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1.
Plant Cell ; 36(5): 2000-2020, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299379

RESUMO

The flower-infecting fungus Ustilaginoidea virens causes rice false smut, which is a severe emerging disease threatening rice (Oryza sativa) production worldwide. False smut not only reduces yield, but more importantly produces toxins on grains, posing a great threat to food safety. U. virens invades spikelets via the gap between the 2 bracts (lemma and palea) enclosing the floret and specifically infects the stamen and pistil. Molecular mechanisms for the U. virens-rice interaction are largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that rice flowers predominantly employ chitin-triggered immunity against U. virens in the lemma and palea, rather than in the stamen and pistil. We identify a crucial U. virens virulence factor, named UvGH18.1, which carries glycoside hydrolase activity. Mechanistically, UvGH18.1 functions by binding to and hydrolyzing immune elicitor chitin and interacting with the chitin receptor CHITIN ELICITOR BINDING PROTEIN (OsCEBiP) and co-receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (OsCERK1) to impair their chitin-induced dimerization, suppressing host immunity exerted at the lemma and palea for gaining access to the stamen and pistil. Conversely, pretreatment on spikelets with chitin induces a defense response in the lemma and palea, promoting resistance against U. virens. Collectively, our data uncover a mechanism for a U. virens virulence factor and the critical location of the host-pathogen interaction in flowers and provide a potential strategy to control rice false smut disease.


Assuntos
Quitina , Flores , Hypocreales , Oryza , Doenças das Plantas , Oryza/microbiologia , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Quitina/metabolismo , Flores/microbiologia , Hypocreales/patogenicidade , Hypocreales/genética , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética
2.
Nat Plants ; 9(2): 228-237, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36646829

RESUMO

Crops with broad-spectrum resistance loci are highly desirable in agricultural production because these loci often confer resistance to most races of a pathogen or multiple pathogen species. Here we discover a natural allele of proteasome maturation factor in rice, UMP1R2115, that confers broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Ustilaginoidea virens and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Mechanistically, this allele increases proteasome abundance and activity to promote the degradation of reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes including peroxidase and catalase upon pathogen infection, leading to elevation of H2O2 accumulation for defence. In contrast, inhibition of proteasome function or overexpression of peroxidase/catalase-encoding genes compromises UMP1R2115-mediated resistance. More importantly, introduction of UMP1R2115 into a disease-susceptible rice variety does not penalize grain yield while promoting disease resistance. Our work thus uncovers a broad-spectrum resistance pathway integrating de-repression of plant immunity and provides a valuable genetic resource for breeding high-yield rice with multi-disease resistance.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Oryza , Resistência à Doença/genética , Oryza/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Catalase/metabolismo , Alelos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Magnaporthe/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
3.
Mol Plant ; 15(11): 1790-1806, 2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36245122

RESUMO

Grain formation is fundamental for crop yield but is vulnerable to abiotic and biotic stresses. Rice grain production is threatened by the false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens, which specifically infects rice floral organs, disrupting fertilization and seed formation. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the U. virens-rice interaction and the genetic basis of floral resistance. Here, we report that U. virens secretes a cytoplasmic effector, UvCBP1, to facilitate infection of rice flowers. Mechanistically, UvCBP1 interacts with the rice scaffold protein OsRACK1A and competes its interaction with the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase OsRBOHB, leading to inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although the analysis of natural variation revealed no OsRACK1A variants that could avoid being targeted by UvCBP1, expression levels of OsRACK1A are correlated with field resistance against U. virens in rice germplasm. Overproduction of OsRACK1A restores the OsRACK1A-OsRBOHB association and promotes OsRBOHB phosphorylation to enhance ROS production, conferring rice floral resistance to U. virens without yield penalty. Taken together, our findings reveal a new pathogenic mechanism mediated by an essential effector from a flower-specific pathogen and provide a valuable genetic resource for balancing disease resistance and crop yield.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/genética , Oryza/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Flores/genética , Flores/microbiologia , Sementes
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 733245, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421978

RESUMO

Ustilaginoidea virens is a biotrophic fungal pathogen specifically colonizing rice floral organ and causes false smut disease of rice. This disease has emerged as a serious problem that hinders the application of high-yield rice cultivars, by reducing grain yield and quality as well as introducing mycotoxins. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of U. virens are still enigmatic. Here we demonstrate that U. virens employs a secreted protein UvCBP1 to manipulate plant immunity. In planta expression of UvCBP1 led to compromised chitin-induced defense responses in Arabidopsis and rice, including burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS), callose deposition, and expression of defense-related genes. In vitro-purified UvCBP1 protein competes with rice chitin receptor OsCEBiP to bind to free chitin, thus impairing chitin-triggered rice immunity. Moreover, UvCBP1 could significantly promote infection of U. virens in rice flowers. Our results uncover a mechanism of a floral fungus suppressing plant immunity and pinpoint a universal role of chitin-battlefield during plant-fungi interactions.

5.
Oncol Lett ; 14(3): 3536-3544, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28927110

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize side population (SP) cells in primary cervical cancer. A primary culture was successfully established, and the SP cells were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Subsequently, in vitro analysis of clonogenic capacity by soft agar assay and in vivo analysis of tumorigenicity were performed. The isolated SP cells accounted for ~4.73% of the total primary culture cells. The SP cells had a decreased proliferation rate and an increased distribution in G0/G1 compared with non-SP (NSP) cells. Following isolation, SP cells exhibited increased proliferative and self-renewal potency compared with NSP cells. Furthermore, significant ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) expression was detected in SP cells but not in NSP cells. The tumor formation rate of SP cells was longer, and the tumor size and tumor formation rate of SP cells were increased in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that SP cells can be isolated from primary cervical cancer cell culture, and SP cells are enriched with stem cell-like cells that have a high capacity for colony formation and tumorigenesis.

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