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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(11): e619-e626, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674320

RESUMO

As a result of recent, substantial capacity building, a new landscape for cancer drug trials is emerging in China. However, data on the characteristics of cancer drug trials, and how they have changed over time, are scarce. Based on clinical trials published on the China Food and Drug Administration Registration and Information Disclosure Platform for Drug Clinical Studies, we aimed to systematically review changes over time in clinical trials of cancer drugs in mainland China from 2009 to 2018, to provide insight on the effectiveness of the pharmaceutical industry and identify unmet clinical needs of stakeholders. A total of 1493 trials of 751 newly tested cancer drugs were initiated. Increases over time were observed for the annual number of initiated trials, newly tested drugs, and newly added leading clinical trial units, with a sharp increase after 2016. Of the 1385 trials in which cancer types were identified, solid tumours (325 [23%] trials), non-small-cell lung cancer (232 [17%]), and lymphoma (126 [9%]) were the most common. A markedly uneven distribution was also observed in the geography of leading units with the largest number of leading units located in east China (50 [41%]) and the smallest number located in southwest China (4 [3%]). The growth trends we observed illustrate the progress in and increasing capability of cancer drug research and development achieved in mainland China over the decade from 2009. The low number of clinical trials on tumours with epidemiological characteristics unique to the Chinese population and the unbalanced geographical distribution of leading clinical trial units will provide potential targets for policy makers and other stakeholders. Further research efforts should address cancers uniquely relevant to Chinese populations, globally rare cancers, and the balance between equitable drug access, efficiency, and sustainability of cancer drug research and development in mainland China.

2.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773920

RESUMO

To build a simple predictive model as a guide to stratify average-risk population for colonoscopy examinations. We collected data from 92 923 males without a prior history of cancer enrolled in the Kailuan Cohort Study of China. Risk factors included in the evaluation of colorectal cancer (CRC) were collected by questionnaire-based interviews at the baseline. Logistic regression coefficients for incident CRC predictors were converted into risk scores by the absolute value of the smallest coefficient in the model and rounding up to the nearest integer. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with the leave-one-out cross-validation method was applied to evaluate model performance. In the 10-year follow-up, 353 CRC patients were in the cohort. Age, alcohol consumption, waist circumference, occupational sitting time, and history of diabetes were selected for the scoring system, and the adjusted area under the ROC was 0.66. Population in the highest risk group (16-19 points) had a 33.12-fold (95% CI: 13.44-81.59) higher risk of CRC than those in the lowest risk group. When we defined 13 points as the cut-off, the sensitivity and specificity of the scoring system for CRC were 67.99% and 62.42%, respectively. A simple scoring system for CRC has been developed to identify men at an increased relative risk of CRC within 10 years using several well-established risk factors, which allows selection of asymptomatic candidates for priority of CRC screening and saving the health resource in cancer prevention and control.

3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 135: 105343, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765926

RESUMO

Toll plazas with both Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) lane(s) and Manual Toll Collection (MTC) lane(s) could increase crash risks especially at upstream diverging areas because of frequency lane-change behaviors. This study develops the logistic regression (LR) model and five typical non-parametric models including, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Decision Trees (DT), and Random Forest (RF) to examine the relationship between influencing factors and vehicle collision risk. Based on the vehicle trajectory data extracted from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) videos using an automated video analysis system, the unconstrained vehicle motion's collision risk can be evaluated by the extended time to collision (ETTC). Results of model performance comparison indicate that not all non-parametric models have a better prediction performance than the LR model. Specifically, the KNN, SVM, DT and RF models have better model performance than LR model in model training, while the ANN model has the worst model performance. In model prediction, the accuracy of LR model is higher than that of other five non-parametric models under various ETTC thresholds conditions. The LR model implies a pretty good performance and its results also indicate that vehicle yields the higher collision risk when it drives on the left side of toll plaza diverging area and more dangerous situations could be found for an ETC vehicle. Moreover, the vehicle collision risks are positively associated with the speed of the following vehicle and the angle between the leading vehicle speed vector and X axis. Furthermore, the results of DT model show that three factors play important roles in classifying vehicle collision risk and the effects of them on collision risk are consistent with the results of LR model. These findings provide valuable information for accurate assessment of collision risk, which is a key step toward improving safety performance of the toll plaza diverging area.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224995, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714944

RESUMO

High-density aquaculture and nutritional imbalances may promote fatty liver in genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus), thus reducing the gains achieved by breeding. In this study, apple peel powder (APP) was used as a feed additive for GIFT. A control group (fed on a diet without APP) and five groups fed on diets supplemented with APP (at 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, or 0.8% of the diet, by weight) were established to investigate the effects of APP on GIFT growth performance and physiological parameters, and on gene expression as determined by transcriptomic analysis. Dietary supplementation with APP at 0.2% promoted GIFT growth, reduced total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in the serum and liver, and decreased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the serum. Gene expression profiles in the liver were compared among the control, 0.2% APP, and 0.8% APP groups, and differentially expressed genes among these groups were identified. Annotation analyses using tools at the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in the regulation of immunity and fat metabolism. The results showed that excessive supplementation with APP in the diet significantly inhibited the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein, and stimulated the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2, heat shock protein 90 beta family member 1, and nuclear factor kappa B. This resulted in disordered lipid metabolism and increased pro-inflammatory reactions, which in turn caused liver damage. Therefore, APP has good potential as an environmentally friendly feed additive for GIFT at levels of 0.1%-0.2% in the diet, but excessive amounts can have adverse effects.

5.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8618-8627, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 80-90% of all cases of primary liver cancer, and is one of the ten most common malignancies. This study used bioinformatics analysis to identify genes associated with patient outcome in stages I-IV HCC and the gene pathways that distinguished between normal liver and liver cells and HCC and human HCC cell lines. MATERIAL AND METHODS Target genes were defined as those that had marketed drugs or drugs under development targeting a specific gene and acquired from the Clarivate Analytics Integrity Database. Differential expression gene analysis, co-expression network analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, survival analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to explore the similarities and differences in gene expression profiles, functional associations, and survival in stage I-IV HCC. Normal liver cells (HL-7702) and HCC cell lines (HepaRG, HepG2, SK-Hep1, and Huh7) were studied using Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). RESULTS Hierarchical gene clustering identified target genes that distinguished between HCC and normal liver tissue. For stages I-IV HCC, there were seven commonly upregulated target genes EPHB1, LTK, NTRK2, PTK7, TBK1, TIE1, and TLR3, which were mainly involved in immune and signaling transduction pathways. PTK7 was highly expressed in stage I-IV HCC and was an independent prognostic marker for reduced overall survival (OS). CONCLUSIONS Bioinformatics analysis, combined with patient survival analysis, identified PTK7 gene expression as a potential therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for all stages of HCC.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765300

RESUMO

We describe the rationale, design, fabrication and performance of a clinical transrectal diffuse optical tomography (TRDOT) system for in vivo monitoring of photothermal therapy (PTT) of localized prostate cancer. The system comprises a 32-channel fiberoptic-based, MRI-compatible transrectal probe connected to a computer-controlled instrument that includes laser diode sources, an optical fiber switch and photomultiplier tube detectors. Performance tests were performed in tissue-simulating phantoms and in ex vivo muscle tissue during PTT treatment. The safety and technical feasibility of in vivo transrectal use were tested in a canine prostate model and in a first-in-human study in a patient before PTT treatment. Limitations of the system are discussed, as well as further developments to translate it into planned clinical trials for monitoring the photocoagulation boundary in the prostate during PTT.

7.
Environ Manage ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707431

RESUMO

Based on a case study carried out on the Lac Saint-Pierre (LSP) World Biosphere Reserve (Québec, Canada), this paper estimates ecosystem service loss, more precisely the loss related to cultural and recreational activities of the LSP due to the fall of its water level under the pressure of climate change. We measure two dimensions of this loss. As a first step, the extrapolation of our representative survey reports $100 million annual loss in terms of recreation revenue due to the trip reduction to LSP, which is about 60% of current level. Subsequently, the travel-cost data and the contingent behavior data are combined in a revealed and stated behavior panel random-effect estimation, which reports an additional loss measured by consumer surplus that visitors can obtain from their trips up to $232 million, signifying 42% of reduction in their current value.

8.
Haematologica ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727768

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma represents a biologically and clinically heterogeneous diagnostic category with well-defined cell-of-origin subtypes. Using data from the GOYA study (NCT01287741), we characterized the mutational profile of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and evaluated the prognostic impact of somatic mutations in relation to cell-of-origin. Targeted DNA next-generation sequencing was performed in 499 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies from previously untreated patients. Prevalence of genetic alterations/mutations was examined. Multivariate Cox regression was used to evaluate the prognostic effect of individual genomic alterations. Of 465 genes analyzed, 59 were identified with mutations occurring in at least 10 of 499 patients (≥2% prevalence); 334 additional genes had mutations occurring in ≥1 patient. Single nucleotide variants were the most common mutation type. On multivariate analysis, BCL2 alterations were most strongly associated with shorter progression-free survival (multivariate hazard ratio: 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 4.2). BCL2 alterations were detected in 102 of 499 patients; 92 had BCL2 translocations, 90% of whom had germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. BCL2 alterations were also significantly correlated with BCL2 gene and protein expression levels. Validation of published mutational subsets revealed consistent patterns of co-occurrence, but no consistent prognostic differences between subsets. Our data confirm the molecular heterogeneity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with potential treatment targets occurring in distinct cell-of-origin subtypes. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01287741.

9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598693

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are a large protein family that plays important roles at almost all levels of gene regulation through interacting with RNAs, and contributes to numerous biological processes. However, the complete list of eukaryotic RBPs including human is still unavailable. Here, we systematically identified RBPs in 162 eukaryotic species based on both computational analysis of RNA binding domains (RBDs) and large-scale RNA binding proteomic data, and established a comprehensive eukaryotic RBP database, EuRBPDB (http://EuRBPDB.syshospital.org). We identified a total of 311 571 RBPs with RBDs (corresponding to 6368 ortholog groups) and 3,651 non-canonical RBPs without known RBDs. EuRBPDB provides detailed annotations for each RBP, including basic information and functional annotation. Moreover, we systematically investigated RBPs in the context of cancer biology based on published literatures, PPI-network and large-scale omics data. To facilitate the exploration of the clinical relevance of RBPs, we additionally designed a cancer web interface to systematically and interactively display the biological features of RBPs in various types of cancers. EuRBPDB has a user-friendly web interface with browse and search functions, as well as data downloading function. We expect that EuRBPDB will be a widely-used resource and platform for both the communities of RNA biology and cancer biology.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614930

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment, which consists of fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, immune cells, epithelial cells, and extracellular matrices, plays a crucial role in tumor progression. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a class of unique liver stromal cells, participate in immunomodulatory activities by inducing the apoptosis of effector T-cells, generation of regulatory T-cells, and development of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to achieve long-term survival of islet allografts. This study provides in vitro and in vivo evidences that HSCs induce the generation of MDSCs to promote hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression through interleukin (IL)-6 secretion. HSC-induced MDSCs highly expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase 1 mRNA and presented potent inhibitory T-cell immune responses in the tumor environment. Wild-type HSC-induced MDSCs expressed lower levels of CD40, CD86, and MHC II, and a higher level of B7-H1 surface molecules, as well as increased the production of iNOS and arginase I compared with MDSCs induced by IL-6-deficient HSCs in vitro. A murine-transplanted model of the liver tumor showed that HCCs cotransplanted with HSCs could significantly enhance the tumor area and detect more MDSCs compared with HCCs alone or HCCs cotransplanted with HSCs lacking IL-6. In conclusion, the results indicated that MDSCs are induced mainly by HSCs through IL-6 signaling and produce inhibitory enzymes to reduce T-cell immunity and then promote HCC progression within the tumor microenvironment. Therapies targeting the pathway involved in MDSC production or its immune-modulating pathways can serve as an alternative immunotherapy for HCC.

11.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 39(1): 54, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer cells reprogram metabolism for proliferation. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), as a glycolytic enzyme and newly identified protein kinase, coordinates glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism. However, the clinical significance of PGK1 expression and function in cancer progression is unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship between the progression and prognosis of multiple cancer types and PGK1 expression and its function in the mitochondrial metabolism regulation. METHODS: We performed pan-cancer analyses of PGK1 mRNA level and DNA methylation in 11,908 tumor tissues and 1582 paired normal tissues across 34 cancer types in The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets. Using specific antibodies against PGK1 S203 and PDHK1 T338 phosphorylation, we performed immunohistochemistry with tissue microarray assay in additional 818 cancer cases with 619 paired normal tissues from five cancer types. RESULTS: The PGK1 mRNA level was significantly elevated with hypomethylation in promotor regions and associated with advanced TNM stage in 15 and four cancer types, respectively. In breast carcinoma, elevated PGK1 mRNA level and promoter hypomethylation were associated with poor prognosis. Positively correlated PGK1 S203 and PDHK1 T338 phosphorylation levels were significantly associated with short overall survival (OS) in cancers of the breast, liver, lung, stomach, and esophagus and with advanced TNM stage in breast and esophageal cancers. PGK1 pS203 and PDHK1 pT338 were also independent predictors of short OS in liver, lung, and stomach cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The elevated expression, promoter hypomethylation, and phosphorylation of PGK1 and PDHK1 were related with disease progression and short OS in diverse types of cancer. PGK1 and PDHK1 phosphorylation may be potential prognostic biomarkers.

12.
Cancer Lett ; 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644929

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors against PD-1/PD-L1 yield improved survival rates of KRAS-mutant NSCLC patients, who conferred a poor prognosis without effective targeted therapy until now. Yet, the underlying association between KRAS mutations and immune responses remains unclear. We performed an integrated analysis of the data from publicly available repositories and from clinical center cohorts to explore the association between KRAS mutation status and tumor immunity-associated features, including PD-L1 expression, CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor mutational burden (TMB). Our results revealed that KRAS mutations are correlated with an inflammatory tumor microenvironment and tumor immunogenicity, resulting in superior patient response to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Meanwhile, three-pool analysis further confirmed that KRAS-mutant NSCLC patients show remarkable clinical benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy. In addition, a KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma mouse model was established to estimate the relative efficacy of anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody monotherapy or combination treatment with docetaxel versus docetaxel alone. Most surprisingly, we found that PD-L1 blockade combined with docetaxel did not promote an anti-tumor response. These findings uncover that PD-1/PD-L1 blockade monotherapy may be the optimal therapeutic schedule in NSCLC patients harboring KRAS mutations.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223973, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618244

RESUMO

In order to address the time pattern problems in free-floating car sharing, in this paper, the authors offer a comprehensive time-series method based on deep learning theory. According to car2go booking record data in Seattle area. Firstly, influence of time and location on the free-floating car-sharing usage pattern is analyzed, which reveals an apparent doublet pattern for time and dependence usage amount on population. Then, on the basis of the long-short-term memory recurrent neural network (LSTM-RNN), hourly variation in short-term traffic characteristics including travel demand and travel distance are modeled. The results were also compared with other different statistical models, such as support vector regression (SVR), Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (ARIMA), single and second exponential smoothing. It showed that (LSTM-RNN) shows better performance in terms of statistical analysis and tendency precision based on limited data sample.

14.
J Clin Invest ; 129(10): 4276-4289, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483290

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDAdenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy arising in salivary glands and other sites, characterized by high rates of relapse and distant spread. Recurrent/metastatic (R/M) ACCs are generally incurable, due to a lack of active systemic therapies. To improve outcomes, deeper understanding of genetic alterations and vulnerabilities in R/M tumors is needed.METHODSAn integrated genomic analysis of 1,045 ACCs (177 primary, 868 R/M) was performed to identify alterations associated with advanced and metastatic tumors. Intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, germline mutations, and therapeutic actionability were assessed.RESULTSCompared with primary tumors, R/M tumors were enriched for alterations in key Notch (NOTCH1, 26.3% vs. 8.5%; NOTCH2, 4.6% vs. 2.3%; NOTCH3, 5.7% vs. 2.3%; NOTCH4, 3.6% vs. 0.6%) and chromatin-remodeling (KDM6A, 15.2% vs. 3.4%; KMT2C/MLL3, 14.3% vs. 4.0%; ARID1B, 14.1% vs. 4.0%) genes. TERT promoter mutations (13.1% of R/M cases) were mutually exclusive with both NOTCH1 mutations (q = 3.3 × 10-4) and MYB/MYBL1 fusions (q = 5.6 × 10-3), suggesting discrete, alternative mechanisms of tumorigenesis. This network of alterations defined 4 distinct ACC subgroups: MYB+NOTCH1+, MYB+/other, MYBWTNOTCH1+, and MYBWTTERT+. Despite low mutational load, we identified numerous samples with marked intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, including branching evolution across multiregion sequencing.CONCLUSIONThese observations collectively redefine the molecular underpinnings of ACC progression and identify further targets for precision therapies.FUNDINGAdenoid Cystic Carcinoma Research Foundation, Pershing Square Sohn Cancer Research grant, the PaineWebber Chair, Stand Up 2 Cancer, NIH R01 CA205426, the STARR Cancer Consortium, NCI R35 CA232097, the Frederick Adler Chair, Cycle for Survival, the Jayme Flowers Fund, The Sebastian Nativo Fund, NIH K08 DE024774 and R01 DE027738, and MSKCC through NIH/NCI Cancer Center Support Grant (P30 CA008748).

15.
Small ; 15(45): e1903410, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517439

RESUMO

Benefiting from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) unique structural characteristics, their versatility in composition and structure has been well explored in electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) processes. Here, a ligand/ionic exchange phenomenon of MOFs is reported in alkaline solution due to their poor stability, and the active species and reaction mechanism of MOFs are revealed in the OER process. A series of mixed Ni-MOFs and Fe-MOFs are synthesized by straightforward sonication and then directly used as catalyst candidates for OER in alkaline electrolyte. It can be confirmed via ex situ transmission electron microscopic images and X-ray diffraction patterns analysis, that the bimetallic hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) is generated in 1.0 m KOH in situ and acts as protagonist for oxygen evolution. The optimized catalyst (FN-2) exhibits a lower overpotential (275 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 ) and excellent long-term stability (strong current density for 100 h without fading). The revelation of the real active species of MOF materials may contribute to better understanding of the reaction mechanism.

16.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(12): 3055-3065, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Combined immunotherapy with anti-programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and an inhibitor of cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) have exhibited preliminary anti-tumor effect. Our study attempted to describe the PD-L1/CD47 expression status in pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC), and explore its survival impact and relevance with cytotoxic T lymphocytes and macrophages infiltration. METHODS: 148 patients with PSC who underwent surgeries were retrospectively reviewed. Tissue microarrays were conducted for immunohistochemistry (IHC) of PD-L1, CD47, CD8 and CD68. RESULTS: 54 (36.5%) and 78 (52.7%) cases were positive for PD-L1 and CD47, respectively, and 36 (24.3%) of them demonstrated PD-L1/CD47 co-expression. There was a significant correlation between PD-L1 and CD47 expression (P = 0.011). The median overall survival (OS) was 22.5 months (range 0.9-102.4 months). The univariate analysis demonstrated a significantly worse OS in cases with CD47 expression (hazard ratio [HR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.14-2.42, P = 0.008) and PD-L1/CD47 co-expression (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.15-2.67, P = 0.009). The multivariate analysis demonstrated PD-L1/CD47 co-expression (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.17-2.87, P = 0.008), T stage, M stage, completeness of resection and adjuvant therapy were independent prognostic factors for OS. There was a significant relevance between PD-L1 expression and PD-L1/CD47 co-expression with higher densities of CD8-positive T lymphocytes (P = 0.004, 0.012, respectively) and CD68-positive macrophages (P = 0.026, 0.034, respectively). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the PD-L1/CD47 co-expression status in PSC. PD-L1 expression correlated with CD47 expression, and PD-L1/CD47 co-expression correlated with poorer prognosis and may serve as a predictive biomarker for combined dual-targeting immunotherapy in PSC patients.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Antígeno CD47/metabolismo , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Carcinoma/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17109, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) might have negative adherence of treatment. Acupoint therapies, including acupuncture, acupressure, acupoints injection, massage, and moxibustion, are safe medical procedures with minimal side effects for CINV, but studies about overall safety and effectiveness of acupoint therapies have not been scientifically and methodically evaluated in recent years. Evaluating the overall safety and effectiveness of acupoint therapies in patients with CINV is the purpose of this review. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTSs) are being searched in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP database), Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM). We will also attempt to obtain the unpublished academic data by contacting the colleague, professor, or Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The RCTs of the acupoint therapies for CINV patients will be searched in the databases from inception to July 2019. The primary outcomes are defined as severity, duration and frequency of nausea or vomiting, or both. The secondary outcomes are defined as any adverse events and quality of life. Performing the meta-analysis by using RevMan version 5 software. Mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) will express the continuous variables, while relative risk (RR) will express the categorical variables. RESULTS: The results of this review will provide a high-quality synthesis to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupoint therapies for CINV. CONCLUSION: This review will provide evidence to estimate whether acupoint therapies are effective interventions for CINV. DISSEMINATION: Evidence whether acupoint therapies are effective interventions for CINV will be provided by this systematic review. This knowledge will recommend better acupoint therapies and selections of acupoints which might be helpful in treating CINV. The findings of this systematic review will be disseminated via various forms of presentation and publication of the data in a journal or electronic databases. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019125538.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/normas , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Náusea/etiologia , Vômito/etiologia , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Náusea/terapia , Vômito/prevenção & controle , Vômito/terapia
18.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0223101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557248

RESUMO

Research has found that preschoolers' imitation demonstrates in-group bias and is guided by behavior efficacy. However, little is known about whether children's sensitivity to behavior efficacy affects their in-group imitation. This study aimed to investigate preschoolers' imitation tendency when group preference and behavior efficacy are in conflict. Participants were 4-year-old (N = 72) and 6-year-old (N = 72) preschoolers in China. They observed two demonstrators (one in-group and one out-group) pressing two different buttons, respectively, to turn on a music box, and were then asked to try it themselves. In the experimental condition, the out-group demonstrator always succeeded, whereas the in-group demonstrator failed half the time. The results showed that more 6-year-old children imitated the less-effective behaviors of the in-group demonstrator, whereas 4-year-old children showed no such inclination. Two control conditions confirmed that children chose to imitate in-group rather than out-group members (Control 1: both in-group and out-group demonstrators succeeded all four times), and could imitate according to efficacy (Control 2: two in-group demonstrators succeeded two and four times, respectively). These results indicated that 6-year-olds faithfully followed the in-group modeled behavior, regardless of behavior efficacy. Results are discussed through the social function of in-group imitative learning.

19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3469754, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467881

RESUMO

Intestinal microbial dysbiosis is associated with various intestinal and extraintestinal disorders. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a type of fecal bacteriotherapy, is considered an effective therapeutic option for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) and also has important value in other intestinal diseases including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The purpose of this review is to discuss promising therapeutic value in extraintestinal diseases associated with gut microbial dysbiosis, including liver, metabolic, chronic kidney, neuropsychiatric, allergic, autoimmune, and hematological diseases as well as tumors.

20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 142: 111525, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369944

RESUMO

In this work, a metallic composite with strong electrocatalytic property was designed by uniformly decorating Pt and Sn nanoparticles on the surface of TiO2 nanorods (Pt-Sn@TiO2). A detection scheme was then developed based on a dual signal amplification strategy involving the Pt-Sn@TiO2 composite and exonuclease assisted target recycling. The Pt-Sn@TiO2 composite exhibited an enhanced oxygen reduction current owing to the synergistic effect between Pt and Sn, as well as high exposure of Pt (111) crystal face. Initially, a Pt-Sn@TiO2 modified glassy carbon electrode produced an amplified electrochemical signal for the reduction of dissolved oxygen in the analyte solution. Next, a DNA with a complementary sequence to a streptomycin aptamer (cDNA) was immobilised on the Pt-Sn@TiO2 modified electrode, followed by the streptomycin aptamer that hybridised with cDNA. The corresponding oxygen reduction current was diminished by 51% attributable to the hindrance from the biomolecules. After a mixture of streptomycin and RecJf exonuclease was introduced, both the streptomycin-aptamer complex and the cDNA were cleaved from the electrode, making the Pt-Sn and Pt (111) surface available for oxygen reduction. RecJf would also release streptomycin from the streptomycin-aptamer complex, allowing it to complex again with aptamers on the electrode. This has then promoted a cyclic amplification of the oxygen reduction current by 85%, which is quantitatively related to streptomycin. Under optimal conditions, the aptasensor exhibited a linear range of 0.05-1500 nM and a limit of detection of 0.02±0.0045 nM streptomycin. The sensor was then used in the real-life sample detection of streptomycin to demonstrate its potential applications to bioanalysis.

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