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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929904, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Since China has not yet constructed its own risk assessment model (RAM) for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (VTE), more and more hospitals use the RCOG RAM for VTE risk prediction. However, the RCOG RAM was established based on Western populations, and its applicability in China is still uncertain. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the validity of the RCOG RAM in predicting postpartum VTE in Chinese maternity. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective case-control study was conducted at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital (IPMCHH) from June 2016 to June 2020. The VTE group consisted of 38 women with postpartum VTE. For each VTE patient, 4 women without VTE who gave birth on the same day were randomly selected as the control group (n=152). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, calibration curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to evaluate the discrimination, accuracy, and validity of the RCOG RAM. Univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify other related factors for postpartum VTE. RESULTS Compared with the low-risk group, the risk of VTE was 9.75-fold greater in the intermediate-risk group, and 90.00-fold greater in the high-risk group. The area under curve (AUC) of the model was 0.828 (95% CI: 0.762-0.894), with a score of 2 as its best cut-off value, which exactly matched the criterion recommended by the RCOG guidelines for pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. The calibration curves and DCA of the model also showed good accuracy. In addition to the factors included in the RCOG RAM, glucocorticoid therapy during pregnancy (adjusted OR=6.72, 95% CI: 1.56-28.91) and previous use of IUD (adjusted OR=7.11, 95% CI: 1.45-34.93) were associated with increased risk of postpartum VTE. CONCLUSIONS The RCOG RAM was found to be effective in predicting postpartum VTE, and has certain guiding significance for postpartum thromboprophylaxis in China.

2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103152, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218215

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the vestibular and oculomotor function in patients with vestibular migraine (VM). And we also investigate the relationship between testing results and effectiveness of preventive medications in VM. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 41 patients with VM were recruited in this study and examined with cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential(cVEMP, oVEMP), video head impulse test(vHIT), caloric test and videonystagmography. All patients were treated with preventive medications. We calculated symptomatic improvement and record episodes frequency in patients with VM. Six months later, the effectiveness of preventive medications were evaluated and the relationship between vestibular testing and effectiveness of preventive medications were analyzed further. RESULTS: In vestibular function testing, 73% of patients with VM showed abnormal results. Abnormal cVEMP, oVEMP, vHIT, and caloric test were found in 20%, 44%, 32% and 56% respectively. The abnormal rate of oVEMP was significantly higher than that of cVEMP(p < 0.05). And the proportion of abnormal caloric test was obviously higher than that of vHIT (p < 0.05). In oculomotor function testing, 42% of the patients with VM showed pathological results which was significantly lower than that of vestibular function testing(p < 0.05). After 6 months follow-up, the proportion of prophylactic medication effectiveness was significantly higher in normal vestibular function testing group compared with the abnormal group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Abnormal vestibular and oculomotor functions are commonly observed in patients with VM. And these patients with abnormal vestibular function possess a weak effectiveness of preventive medications.

3.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based pharmacological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are few and of limited efficacy. Previous work suggests that angiotensin type 1 receptor inhibition facilitates fear inhibition and extinction, important for recovery from PTSD. This study tests the efficacy of the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist losartan, an antihypertensive drug, repurposed for the treatment of PTSD. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted for 10 weeks in 149 men and women meeting DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Losartan (vs. placebo) was flexibly titrated from 25 to 100 mg/day by week 6 and held at highest tolerated dose until week 10. Primary outcome was the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) change score at 10 weeks from baseline. A key secondary outcome was change in CAPS-5 associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism of the ACE gene. Additional secondary outcomes included changes in the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and proportion of responders with a Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale of "much improved" or "very much improved." RESULTS: Both groups had robust improvement in PTSD symptoms, but there was no significant difference on the primary end point, CAPS-5 measured as week 10 change from baseline, between losartan and placebo (mean change difference, 0.9, 95% confidence interval, -3.2 to 5.0). There was no significant difference in the proportion of Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale responders for losartan (58.6%) versus placebo (57.9%), no significant differences in changes in PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 or Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and no association between ACE genotype and CAPS-5 improvement on losartan. CONCLUSIONS: At these doses and durations, there was no significant benefit of losartan compared with placebo for the treatment of PTSD. We discuss implications for failure to determine the benefit of a repurposed drug with strong a priori expectations of success based on preclinical and epidemiological data.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288400

RESUMO

Suicide is a major public health problem. The contribution of common genetic variants for major depressive disorder (MDD) independent of personal and parental history of MDD has not been established. Polygenic risk score (using PRS-CS) for MDD was calculated for US Army soldiers of European ancestry. Associations between polygenic risk for MDD and lifetime suicide attempt (SA) were tested in models that also included parental or personal history of MDD. Models were adjusted for age, sex, tranche (where applicable), and 10 principal components reflecting ancestry. In the first cohort, 417 (6.3%) of 6,573 soldiers reported a lifetime history of SA. In a multivariable model that included personal [OR = 3.83, 95% CI:3.09-4.75] and parental history of MDD [OR = 1.43, 95% CI:1.13-1.82 for one parent and OR = 1.64, 95% CI:1.20-2.26 for both parents), MDD PRS was significantly associated with SA (OR = 1.22 [95% CI:1.10-1.36]). In the second cohort, 204 (4.2%) of 4,900 soldiers reported a lifetime history of SA. In a multivariable model that included personal [OR = 3.82, 95% CI:2.77-5.26] and parental history of MDD [OR = 1.42, 95% CI:0.996-2.03 for one parent and OR = 2.21, 95% CI:1.33-3.69 for both parents) MDD PRS continued to be associated (at p = .0601) with SA (OR = 1.15 [95% CI:0.994-1.33]). A soldier's PRS for MDD conveys information about likelihood of a lifetime SA beyond that conveyed by two predictors readily obtainable by interview: personal or parental history of MDD. Results remain to be extended to prospective prediction of incident SA. These findings portend a role for PRS in risk stratification for suicide attempts.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148646, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247093

RESUMO

Acute hypoxia can aggravate the oxidation metabolism of fish muscle tissue. However, the molecular mechanism of oxidative metabolism in fish muscle under acute hypoxia is not very clear. We carried out effects of a typical oxidative metabolism pathway Keap1/Nrf2 (MafG)-GST on muscle oxidative metabolism of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) during acute hypoxia stimulation (1.65 ± 0.05 mg/L; 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h) and reoxygenation (7.30 ± 0.08 mg/L; R12 h, R24 h, R48 h). The mRNAs of Nrf2 and GST in skeletal muscle were found co-existent, and their expressions were significant increase in 3 h and 6 h. The methylation level of CpG island1 in Nrf2 promoter, whose minimum value appeared at 3 h hypoxia treatment group, was affected by acute hypoxia, and it was negatively correlated with Nrf2 expression. The result suggests that environmental factors may regulate gene expression by epigenetic modification. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that GST gene was activated by transcription factor Nrf2, whose transcriptional activation binding region in GST promoter was antioxidant response element located near -980 and -852 sites, and Keap1 and MafG were Nrf2 antagonistic and synergistic factor, respectively. Furthermore, the GST activity changed with hypoxia and reoxygenation treatment in muscle, where other oxidative stress factor (MDA), antioxidant factors (T-AOC, GSH) and antioxidant enzyme activities (GST, SOD, CAT) were also changed. The results of MDA and T-AOC being further different between its hypoxia and normoxia groups (P < 0.05) at 6 h demonstrated that hypoxia stimulation lasting for 6 h would deeply affect Japanese flounder. The study illustrated that Japanese flounder responded to acute hypoxia in multiple metabolic levels by changing methylation status and transcription factor activation. It is significant to understand oxidative metabolic mechanism, analyze organism stress response and promote the scientific development of aquaculture.

6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 683226, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248845

RESUMO

Objective: Sex steroids are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated the causal role of sex steroids in site- and sex-specific OA and risk of joint replacement surgery using the Mendelian randomization (MR) method. Methods: Instrumental variables for estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone (T), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were selected. We used the inverse variance weighting (IVW) approach as the main MR method to estimate causal effects based on the summary-level data for OA and joint replacement surgery from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Results: A positive causal association was observed between serum T level and risks of hip OA (odds ratio [OR]=1.558, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.193-2.034; P=0.001) and hip replacement (OR=1.013, 95% CI: 1.008-1.018; P=2.15×10-8). Serum DHT level was also positively associated with the risk of hip replacement (OR=1.011, 95% CI: 1.006-1.015; P=4.03×10-7) and had potential causality with hip OA (OR=1.398, 95% CI: 1.054-1.855; P=0.020). Conclusions: Serum T and DHT levels may play causal roles in the development of hip OA and contribute to the risk of hip replacement, although the underlying mechanisms require further investigation.

7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 107940, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242996

RESUMO

The stromal and immune cells crosstalk with cancer cells in tumor microenvironment, but few studies have fully considered the overall landscape of the infiltrating stromal and immune cells in colorectal cancer. We enrolled 1836 colorectal cancer patients and divided them into the training, validation and test cohorts. 64 stromal and immune cells were quantified in each primary colorectal cancer tissue by estimating gene expression data using xCell algorithm. Univariate, LASSO and multivariate Cox regression analyses were subsequently employed to establish a stromal and immune score prognostic model based on 13 potential cell biomarkers. Patients of the three cohorts were divided into the high- and low-risk groups according to the cutoff value. Compared with the low-risk group, high-risk group showed significant shorter survival, worse clinicopathologic outcomings, higher cancer-related expressions and more active epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. 5-Fu and FUFOL chemotherapy regimens made the low-risk patients gain significant survival advantage, while none chemotherapy regimens benefited the high-risk group, which may benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors. The nomogram combining the stromal and immune score with standard TNM staging system showed better predictive accuracy than TNM stage alone. The stromal and immune cell infiltration-based score model can effectively and efficiently predict the prognosis and chemotherapy effect in colorectal cancer.

8.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 280, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most common diagnosis. Oxaliplatin is used as first-line treatment of colon cancer. However, oxaliplatin resistance greatly reduces its therapeutic effect. SRPK1 involves in pre-mRNA splicing and tumorigenesis. How SRPK1 mediates drug resistance in colon cancer is unknown. METHODS: The expression of SRPK1 was analyzed in the TCGA and the CPTAC pan-cancer samples and detected in colon cancer cell lines and tissues by IHC and western blot. The MTT and TUNEL assay were used to verify the anti-apoptosis ability of colon cancer cell. The activation of NF-κB was determined by luciferase assay and qRT-PCR. AKT, IKK, IκB and their phosphorylation level were verified by western blot. RESULTS: We found that SRPK1 expression was the second highest in TCGA and the CPTAC pan-cancer samples. The mRNA and protein levels of SRPK1 were increased in tissues from patients with colon cancer. SRPK1 was associated with clinical stage and TNM classifications in 148 cases of colon cancer patients. High SRPK1 levels correlated with poor prognosis (p < 0.001). SRPK1 overexpression enhanced the anti-apoptosis ability of colon cancer cells, whereas SRPK1 silencing had the opposite effect under oxaliplatin treatment. Mechanistically, SRPK1 enhances IKK kinase and IκB phosphorylation to promote NF-κB nuclear translocation to confer oxaliplatin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that SRPK1 participates in colon cancer progression and enhances the anti-apoptosis capacity to induce drug resistance in colon cancer cells via NF-κB pathway activation, and thus might be a potential pharmaceutically target for colon cancer treatment.

9.
J Neural Eng ; 18(4)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077914

RESUMO

Objective. With the development of clinical applications of motor imagery-based brain-computer interfaces (MI-BCIs), a single-channel MI-BCI system that can be easily assembled is an attractive goal. However, due to the low quality of the spectral power features in the traditional MI-BCI paradigm, the recognition performance of current single-channel systems is far lower than that of multi-channel systems, impeding their use in clinical applications.Approach.In this study, the subjects' right and left hands were stimulated simultaneously at different frequencies to induce steady-state somatosensory evoked potentials (SSSEP). Subjects then performed motor imagery (MI) tasks. A new electroencephalography (EEG) index, inter-stimulus phase coherence (ISPC), was built to measure phase desynchronization of SSSEP caused by MI. Then, ISPC is introduced as a feature into left-hand and right-hand MI recognition.Main results.ISPC analysis found that left-handed MI can cause a significant decrease in phase synchronization in contralateral sensorimotor SSSEP, while right-handed MI has little effect on it, and vice versa. Combining ISPC features with traditional spectral power features, the single-channel left-hand versus right-hand MI recognition accuracy reaches 81.0%, which is much higher than that observed with traditional MI paradigms (about 60%).Significance.This work shows that the hybrid MI-SSSEP paradigm can provide more sensitive EEG features to decode motor intentions, demonstrating its potential for clinical applications.

10.
J Med Chem ; 64(13): 9302-9320, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152756

RESUMO

A series of multitarget-directed ligands (MTDLs) was designed by functionalizing a pseudo-irreversible butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitor. The obtained hybrids were investigated in vitro regarding their hBChE and hAChE inhibition, their enzyme kinetics, and their antioxidant physicochemical properties (DPPH, ORAC, metal chelating). In addition, in vitro assays were applied to investigate antioxidant effects using murine hippocampal HT22 cells and immunomodulatory effects on the murine microglial N9 cell line. The MTDLs retained their antioxidative properties compared to the parent antioxidant-moieties in vitro and the inhibition of hBChE was maintained in the submicromolar range. Representative compounds were tested in a pharmacological Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model and demonstrated very high efficacy at doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg. The most promising compound was also tested in BChE-/- mice and showed reduced efficacy. In vivo neuroprotection by BChE inhibition can be effectively enhanced by incorporation of structurally diverse antioxidant moieties.

12.
Front Med ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159536

RESUMO

Stroke is one of the most serious diseases that threaten human life and health. It is a major cause of death and disability in the clinic. New strategies for motor rehabilitation after stroke are undergoing exploration. We aimed to develop a novel artificial neural rehabilitation system, which integrates brain-computer interface (BCI) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) technologies, for limb motor function recovery after stroke. We conducted clinical trials (including controlled trials) in 32 patients with chronic stroke. Patients were randomly divided into the BCI-FES group and the neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) group. The changes in outcome measures during intervention were compared between groups, and the trends of ERD values based on EEG were analyzed for BCI-FES group. Results showed that the increase in Fugl Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) and Kendall Manual Muscle Testing (Kendall MMT) scores of the BCI-FES group was significantly higher than that in the sham group, which indicated the practicality and superiority of the BCI-FES system in clinical practice. The change in the laterality coefficient (LC) values based on µ-ERD (ΔLCm-ERD) had high significant positive correlation with the change in FMA-UE(r = 0.6093, P = 0.012), which provides theoretical basis for exploring novel objective evaluation methods.

13.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e931729, 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Nursing education is an important part of the "9+3" vocational education program led by Sichuan Province. In the internship stage, nursing students of Tibetan ethnicity may have problems of intercultural adaptation in the process of getting along with patients, which may affect the effective nursing outcome. The purpose of this study was to clarify the current situation of transcultural adaptation of Tibetan trainee nurses and to provide more theoretical support and guidance. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected 237 valid survey questionnaires, based on Ward's acculturation process model, from a total of 363 Tibetan trainee nurses in the "9+3" free vocational education program in Chengdu, Luzhou, and Nanchong of Sichuan Province. The SPSSAU project (2020), an online application software retrieved from https://www.spssau.com, was used for data coding and archiving. RESULTS The results of questionnaire and data analysis showed that the overall level of transcultural adaptation of Tibetan trainee nurses was that the number of people with poor adaptation was slightly higher than those with good adaptation, and most Tibetan trainee nurses were in the middle level. Meanwhile, sociocultural adaptation was better than psychological adaptation. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 grouping variables: gender, student home region, the city where the internship hospital was located, and whether they were from a single-child family or not. CONCLUSIONS The results revealed that there was still transcultural maladjustment among Tibetan nurses in the internship stage, and the psychological maladjustment was more obvious than the sociocultural maladjustment. We provide countermeasures and suggestions to solve the problems of transcultural adaptation reflected in the research.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 8464-8483, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170112

RESUMO

2021 marks 10 years since controlled abiotic synthesis of sulfidated nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) for use in site remediation and water treatment emerged as an area of active research. It was then expanded to sulfidated microscale ZVI (S-mZVI) and together with S-nZVI, they are collectively referred to as S-(n)ZVI. Heightened interest in S-(n)ZVI stemmed from its significantly higher reactivity to chlorinated solvents and heavy metals. The extremely promising research outcomes during the initial period (2011-2017) led to renewed interest in (n)ZVI-based technologies for water treatment, with an explosion in new research in the last four years (2018-2021) that is building an understanding of the novel and complex role of iron sulfides in enhancing reactivity of (n)ZVI. Numerous studies have focused on exploring different S-(n)ZVI synthesis approaches, and its colloidal, surface, and reactivity (electrochemistry, contaminant selectivity, and corrosion) properties. This review provides a critical overview of the recent milestones in S-(n)ZVI technology development: (i) clear insights into the role of iron sulfides in contaminant transformation and long-term aging, (ii) impact of sulfidation methods and particle characteristics on reactivity, (iii) broader range of treatable contaminants, (iv) synthesis for complete decontamination, (v) ecotoxicity, and (vi) field implementation. In addition, this review discusses major knowledge gaps and future avenues for research opportunities.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Corrosão , Ferro
15.
Adv Mater ; : e2101279, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117664

RESUMO

Interface engineering is a critical method by which to efficiently enhance the photovoltaic performance of nonfullerene solar cells (NFSC). Herein, a series of metal-nanographene-containing large transition metal involving dπ -pπ conjugated systems by way of the addition reactions of osmapentalynes and p-diethynyl-hexabenzocoronenes is reported. Conjugated extensions are engineered to optimize the π-conjugation of these metal-nanographene molecules, which serve as alcohol-soluble cathode interlayer (CIL) materials. Upon extension of the π-conjugation, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PM6:BTP-eC9-based NFSCs increases from 16% to over 18%, giving the highest recorded PCE. It is deduced by X-ray crystallographic analysis, interfacial contact methods, morphology characterization, and carrier dynamics that modification of hexabenzocoronenes-styryl can effectively improve the short-circuit current density (Jsc ) and fill factor of organic solar cells (OSCs), mainly due to the strong and ordered charge transfer, more matching energy level alignments, better interfacial contacts between the active layer and the electrodes, and regulated morphology. Consequently, the carrier transport is largely facilitated, and the carrier recombination is simultaneously impeded. These new CIL materials are broadly able to enhance the photovoltaic properties of OSCs in other systems, which provides a promising potential to serve as CILs for higher-quality OSCs.

16.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 17(5): 822-837, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082869

RESUMO

Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are thought to contribute to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) initiation and progression. However, the underlying mechanism through which TAMs foster OSCC progression is still unclear. This study intended to determine whether there are exclusively exosomal miRNAs-derived macrophages that are functionally necessary for OSCC progression. The phenotype of TAM recruitment in OSCC tissue samples was assessed, subsequently identifying the influence of M2 macrophages and exosomes derived from M2 macrophages on OSCC proliferation and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. CD68 and CD163, the specific markers of M2 type macrophages, were upregulated in TAMs presented in intra-cancer tissues. M2 macrophages and M2 macrophage-derived exosomes (M2 exos) both can promote OSCC growth and tumorigenicity. An exosomal RNA-seq analysis was conducted to predict regulatory exosomal miRNAs related to OSCC growth, which determined miR-31-5p and LATS2 for subsequent experiments. Mechanistically, miR-31-5p was delivered to recipient OSCC cells through M2 exos and complementary pairing with the large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) coding sequence, thus suppressing the expression of LATS2 and inactivation the Hippo signaling pathway to support OSCC growth. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that M2 macrophage-derived exosomal miR- 31-5p can make tumor suppressor LATS2 gene inhibited and facilitate the progression of OSCC via inhibiting the Hippo signaling pathway, which possibly provides new targets for the molecular therapy of OSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , MicroRNAs , Neoplasias Bucais , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Macrófagos , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor
18.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 40(Suppl 1): 23, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognising that excessive dietary salt intake is associated with high blood pressure and adverse cardiovascular health, the Ministry of Health Malaysia conducted the Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS) among Malaysian adults. This paper introduced MyCoSS projects and presented findings on the salt intake of the Malaysian adult population. METHODS: MyCoSS was a nationally representative survey, designed to provide valuable data on dietary salt intake, sources of salt in the diet, and knowledge, perception, and practice about salt among Malaysian adults. It was a cross-sectional household survey, covering Malaysian citizens of 18 years old and above. Multi-stage-stratified sampling was used to warrant national representativeness. Sample size was calculated on all objectives studied, and the biggest sample size was derived from the knowledge on the effect of high salt on health (1300 participants). Salt intake was estimated using a single 24-h urine collection and its sources from a food frequency questionnaire. Knowledge, attitude, and practice were determined from a pre-tested questionnaire. All questionnaires were fully administered by trained interviewers using mobile devices. Anthropometric indices (weight, height, and waist circumference) and blood pressure were measured using a standardised protocol. Ethical approvals were obtained from the Medical Research Ethics Committee, Ministry of Health Malaysia, and Queen Mary University of London prior to conducting the survey. RESULTS: Findings showed that the average sodium intake of Malaysian adults (3167 mg/day) was higher than the WHO recommendation of 2000 mg/day. Daily intake was significantly higher among males and individuals with higher BMI and higher waist circumference. CONCLUSION: Salt intake in the Malaysian population was higher than the WHO recommendation. MyCoSS's findings will be used for the development and implementation of national salt reduction policy. A successful implementation of a national salt reduction programme in Malaysia will benefit the whole population.

19.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 40(Suppl 1): 14, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High sodium intake was an established risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate factors associated with high sodium intake based on 24-h urinary sodium excretion from the MyCoSS study. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults aged 18 years and above in Malaysia. A multi-stage stratified sampling was used to represent nationally. Twenty-four-hour urine was collected from a total of 900 respondents. Indirect ion-selective electrode (ISE) method was used to measure sodium intake. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine factors associated with high sodium intake based on 24-h urinary sodium excretion. RESULTS: A total of 798 respondents (76% response rate) completed the 24-h urine collection process. Logistic regression revealed that high sodium intake associated with obese [aOR 2.611 (95% CI 1.519, 4.488)], male [aOR 2.436 (95% CI 1.473, 4.030)], having a waist circumference of > 90cm for adult males [aOR 2.260 ( 95% CI 1.020, 5.009) and >80cm for adult females [aOR 1.210 (95% CI 0.556, 2.631)], being a young adult [aOR 1.977 (95% CI 1.094, 3.574)], and living in urban areas [aOR 1.701 (95% CI 1.094, 2.645)]. CONCLUSION: Adults who are obese, have a large waist circumference, of male gender, living in urban areas, and belonging to the young adult age group were found to have higher sodium intake than other demographic groups. Hence, reduction of salt consumption among these high-risk groups should be emphasised to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

20.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 40(Suppl 1): 6, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High blood pressure or hypertension has become one of the main health problems, worldwide. A number of studies have proven that an increased intake of salt was related to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Of late, its relationship with high salt intake has received a lot of attention. Studies in Malaysia have shown both rising hypertension over time as well as high salt consumption. Actions to reduce salt intake are essential to reduce hypertension and its disease burden. As such, we carried out a study to determine associations between knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards salt intake and hypertension among the Malaysian population. METHODS: Data obtained from the Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS) was used partially for this study. The survey used a cross-sectional two-stage sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above living in non-institutional living quarters (LQ). Face-to-face interviews were done by trained research assistants (RA) to obtain information on sociodemography, medical report, as well as knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the respondents towards salt intake and blood pressure. RESULTS: Majority of the respondents have been diagnosed with hypertension (61.4%) as well as knowledge of the effects of high salt intake on blood pressure (58.8%). More than half of the respondents (53.3%) said they controlled their salt intake on a regular basis. Those who knew that a high salt diet could contribute to a serious health problem (OR=0.23) as well as those who controlled their salt intake (OR=0.44) were significantly less likely to have hypertension. CONCLUSION: Awareness of the effects of sodium on human health, as well as the behaviour of controlling salt intake, is essential towards lowering the prevalence of hypertension among Malaysians.

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