this population.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Abuso de Maconha , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Veteranos , Adulto , Humanos , Idoso , Prevalência , Veteranos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia
7.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 63(3): 345-354, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37385585

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cannabis use is associated with suicide-related outcomes in both adolescents and adults, and may be increasing amid shifting cannabis policies. However, little is known about the impact of medical marijuana legalization (MML) and recreational marijuana legalization (RML) policies on youth suicide. Using 20 years of national data, we examined associations between MML, RML, and suicide-related mortality among US individuals aged 12 to 25 years, and assessed whether they varied based on age and sex. METHOD: Suicide deaths (N = 113,512) from the 2000-2019 National Vital Statistics System Multiple Cause of Death files for age groups 12 to 13, 14 to 16, 17 to 19, 20 to 22, and 23 to 25 years were examined in relation to time-varying cannabis law status using a staggered adoption difference-in-difference (DiD) approach with a negative binomial regression to determine associations between MML, RML, and suicide rates, controlling for individual- and state-level covariates and accounting for the varying effective dates of MML and RML by state. RESULTS: The overall unadjusted annual suicide rate was 10.93/100,000, varying from 9.76 (states without marijuana laws (ML)) to 12.78 (MML states) to 16.68 (RML states). In multivariable analysis, both MML (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05-1.15) and RML (IRR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06-1.27) were associated with higher suicide rates among female youth compared to those in states without ML. Youth aged 14 to 16 years had higher rates of suicide in states with RML compared to states with MML (IRR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00-1.30) and states without ML (IRR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.00-1.20). Findings were consistent across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: MML and RML were associated with increased suicide-related mortality in female youth and 14- to- 16-year-old individuals of both sexes. Mechanisms through which cannabis policies are related to increased youth suicide warrant further study and should inform legislative reform.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Adulto , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Legislação de Medicamentos , Incidência
8.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 85(1): 92-99, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37796626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Underreporting of substance use is a frequent concern about studies based on self-report, but few robust studies have examined the agreement between different methods for capturing self-reported substance use. The current study therefore used repeated measures to compare self-reported substance use using (a) clinician interviewers and (b) self-administered computerized surveys in a sample that included both inpatients and community residents. METHOD: Adults age 18 years and older with problematic substance use were recruited from the community or an inpatient addiction treatment facility. At baseline (N = 588), 3-month (n = 469), and 6-month (n = 476) interviews, participants were asked whether they used alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, and prescription painkillers by two methods: semi-structured, clinician-administered interview, and computerized self-administered questionnaire. Agreement between these two methods was investigated using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Multivariable logistic regression assessed differences in the odds of discordance between the two measures by recruitment source, gender, age, race/ethnicity, employment status, marital status, and level of education. RESULTS: There was moderate-to-strong agreement between clinician-administered and self-administered surveys for alcohol (kappa = .70-.88), cannabis (kappa = .87-.92), cocaine (kappa = .81-.89), and heroin (kappa = .90-.92). However, there was only weak-to-moderate agreement for nonmedical use of prescription painkillers (kappa = .55-.71), with the self-administered questionnaire capturing a higher prevalence of use (percent difference = 2.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Clinician interviewers and self-administered surveys were shown to capture similar rates of self-reported use of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and heroin. Surveys assessing nonmedical prescription opioid use may benefit from using self-administered questionnaires.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Cocaína , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Autorrelato , Heroína , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 81(1): 89-96, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37819655

RESUMO

Importance: Renewed interest in the clinical potential of hallucinogens may lead people with depression to a generally more positive view of the use of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Therefore, past-year LSD use among people with depression may be increasing in prevalence. Objective: To assess time trends in the prevalence of past-year nonmedical LSD use by past-year major depression status and the variation in this association by sociodemographic characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used pooled publicly available data from 478 492 adults aged 18 years or older who were administered the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2008 through 2019. Statistical analysis was conducted from December 2022 to June 2023. Main Outcome and Measures: Past-year major depression diagnoses per criteria from the DSM-IV were analyzed. Logistic regression models examined whether time trends in past-year nonmedical LSD use differed between adults with vs without past-year depression, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Secondary analyses examined whether the trends in LSD use by depression status differed between sociodemographic subgroups. Results: The analytic sample included 478 492 adults, of whom 51.8% were female, 56.1% were younger than 50 years, 11.7% were Black, 15.1% were Hispanic, 65.8% were White, and 7.5% were another race. Weighted interview response rates ranged from 64.9% to 75.6% during the study time frame. From 2008 to 2019, past-year use of LSD increased significantly more among adults with major depression (2008 prevalence, 0.5%; 2019 prevalence, 1.8%; prevalence difference [PD], 1.3% [95% CI, 1.0%-1.6%]) compared with adults without major depression (2008 prevalence, 0.2%; 2019 prevalence, 0.8%; PD, 0.6% [95% CI, 0.5%-0.7%]) (difference in difference, 0.8% [95% CI, 0.5%-1.1%]). This difference was particularly pronounced among young adults aged 34 years or younger (PD among those aged 18-25 years with depression, 3.3% [95% CI, 2.5%-4.2%]; PD among those aged 26-34 years with depression, 2.7% [95% CI, 1.6%-3.8%]) and individuals with incomes less than $75 000 per year (PD among those with income <$20 000, 1.9% [95% CI, 1.3%-2.6%]; PD among those with income $20 000-$49 999, 1.5% [95% CI, 1.0%-2.1%]; PD among those with income $50 000-$74 999, 1.3% [95% CI, 0.7%-2.0%]). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that, from 2008 to 2019, there was a disproportionate increase in the prevalence of past-year LSD use among US adults with past-year depression. Among those with depression, this increase was particularly strong among younger adults and those with lower household incomes. Among individuals with depression who also report LSD use, clinicians should discuss potential strategies for mitigating harm and maximizing benefits in medically unsupervised settings.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Alucinógenos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Masculino , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico , Depressão/epidemiologia
10.
Addiction ; 119(2): 356-368, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37816665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) carry a risk for drug overdose and are prescribed alone or simultaneously with selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for the treatment of anxiety and depression in young adults. We aimed to measure risks of drug overdose following BZD treatment initiation, and simultaneous BZD and SSRI initiation, compared with SSRI treatment alone in young adults with depression or anxiety. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: The cohort study used administrative databases covering privately (MarketScan, 1/1/2009-12/31/2018) and publicly (Medicaid, 1/1/2015-12/31/2016) insured young adults (18-29 years) in the United States. Those with depression or anxiety diagnoses newly initiating BZD or SSRI treatment (without BZD or SSRI prescriptions in prior year) were included. Simultaneous "BZD + SSRI" initiation was defined as starting BZD and SSRI treatment on the same day. The cohorts included 604 664 privately insured young adults (BZD = 22%, BZD + SSRI = 10%, SSRI = 68%) and 110 493 publicly insured young adults (BZD = 23%, BZD + SSRI = 5%, SSRI = 72%). MEASUREMENTS: Incident medically treated drug overdose events were identified from emergency department and inpatient encounters (ICD poisoning codes) within 6 months of treatment initiation. Crude and propensity-score adjusted cumulative incidence and hazard ratios (HR) were estimated. Sub-analyses evaluated drug overdose intent. FINDINGS: Adjusted HRs of drug overdose for BZD vs. SSRI treatment was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]:1.23-1.51) in privately and 1.59 (95%CI:1.37-1.83) in publicly insured young adults. The adjusted HRs of drug overdose for BZD + SSRI treatment vs. SSRI treatment were 1.99 (95%CI:1.77-2.25) in privately and 1.98 (95%CI:1.47-2.68) in publicly insured young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Among young adults in the United States, initiating benzodiazepine treatment for anxiety and depression, alone or simultaneously with selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), appears to have an increased risk of medically treated drug overdose compared with SSRI treatment alone. These associations were observed in publicly and privately insured individuals.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas , Overdose de Drogas , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Medicaid , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
J Subst Use Addict Treat ; 157: 209285, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38159910

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) is growing among older adults, and older adults in rural areas face disparities in access to SUD care. Rural older adults with SUDs commonly have comorbid chronic conditions that puts them at risk for frequent acute healthcare utilization. In rural areas, primary care for patients with SUDs are increasingly provided by nurse practitioners (NPs), and quality primary care services may decrease ED visits in this population. Yet, NP-delivered primary care for rural older adults with SUDs may be limited by work environment barriers, which include lack of support, autonomy, and visibility. This study assessed the relationship between the NP work environment and ED utilization among rural older adults with SUDs. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from a large survey of NPs in six U.S. states merged with Medicare claims. The study measured the NP work environment by the four subscales of the Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Organizational Climate Questionnaire (NP-PCOCQ), which measure 1) independent practice and support, 2) NP-physician relations, 3) NP-administration, and 4) professional visibility. Multilevel logistic regression models, adjusted for practice and patient covariates, assess the relationship between the NP work environment and all-cause ED use. RESULTS: The sample included 1152 older adults with SUDs who received care at 126 rural NP primary care practices. NP independent practice and support at the practice was associated with 49 % lower odds of all-cause ED visits among older adults with SUDs. There were no relationships between the other NP-PCOCQ subscales and all-cause ED visits. CONCLUSIONS: Organizational support for NP independent practice is associated with lower odds of all-cause ED utilization among rural older adults with SUDs. Practice administrators should ensure that NPs have access to support and resources to enhance their ability to care for rural older adults with SUDs. Ultimately, these practice changes could reduce ED utilization and health disparities in this population.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Medicare , Inquéritos e Questionários , Condições de Trabalho , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
12.
Addict Behav ; 148: 107861, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37748224

RESUMO

LGBT+ adults demonstrate greater cannabis-related problems (e.g., Cannabis Use Disorder [CUD]) compared to non-LGBT+ counterparts. No study has explored age-related disparities in cannabis problems across the adult lifespan, nor have studies identified specific CUD criteria that contribute to elevated CUD among LGBT+ adults. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between LGBT+ identity and age with endorsement of CUD criteria in a sample of regular cannabis consumers. An online sample of N = 4334 (25.1% LGBT+) adults aged 18-64 residing in the U.S. completed an online survey about cannabis use behaviors and CUD diagnostic criteria. Bivariate contrasts revealed significantly greater CUD criteria endorsement among LGBT+ respondents, largely driven by differences at younger ages. However, this effect disappeared in the majority of adjusted logistic regression models. LGBT+ identity was associated with greater probability of use in larger amounts (adjOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.22-3.60) and use despite physical/mental health problems (adjOR = 2.51, 95% CI:1.23-5.03). No age*LGBT+ identity interactions were detected. Plotted trends depict more pronounced disparities in outcomes among LGBT+ adults under 35 years. Several potential risk and protective factors including employment, education, and reasons for use were identified. There were age-related differences in these characteristics among LGBT+ and non-LGBT+ respondents. Initial findings highlight the need for LGBT+ research examining trends in health outcomes and sociodemographic and cannabis characteristics across the lifespan. The study also provides a substantive contribution regarding specific cannabis-related problems that young LGBT+ cannabis consumers may be more likely to endorse than their non-LGBT+ counterparts.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Abuso de Maconha , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Escolaridade
13.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 12: e48548, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38039075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black cisgender gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority men (SMM) and transgender women (TW) continue to be heavily affected by HIV. Further research is needed to better understand HIV prevention and care outcomes in this population. In particular, there is a need for research examining the impact of substance use and sleep health on HIV prevention and treatment outcomes among Black SMM and TW. OBJECTIVE: This paper outlines the study methods being used in the recently launched follow-up study to the Neighborhoods and Networks (N2) study, which we refer to as N2 Part 2 (N2P2). N2P2 aims to address this gap in the literature, build off the findings of the original N2 study, and identify socioenvironmental determinants of health, including whether neighborhood and network factors mediate and moderate these relationships. METHODS: Building on the N2 cohort study in Chicago from 2018 to 2022, N2P2 used a prospective longitudinal cohort design and an observational-implementation hybrid approach. With sustained high levels of community engagement, we aim to recruit a new sample of 600 Black SMM and TW participants residing in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area. Participants are asked to participate in 3 study visits across an 18-month study period (1 visit every 9 months). Four different forms of data are collected per wave: (1) an in-person survey, (2) biological specimen collection, (3) a daily remote ecological momentary assessment for 14 days after each study visit, and (4) data from electronic health records. These forms of data collection continue to assess neighborhood and network factors and specifically explore substance use, sleep, immune function, obesity, and the implementation of potential interventions that address relevant constructs (eg, alcohol use and pre-exposure prophylaxis adherence). RESULTS: The N2P2 study was funded in August 2021 by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (R01DA054553 and R21DA053156) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01HL160325). This study was launched in November 2022. Recruitment and enrollment for the first wave of data collection are currently ongoing. CONCLUSIONS: The N2P2 study is applying innovative methods to comprehensively explore the impacts of substance use and sleep health on HIV-related outcomes among an HIV status-neutral cohort of Black SMM and TW in Chicago. This study is applying an observational-implementation hybrid design to help us achieve findings that support rapid translation, a critical priority among populations such as Black SMM and TW that experience long-standing inequities with regard to HIV and other health-related outcomes. N2P2 will directly build off the findings that have resulted from the original N2 study among Black SMM and TW in Chicago. These findings provide a better understanding of multilevel (eg, individual, network, and neighborhood) factors that contribute to HIV-related outcomes and viral suppression among Black SMM and TW. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/48548.

14.
Curr Addict Rep ; 10(3): 441-457, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38149223

RESUMO

Purpose of Review: Veterans are a large population that is disproportionately affected by various physical and mental health conditions. The primary aim of this review is to provide a concise overview of recent literature on the prevalence of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD) among US Veterans, and associations with mental and physical health conditions. We also addressed gaps in the literature by investigating associations between CUD and mental and physical health conditions in 2019 data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA; N=5,657,277). Recent Findings: In total, 25 studies were reviewed. In 2019, the prevalence of Veteran cannabis use ranged from 11.9%-18.7%. Cannabis use and CUD were associated with bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, suicidality, pain conditions, and other substance use, but less consistently associated with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Analyses of 2019 VHA data indicated that CUD was strongly associated with a broad array of physical and mental health conditions and mortality. Summary: Cannabis use and CUD are prevalent and highly comorbid with other conditions among US Veterans. Harm reduction methods tailored to these populations are needed.

15.
medRxiv ; 2023 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38105937

RESUMO

Background: Although cannabis legalization is associated with increases in self-report cannabis use, biological measures of cannabis use are needed to address potential bias introduced by improved self-reporting of cannabis use in states enacting medical cannabis laws (MCL) and recreational cannabis laws (RCL). Objective: Quantify the role of MCL and RCL enactment in cannabis positive urine drug screen (UDS) prevalence among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) emergency department (ED) patients from 2008 to 2019. Design: Staggered-adoption difference-in-difference analysis were used to estimate the role of MCL and RCL in cannabis positive UDS data, fitting adjusted linear binomial regression models to estimate the association between MCL and RCL enactment and prevalence of cannabis positive UDS. Participants: VHA enrolled veterans aged 18-75 years with ≥1 ED visit in a given year from 2008 to 2019. Main Measures: Receipt of ≥1 cannabis positive UDS during an ED visit were analyzed. Key Results: From 2008 to 2019, adjusted cannabis positive UDS prevalences increased from 16.4% to 25.6% in states with no cannabis law, 16.6% to 27.6% in MCL-only enacting states, and 18.2% to 33.8% in RCL-enacting states. MCL-only and MCL/RCL enactment was associated with a 0.8% (95% CI, 0.4-1.0) and 2.9% (95% CI, 2.5-3.3) absolute increase in cannabis positive UDS, respectively. Significant effect sizes were found for MCL and RCL, such that 7.0% and 18.5% of the total increase in cannabis positive UDS prevalence in MCL-only and RCL states could be attributed to MCLs and RCLs. Conclusions: In this study of VHA ED patients, MCL and RCL enactment played a significant role in the overall increases in cannabis positive UDS. The increase in a biological measure of cannabis use reduces concerns that previously documented increases in self-reported cannabis use from surveys are due to changes in patient willingness to report use as it becomes more legal.

16.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 2023 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37947429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Heavy drinking poses serious risks to individuals with HIV, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and especially HIV/HCV coinfection. We adapted the NIAAA Clinician's Guide (CG) to address HIV/HCV coinfection and paired this with the "HealthCall" smartphone app to create an intervention tailored to HIV/HCV. After formative work and pretesting with HIV/HCV coinfected heavy drinkers, we conducted a pilot trial to determine potential of this new intervention for decreasing drinking. METHOD: A sample of 31 HIV/HCV coinfected heavy drinkers were randomly assigned to either intervention (n=16) or control (n=15; psychoeducation and brief advice) conditions. All participants completed a 60-day program consisting of ~25 minute baseline sessions and brief 5-10 minute booster sessions at 30 and 60 days, as well as an assessment-only follow-up at 90 days. Outcomes were measured using the TimeLine Followback at baseline, 30, 60, and 90 days. Generalized linear models were used for analysis. RESULTS: Intervention participants drank fewer mean drinks per drinking day at 60 days (IRR=0.43, p=0.03) and 90 days (IRR=0.34, p<0.01). Intervention participants also reported fewer drinking days at 90 days (Mean difference=34.5%; p<0.01). Self-efficacy differed between groups during intervention (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although our sample was small, our results suggested lower drinking among participants who received a modified CG intervention plus use of the smartphone app HealthCall, in comparison with education and advice alone. A larger study is indicated, to further examine this brief, disseminable intervention for HIV/HCV coinfected drinkers.

17.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 49(6): 799-808, 2023 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37948571

RESUMO

Background: In the U.S. non-medical use of prescription opioids (NMOU) is prevalent and often accompanied by opioid withdrawal syndrome (OWS). OWS has not been studied using nationally representative data.Objectives: We examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of OWS among U.S. adults with NMOU.Methods: We used data from 36,309 U.S. adult participants in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, 1,527 of whom reported past 12-month NMOU. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models examined associations between OWS and its clinical correlates, including psychiatric disorders, opioid use disorder (OUD; excluding the withdrawal criterion), medical conditions, and healthcare utilization among people with regular (i.e. ≥3 days/week) NMOU (n = 534).Results: Over half (50.4%) of the sample was male. Approximately 9% of people with NMOU met criteria for DSM-5 OWS, with greater prevalence of OWS (∼20%) among people with regular NMOU. Individuals with bipolar disorder, dysthymia, panic disorder, and borderline personality disorder had greater odds of OWS (aOR range = 2.71-4.63). People with OWS had lower mental health-related quality of life (ß=-8.32, p < .001). Individuals with OUD also had greater odds of OWS (aOR range = 26.02-27.77), an association that increased with more severe OUD. People using substance use-related healthcare services also had greater odds of OWS (aOR range = 6.93-7.69).Conclusion: OWS was prevalent among people with OUD and some psychiatric disorders. These findings support screening for OWS in people with NMOU and suggest that providing medication- assisted treatments and behavioral interventions could help to reduce the burden of withdrawal in this patient population.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia , Prescrições
18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 253: 111023, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37984034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic's impact on utilization of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) among patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) and chronic pain is unclear. METHODS: We analyzed New York State (NYS) Medicaid claims from pre-pandemic (August 2019-February 2020) and pandemic (March 2020-December 2020) periods for beneficiaries with and without chronic pain. We calculated monthly proportions of patients with OUD diagnoses in 6-month-lookback windows utilizing MOUD and proportions of treatment-naïve patients initiating MOUD. We used interrupted time series to assess changes in MOUD utilization and initiation rates by medication type and by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Among 20,785 patients with OUD and chronic pain, 49.3% utilized MOUD (versus 60.3% without chronic pain). The pandemic did not affect utilization in either group but briefly disrupted initiation among patients with chronic pain (ß=-0.009; 95% CI [-0.015, -0.002]). Overall MOUD utilization was not affected by the pandemic for any race/ethnicity but opioid treatment program (OTP) utilization was briefly disrupted for non-Hispanic Black individuals (ß=-0.007 [-0.013, -0.001]). The pandemic disrupted overall MOUD initiation in non-Hispanic Black (ß=-0.007 [-0.012, -0.002]) and Hispanic individuals (ß=-0.010 [-0.019, -0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: Adults with chronic pain who were enrolled in NYS Medicaid before the COVID-19 pandemic had lower MOUD utilization than those without chronic pain. MOUD initiation was briefly disrupted, with disparities especially in racial/ethnic minority groups. Flexible MOUD policy initiatives may have maintained overall treatment utilization, but disparities in initiation and care continuity remain for patients with chronic pain, and particularly for racial/ethnic minoritized subgroups.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , COVID-19 , Dor Crônica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Etnicidade , Grupos Minoritários , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos
19.
Prev Med ; 177: 107789, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38016582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic contributed to healthcare disruptions for patients with chronic pain. Following initial disruptions, national policies were enacted to expand access to long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) for chronic pain and opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment services, which may have modified risk of opioid overdose. We examined associations between LTOT and/or OUD with fatal and non-fatal opioid overdoses, and whether the pandemic moderated overdose risk in these groups. METHODS: We analyzed New York State Medicaid claims data (3/1/2019-12/31/20) of patients with chronic pain (N = 236,391). We used generalized estimating equations models to assess associations between LTOT and/or OUD (neither LTOT or OUD [ref], LTOT only, OUD only, and LTOT and OUD) and the pandemic (03/2020-12/2020) with opioid overdose. RESULTS: The pandemic did not significantly (ns) affect opioid overdose among patients with LTOT and/or OUD. While patients with LTOT (vs. no LTOT) had a slight increase in opioid overdose during the pandemic (pre-pandemic: aOR:1.65, 95% CI:1.05, 2.57; pandemic: aOR:2.43, CI:1.75,3.37, ns), patients with OUD had a slightly attenuated odds of overdose during the pandemic (pre-pandemic: aOR:5.65, CI:4.73, 6.75; pandemic: aOR:5.16, CI:4.33, 6.14, ns). Patients with both LTOT and OUD also experienced a slightly reduced odds of opioid overdose during the pandemic (pre-pandemic: aOR:5.82, CI:3.58, 9.44; pandemic: aOR:3.70, CI:2.11, 6.50, ns). CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrated no significant effect of the pandemic on opioid overdose among people with chronic pain and LTOT and/or OUD, suggesting pandemic policies expanding access to chronic pain and OUD treatment services may have mitigated the risk of opioid overdose.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dor Crônica , Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Opiáceos/epidemiologia , Overdose de Opiáceos/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , New York/epidemiologia , Medicaid , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico
20.
J Addict Med ; 17(6): 646-653, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37934524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine trends in cannabis-positive urine drug screens (UDSs) among emergency department (ED) patients from 2008 to 2019 using data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health care system, and whether these trends differed by age group (18-34, 35-64, and 65-75 years), sex, and race, and ethnicity. METHOD: VHA electronic health records from 2008 to 2019 were used to identify the percentage of unique VHA patients seen each year at an ED, received a UDS, and screened positive for cannabis. Trends in cannabis-positive UDS were examined by age, race and ethnicity, and sex within age groups. RESULTS: Of the VHA ED patients with a UDS, the annual prevalence positive for cannabis increased from 16.42% in 2008 to 27.2% in 2019. The largest increases in cannabis-positive UDS were observed in the younger age groups. Male and female ED patients tested positive for cannabis at similar levels. Although the prevalence of cannabis-positive UDS was consistently highest among non-Hispanic Black patients, cannabis-positive UDS increased in all race and ethnicity groups. DISCUSSION: The increasing prevalence of cannabis-positive UDS supports the validity of previously observed population-level increases in cannabis use and cannabis use disorder from survey and administrative records. Time trends via UDS results provide additional support that previously documented increases in self-reported cannabis use and disorder from surveys and claims data are not spuriously due to changes in patient willingness to report use as it becomes more legalized, or due to greater clinical attention over time.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adolescente , Saúde dos Veteranos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Autorrelato
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