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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(3): 809-818, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621885

RESUMO

Scutellariae Radix extract is one of the important components in Shuganning Injection. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS) method was established for simultaneously determining five components in Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract in bile, urine, and feces of rats, so as to reveal the difference in the excretion process of Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract in rats and explore the law of the excretion process of the five components in vivo before and after the compatibility of Scutellariae Radix. Rats were injected with Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract(4.2 mL·kg~(-1)), respectively, and the excretion of baicalin, baicalein, oroxylin A, oroxylin A-7-O-ß-D-glucuronide, and scutellarin in bile, urine, and feces of rats in 24 h was observed. The results showed that except for baicalin, the other four index components were excreted as prototype components in a high proportion after intravenous injection of Shuganning Injection and Scutellariae Radix extract in rats, respectively. The excretion of each component was relatively high in urine and less in feces and bile. After the compatibility of Scutellariae Radix extract, the accumulative excretion of five index components in rats all decreased. Among them, the cumulative excretion of baicalein in bile, urine, and feces significantly decreased by 26.67%, 48.11%, and 31.01%. The cumulative excretion of baicalin in bile, urine, and feces decreased significantly by 70.69%, 19.43%, and 31.22%. The result showed that the five index components in Scutellariae Radix extract were mainly excreted by the kidneys, and other components in Shuganning Injection delayed the excretion process and prolonged the residence time. This study is of great significance for elucidating the compatibility rationality of Shuganning Injection.


Assuntos
Bile , Scutellaria baicalensis , Ratos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Flavonoides , Fezes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
2.
J Org Chem ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624206

RESUMO

The trivalent phosphine-catalyzed [4+1] spiro-annulation reaction of allenyl imide and activated methylene cyclocompounds has been developed for the construction of various spiro-2-cyclopenten-1-ones. Oxindoles, 3-isochromanones, and 2-indanones are selected as 1C synthons to capture the in situ-generated bis-electrophilic α,ß-unsaturated ketenyl phosphonium intermediate, affording the corresponding monospiro- and bispiro-cyclopentenones in good to excellent yields (≤91%) under mild conditions. The primary attempt at asymmetric catalysis using monophosphine (R)-SITCP provides promising enantioselectivity (45% ee). A plausible reaction mechanism is also proposed.

3.
Water Res ; 256: 121573, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608618

RESUMO

Sulfidated zero valent iron (ZVI) is a popular material for the reductive degradation of halogenated organic pollutants. Simple and economic synthesis of this material is highly demanded. In this study, sulfidated micro/nanostructured ZVI (MNZVI) particles were prepared by simply heating MNZVI particles and sulfur elements (S0) in pure water (50℃). The iron oxides on the surface of MNZVI particles were conducive to sulfidation reaction, indicating the formation of iron-sulphide minerals (FeSx) on the surface of MNZVI particles might not be from the direct reaction of Fe0 with S0 (Fe0 and S0 acted as reductant and oxidant, respectively). As an important reductant, hydrogen atom (H•) can be generated from the reduction of H+ by MNZVI particles and participate in the formation of FeSx. Quenching experiment and cyclic voltammetry analysis proved the existence of H• on the surface of MNZVI particles. DFT calculation found that the potential barrier of H•/S0 and Fe0/S0 were 1.91 and 7.24 eV, respectively, indicating that S0 would preferentially react with H• instead of Fe0. The formed H• can quickly react with S0 to generate hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which can further react with iron oxides such as α-Fe2O3 on the surface of MNZVI particles to form FeSx. In addition, the H2 partial pressure in water significantly affected the amount of H• generated, thereby affecting the sulfidation efficiency. For TCE degradation, as the sulfur loading of sulfidated MNZVI particles increased, the contribution of H• significantly decreased while the contribution of direct electron transfer increased. This study provided new insights into the synthesis mechanism of sulfidated ZVI in water.

4.
J Med Chem ; 67(7): 5924-5934, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507820

RESUMO

Real-time detection of cellular senescence remains a clinical challenge. Here, we aimed to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe targeting senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal), the most widely used biomarker of cellular senescence, and investigate its performance for real-time in vivo quantitative detection of cellular senescence. A stable PET imaging agent [68Ga]Ga-BGal was obtained with a high labeling yield (90.0 ± 4.3%) and a radiochemical purity (>95%). [68Ga]Ga-BGal displayed high sensitivity and specificity for ß-Gal both in vitro and in vivo. The reaction and uptake of the probe correlated with the ß-Gal concentration and reaction time. In PET imaging, high ß-Gal-expressing CT26.CL25 tumors and doxorubicin-treated HeLa tumors showed high signals from [68Ga]Ga-BGal, while a low signal was observed in CT26.WT and untreated HeLa tumors. In summary, we showcased successful PET imaging of senescence in preclinical models using probe [68Ga]Ga-BGal. This finding holds the potential for translating senescence imaging into clinical applications.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Gálio , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Células HeLa , Doxorrubicina , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6312, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491060

RESUMO

Given that defect detection in weld X-ray images is a critical aspect of pressure vessel manufacturing and inspection, accurate differentiation of the type, distribution, number, and area of defects in the images serves as the foundation for judging weld quality, and the segmentation method of defects in digital X-ray images is the core technology for differentiating defects. Based on the publicly available weld seam dataset GDX-ray, this paper proposes a complete technique for fault segmentation in X-ray pictures of pressure vessel welds. The key works are as follows: (1) To address the problem of a lack of defect samples and imbalanced distribution inside GDX-ray, a DA-DCGAN based on a two-channel attention mechanism is devised to increase sample data. (2) A convolutional block attention mechanism is incorporated into the coding layer to boost the accuracy of small-scale defect identification. The proposed MAU-Net defect semantic segmentation network uses multi-scale even convolution to enhance large-scale features. The proposed method can mask electrostatic interference and non-defect-class parts in the actual weld X-ray images, achieve an average segmentation accuracy of 84.75% for the GDX-ray dataset, segment and accurately rate the valid defects with a correct rating rate of 95%, and thus realize practical value in engineering.

6.
Cancer Manag Res ; 16: 225-243, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525373

RESUMO

Purpose: Consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) are mainly used for biological interpretability and clinical stratification of colorectal cancer (CRC) in primary tumors (PT) but few in metastases. The heterogeneity of CMS distribution in metastases and the concordance of CMS between PT and metastases still lack sufficient study. We used CMS to classify CRC metastases and combine it with histopathological analysis to explore differences between PT and distant metastases. Patients and Methods: We obtained gene expression profiles for 942 PT samples from TCGA database (n=376) and GEO database (n=566), as well as 442 metastasis samples from GEO database. Among these, 765 PT samples and 442 metastasis samples were confidently identified with CMS using the "CMS classifier" and enrolled for analysis. Clinicopathological manifestation and CMS classification of CRC metastases were assessed with data from GEO, TCGA, and cBioPortal. Overall, 105 PT-metastasis pairs were extracted from 10 GEO datasets to assess CMS concordance. Tumor microenvironment (TME) features between PT and metastases were analyzed by immune-stromal infiltration with ESTIMATE and xCell algorithms. Finally, TME features were validated with multiplex immunohistochemistry in 27 PT-metastasis pairs we retrospectively collected. Results: Up to 64% of CRC metastases exhibited concordant CMS groups with matched PT, and the TME of metastases was similar to that of PT. For most common distant metastases, liver metastases were predominantly CMS2 and lung and peritoneal metastases were mainly CMS4, highlighting "seed" of tumor cells of different CMS groups had a preference for metastasis to "soil" of specific organs. Compared with PT, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) reduced in liver metastases, CD4+T cells and M2-like macrophages increased in lung metastases, and M2-like macrophages and CAF increased in peritoneal metastases. Conclusion: Our findings underscore the importance of CMS-guided specific organ monitoring and treatment post-primary tumor surgery for patients. Differences in immune-stromal infiltration among different metastases provide targeted therapeutic opportunities for metastatic CRC.

7.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 352: 114500, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508470

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are non-coding RNAs with endogenous regulatory functions, including regulating skeletal muscle development. However, its role in the development of skeletal muscle in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is not clear. Therefore we screened a candidate circpdlim5a, which is derived from the gene pdlim5a, from the skeletal muscle transcriptome of Japanese flounder. We characterized circpdlim5a, which was more stable compared to the linear RNA pdlim5a. Distributional characterization of circpdlim5a showed that circpdlim5a was predominantly distributed in the nucleus and was highly expressed in the skeletal muscle of adult Japanese flounder (24 months). When we further studied the circpdlim5a function, we found that it inhibited the expression of proliferation and differentiation genes according to the over-expression experiment of circpdlim5a in myoblasts. We concluded that circpdlim5a may inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts and thereby inhibit skeletal muscle development in Japanese flounder. This experiment provides information for the study of circRNAs by identifying circpdlim5a and exploring its function, and offers clues for molecular breeding from an epigenetic perspective.

8.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e41065, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are major diabetic microvascular complications, contributing significantly to morbidity, disability, and mortality worldwide. The kidney and the eye, having similar microvascular structures and physiological and pathogenic features, may experience similar metabolic changes in diabetes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use machine learning (ML) methods integrated with metabolic data to identify biomarkers associated with DKD and DR in a multiethnic Asian population with diabetes, as well as to improve the performance of DKD and DR detection models beyond traditional risk factors. METHODS: We used ML algorithms (logistic regression [LR] with Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator and gradient-boosting decision tree) to analyze 2772 adults with diabetes from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases study, a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in Singapore (2004-2011). From 220 circulating metabolites and 19 risk factors, we selected the most important variables associated with DKD (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and DR (defined as an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity level ≥20). DKD and DR detection models were developed based on the variable selection results and externally validated on a sample of 5843 participants with diabetes from the UK biobank (2007-2010). Machine-learned model performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] with 95% CI, sensitivity, and specificity) was compared to that of traditional LR adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, and BMI. RESULTS: Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases participants had a median age of 61.7 (IQR 53.5-69.4) years, with 49.1% (1361/2772) being women, 20.2% (555/2753) having DKD, and 25.4% (685/2693) having DR. UK biobank participants had a median age of 61.0 (IQR 55.0-65.0) years, with 35.8% (2090/5843) being women, 6.7% (374/5570) having DKD, and 6.1% (355/5843) having DR. The ML algorithms identified diabetes duration, insulin usage, age, and tyrosine as the most important factors of both DKD and DR. DKD was additionally associated with cardiovascular disease history, antihypertensive medication use, and 3 metabolites (lactate, citrate, and cholesterol esters to total lipids ratio in intermediate-density lipoprotein), while DR was additionally associated with hemoglobin A1c, blood glucose, pulse pressure, and alanine. Machine-learned models for DKD and DR detection outperformed traditional LR models in both internal (AUC 0.838 vs 0.743 for DKD and 0.790 vs 0.764 for DR) and external validation (AUC 0.791 vs 0.691 for DKD and 0.778 vs 0.760 for DR). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted diabetes duration, insulin usage, age, and circulating tyrosine as important factors in detecting DKD and DR. The integration of ML with biomedical big data enables biomarker discovery and improves disease detection beyond traditional risk factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Insulina , Fatores de Risco , Tirosina
9.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202318080, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548702

RESUMO

The preparation of formic acid by direct reduction of carbon dioxide is an important basis for the future chemical industry and is of great significance. Due to the serious shortage of highly active and selective electrocatalysts leading to the development of direct reduction of carbon dioxide is limited. Herein the target catalysts with high CO2RR activity and selectivity were identified by integrating DFT calculations and high-throughput screening and by using graphdiyne (GDY) supported metal oxides quantum dots (QDs) as the ideal model. It is theoretically predicted that GDY supported indium oxide QDs (i.e., InOx/GDY) is a new heterostructure electrocatalyst candidate with optimal CO2RR performance. The interfacial electronic strong interactions effectively regulate the surface charge distribution of QDs and affect the adsorption/desorption behavior of HCOO* intermediate during CO2RR to achieve highly efficient CO2 conversion. Based on the predicted composition and structure, we synthesized the advanced catalytic system, and demonstrates superior CO2-to-HCOOH conversion performance. The study presents an effective strategy for rational design of highly efficient heterostructure electrocatalysts to promote green chemical production.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202320091, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488855

RESUMO

Conjugated coordination polymers (c-CPs) are unique organic-inorganic hybrid semiconductors with intrinsically high electrical conductivity and excellent charge carrier mobility. However, it remains a challenge in tailoring electronic structures, due to the lack of clear guidelines. Here, we develop a strategy wherein controlling the redox state of hydroquinone/benzoquinone (HQ/BQ) ligands allows for the modulation of the electronic structure of c-CPs while maintaining the structural topology. The redox-state control is achieved by reacting the ligand TTHQ (TTHQ=1,2,4,5-tetrathiolhydroquinone) with silver acetate and silver nitrate, yielding Ag4TTHQ and Ag4TTBQ (TTBQ=1,2,4,5-tetrathiolbenzoquinone), respectively. In spite of sharing the same topology consisting of a two-dimensional Ag-S network and HQ/BQ layer, they exhibit different band gaps (1.5 eV for Ag4TTHQ and 0.5 eV for Ag4TTBQ) and conductivities (0.4 S/cm for Ag4TTHQ and 10 S/cm for Ag4TTBQ). DFT calculations reveal that these differences arise from the ligand oxidation state inhibiting energy band formation near the Fermi level in Ag4TTHQ. Consequently, Ag4TTHQ displays a high Seebeck coefficient of 330 µV/K and a power factor of 10 µW/m ⋅ K2, surpassing Ag4TTBQ and the other reported silver-based c-CPs. Furthermore, terahertz spectroscopy demonstrates high charge mobilities exceeding 130 cm2/V ⋅ s in both Ag4TTHQ and Ag4TTBQ.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(14): e2318777121, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547057

RESUMO

A concept of solar energy convertible zinc-air battery (SZAB) is demonstrated through rational design of an electrode coupled with multifunction. The multifunctional electrode is fabricated using nitrogen-substituted graphdiyne (N-GDY) with large π-conjugated carbonous network, which can work as photoresponsive bifunctional electrocatalyst, enabling a sunlight-promoted process through efficient injection of photoelectrons into the conduction band of N-GDY. SZAB enables direct conversion and storage of solar energy during the charging process. Such a battery exhibits a lowered charge voltage under illumination, corresponding to a high energy efficiency of 90.4% and electric energy saving of 30.3%. The battery can display a power conversion efficiency as high as 1.02%. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the photopromoted oxygen evolution reaction kinetics originates from the transition from the alkyne bonds to double bonds caused by the transfer of excited electrons, which changes the position of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, thus greatly promoting the formation of intermediates to the conversion process. Our findings provide conceptual and experimental confirmation that batteries are charged directly from solar energy without the external solar cells, providing a way to manufacture future energy devices.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133931, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447369

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution is on the rise due to rapid urbanization, which emphasize the potential adverse effects on plant biodiversity and human health. Wedelia as a dominant invasive species, is tested for its tolerance to Cd-toxicity and herbivore infestation. We investigate defense mechanism system of invasive Wedelia trilobata and its native congener Wedelia chinensis against the Cd-pollution and Spodoptera litura infestation. We found that Cd-toxicity significantly increase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxyl ions (O2•) in W. chinensis 20.61%, 4.78% and 15.68% in leave and 27.44%, 25.52% and 30.88% in root, respectively. The photosynthetic pigments (Chla, Chla and Caro) and chlorophyll florescence (Fo and Fv/Fm) declined by (60.23%, 58.48% and 51.96%), and (73.29% and 55.75%) respectively in W. chinensis and (44.76%, 44.24% and 44.30%), and (54.66% and 45.36%) in W. trilobata under Cd treatment and S. litura. Invasive W. trilobata had higher enzymatic antioxidant SOD 126.9/71.64%, POD 97.24/94.92%, CAT 53.99/25.62% and APX 82.79/50.19%, and nonenzymatic antioxidant ASA 10.47/16.87%, DHA 15.07/27.88%, GSH 15.91/10.03% and GSSG 13.56/17.93% activity in leaf/root, respectively. Overall, W. trilobata accumulate higher Cd content 55.41%, 50.61% and 13.95% in root, shoot and leaf tissues respectively, than its native congener W. chinensis. While, nutrient profile of W. chinensis reveals less uptake of Fe, Cu and Zn than W. trilobata. W. trilobata showed efficient alleviation of oxidative damage through upregulating the genes related to key defense such as SOD, POD, CAT, APX, GR, PROL, FLV, ABA and JAZ, and metal transporter in leaves, shoot and root tissues, respectively. Conclusively, W. trilobata efficiently employed Cd-triggered defense for successful invasion, even under S. litura infestation, in Cd-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Wedelia , Humanos , Wedelia/fisiologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Herbivoria , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase
13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; : e202403139, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530206

RESUMO

Designing new acceptors is critical for intrinsically stretchable organic solar cells (IS-OSCs) with high efficiency and mechanical robustness. However, nearly all stretchable polymer acceptors exhibit limited efficiency and high-performance small molecular acceptors are very brittle. In this regard, we select thienylene-alkane-thienylene (TAT) as the conjugate-break linker and synthesize four dimerized acceptors by the regulation of connecting sites and halogen substitutions. It is found that the connecting sites and halogen substitutions considerably impact the overall electronic structures, aggregation behaviors, and charge transport properties. Benefiting from the optimization of the molecular structure, the dimerized acceptor exhibits rational phase separation within the blend films, which significantly facilitates exciton dissociation while effectively suppressing charge recombination processes. Consequently, FDY-m-TAT-based rigid OSCs render the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.07 % among reported acceptors containing conjugate-break linker. Most importantly, FDY-m-TAT-based IS-OSCs achieve high PCE (14.29 %) and remarkable stretchability (crack-onset strain [COS]=18.23 %), significantly surpassing Y6-based counterpart (PCE=12.80 % and COS=8.50 %). To sum up, these findings demonstrate that dimerized acceptors containing conjugate-break linkers have immense potential in developing highly efficient and mechanically robust OSCs.

14.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120707, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554455

RESUMO

Water diversion has been widely utilized to enhance lake water quality and mitigate cyanobacterial blooms. However, previous studies have mainly focused on investigating the effects of water diversion on water quality or aquatic ecological health. Consequently, there is limited research investigating the combined impact of water diversion on the water quality and the ecological health of eutrophic lakes, and whether the WQI and phytoplankton assemblages demonstrate similar patterns following water diversion. In this study, the effects of water diversion on the ecosystem health of eutrophic lakes were comprehensively evaluated based on the WQI indices and phytoplankton assemblages during the NWDP-21 and WDP-22. The results showed that the annual mean of WQI increased from 52.02 to 54.36 after water diversion, which improved the water quality of the lake, especially NH3-N and TN decreased by 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively. The phytoplankton assemblages changed significantly before and after water diversion, and we observed that the total biomass of phytoplankton decreased by 12.3% and phytoplankton diversity indices (Shannon-Wiener diversity, Pielou evenness, and Simpson index) increased by 8.6%-8.9% after water diversion, with an improvement in the connectivity and stability of the phytoplankton. Notably, enhanced adaptations of rare sub-communities for resource use in water diversion environments, and water diversion inhibited the dispersal ability of dominant functional groups, and the effects of hydrological disturbances on the structure of phytoplankton assemblage favored the ecological health of eutrophic lakes. VPA analysis further reveals that water diversion alters the drivers of phytoplankton functional group biomass and phytoplankton diversity. The results of the PLS-PM analysis clarify that water diversion indirectly impacts the total phytoplankton biomass and phytoplankton diversity primarily by modifying light availability. Significant correlations are observed between the dominant functional groups biomass and diversity indices of WQI. The trends in changes observed in water quality indices and phytoplankton following water diversion align with the evaluation of water ecological health. This study provides valuable guidance for the ecological management of the diversion project in Yilong Lake and serves as a reference for similar projects in other lakes.


Assuntos
Fitoplâncton , Qualidade da Água , Lagos/química , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , China
15.
Nature ; 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480881

RESUMO

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activate heterotrimeric G proteins by stimulating guanine nucleotide exchange in the Gα subunit1. To visualize this mechanism, we developed a time-resolved cryo-EM approach that examines the progression of ensembles of pre-steady-state intermediates of a GPCR-G-protein complex. By monitoring the transitions of the stimulatory Gs protein in complex with the ß2-adrenergic receptor at short sequential time points after GTP addition, we identified the conformational trajectory underlying G-protein activation and functional dissociation from the receptor. Twenty structures generated from sequential overlapping particle subsets along this trajectory, compared to control structures, provide a high-resolution description of the order of main events driving G-protein activation in response to GTP binding. Structural changes propagate from the nucleotide-binding pocket and extend through the GTPase domain, enacting alterations to Gα switch regions and the α5 helix that weaken the G-protein-receptor interface. Molecular dynamics simulations with late structures in the cryo-EM trajectory support that enhanced ordering of GTP on closure of the α-helical domain against the nucleotide-bound Ras-homology domain correlates with α5 helix destabilization and eventual dissociation of the G protein from the GPCR. These findings also highlight the potential of time-resolved cryo-EM as a tool for mechanistic dissection of GPCR signalling events.

17.
Chemosphere ; 355: 141726, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521105

RESUMO

Polymer stabilization, exemplified by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), has demonstrated effectiveness in enhancing the transport of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). And, sulfidation is recognized for enhancing the reactivity and selectivity of nZVI in dechlorination processes. The influence of polymer stabilization on sulfidated nZVI (S-nZVI) with various sulfur precursors remains unclear. In this study, CMC-stabilized S-nZVI (CMC-S-nZVI) was synthesized using three distinct sulfur precursors (S2-, S2O42-, and S2O32-) through one-step approach. The antioxidant properties of CMC significantly elevated the concentration of reduced sulfur species (S2-) on CMC-S-nZVIs, marking a 3.1-7.0-fold increase compared to S-nZVIs. The rate of trichloroethylene degradation (km) by CMC-S-nZVIs was observed to be 2.2-9.0 times higher than that achieved by their non-stabilized counterparts. Among the three CMC-S-nZVIs, CMC-S-nZVINa2S exhibited the highest km. Interesting, while the electron efficiency of CMC-S-nZVIs surged by 7.9-12 times relative to nZVI, it experienced a reduction of 7.0-34% when compared with S-nZVIs. This phenomenon is attributed to the increased hydrophilicity of S-nZVI particles due to CMC stabilization, which inadvertently promotes the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In conclusion, the findings of this study underscores the impact of CMC stabilization on the properties and dechlorination performance of S-nZVI sulfidated using different sulfur precursors, offering guidance for engineering CMC-S-nZVIs with desirable properties for contaminated groundwater remediation.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Tricloroetileno , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Ferro , Enxofre , Polímeros
18.
J Proteome Res ; 23(4): 1272-1284, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470452

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with intrauterine hyperglycemia induces a series of changes in the placenta, which have adverse effects on both the mother and the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the placenta in GDM and its gender differences. In this study, we established an intrauterine hyperglycemia model using ICR mice. We collected placental specimens from mice before birth for histological observation, along with tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled proteomic analysis, which was stratified by sex. When the analysis was not segregated by sex, the GDM group showed 208 upregulated and 225 downregulated proteins in the placenta, primarily within the extracellular matrix and mitochondria. Altered biological processes included cholesterol metabolism and oxidative stress responses. After stratification by sex, the male subgroup showed a heightened tendency for immune-related pathway alterations, whereas the female subgroup manifested changes in branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Our study suggests that the observed sex differences in placental protein expression may explain the differential impact of GDM on offspring.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Hiperglicemia , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Placenta/metabolismo , Proteômica , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/genética
19.
Materials (Basel) ; 17(5)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38473482

RESUMO

Concrete is a versatile material widely used in modern construction. However, concrete is also subject to freeze-thaw damage, which can significantly reduce its mechanical properties and lead to premature failure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the laboratory performance and freeze-thaw damage characteristics of a common mix proportion of concrete based on compressive mechanical tests and acoustic technologies. Freeze-thaw damage characteristics of the concrete were evaluated via compressive mechanical testing, mass loss analysis, and ultrasonic pulse velocity testing. Acoustic emission (AE) technology was utilized to assess the damage development status of the concrete. The outcomes indicated that the relationships between cumulative mass loss, compressive strength, and ultrasonic wave velocity and freeze-thaw cycles during the freezing-thawing process follow a parabola fitting pattern. As the freeze-thaw damage degree increased, the surface presented a trend of "smooth intact surface" to "surface with dense pores" to "cement mortar peeling" to "coarse aggregates exposed on a large area". Therefore, there was a rapid decrease in the mass loss after a certain number of freeze-thaw cycles. According to the three stages divided by the stress-AE parameter curve, the linear growth stage shortens, the damage accumulation stage increases, and the failure stage appears earlier with the increase in freeze-thaw cycles. In conclusion, the application of a comprehensive understanding of freeze-thaw damage characteristics of concrete based on compressive properties and acoustic parameters would enhance the evaluation of the performance degradation and damage status for concrete structures.

20.
Nano Lett ; 24(13): 3906-3913, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506264

RESUMO

The intriguing and anomalous optical characteristics of exceptional points (EPs) in optical resonators have attracted significant attention. While EP-related phenomena have been observed by perturbing resonators with off-chip components, implementing EPs fully on-chip remains challenging due to their extreme susceptibility to fabrication errors. In this Letter, we propose a succinct and compact approach to reach EP in an on-chip integrated silicon microring resonator by manipulating the evolution of backscatterings with two nanocylinders of disparate diameters. The theoretical analysis unveils that the fabrication constraints could be significantly relieved by increasing the difference in diameters of the nanocylinders. The evolution from non-EP to EP is traced experimentally through the step-by-step tuning of the angular and radial positions of nanocylinders. The proposed method opens a pathway toward the on-chip high-density integration of non-Hermitian devices.

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