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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157531

RESUMO

Pesticide chlorothalonil is widely applied in tea agroecosystem, potentially disturbing soil microbial-mediated nitrogen cycle. The underlying toxicity mechanism, however, is not well explored. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of chlorothalonil on soil microbial denitrification and N2O emission pattern in a tea field after 40 days of exposure. Results showed that chlorothalonil inhibited denitrification process but remarkably promoted N2O emission by 380-830%. Chlorothalonil significantly inhibited N2O reductase activity but did not affected nosZ abundance. Our results further revealed that chlorothalonil influenced soil denitrification by directly suppressing microbial electron transport system activity, and decreasing electron donor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and energy source adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Additionally, chlorothalonil also downregulated denitrifying functional genes (narG, nirS, and norB) and declined the relative abundances of potential denitrifiers (i.e., Pseudomonas and Streptomyces). Stepwise regression and path modeling suggested that nitrate reductase was the most significant factor in explaining denitrification rate under chlorothalonil applications. This study provides important information for revealing the chronic impacts of pesticide on tea soil denitrification and N2O emission on the basis of electron transport mechanism. Most significantly, N2O emission is underestimated in chlorothalonil-treated soils, which suggests that future estimations of N2O emission from agricultural lands should take account of pesticide dependency conditions.

2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110456, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171963

RESUMO

The early stage of aggregation of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) in anion solutions was inspected in the absence and presence of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) with a help of time-resolved dynamic light scattering (DLS). The aggregation kinetics and attachment efficiencies were calculated according to measured hydrodynamic diameter across a range of 1-500 mM NaNO3 and 0.01-100. mM Na2SO4. The aggregation of CeO2 NPs in both NaNO3 and Na2SO4 solution conformed with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. In NaNO3 solution, the critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) of CeO2 NPs was calculated to be about 47 mM; in Na2SO4 solution, CeO2 NPs showed a re-stabilization process and thus there was no CCC value. SO42- had intenser effects on CeO2 NPs aggregation than NO3- might because of the distinction between their polarization, consisting in Hofmeister series. The presence of bound EPS (B-EPS), tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) and loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) in NaNO3 solutions all lead to significant decrease in CeO2 NPs aggregation. Steric repulsive force produced by absorbed EPS on CeO2 NPs might take main responsibility in stabilizing CeO2 NPs. Besides, Extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (EDLVO) model successfully predicted the energy barrier between CeO2 NPs with B-EPS, TB-EPS and LB-EPS as a function of NaNO3 concentration. Furthermore, the difference in impeding the CeO2 NPs aggregation with B-EPS, TB-EPS and LB-EPS may be caused by the divergence in molecular weight and component mass fraction especially protein content. These results might subserve the assessment on the fate and transport behaviors of CeO2 NPs released in wastewater treatment plants.

3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 2685305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149094

RESUMO

Background: Podocyte migration is actively involved in the process of podocyte loss and proteinuria production, which is closely associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs-Exos) effectively inhibit podocyte apoptosis in the treatment of DN. However, how ADSCs-Exos affect the migration of podocytes is obscure. This study is aimed at exploring the regulatory role of ADSCs-Exos on cell migration and the underlying mechanism. Methods: ADSCs-Exo was authenticated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), western blotting, and flow cytometry. Cell viability and migration ability of podocytes were measured by CCK8 and Transwell assays, respectively. Relative expressions of miRNAs and mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. The transmitting between PKH26-labeled exosome and podocytes was evaluated by IF assay. Dual luciferase reporter assay was employed to detect the relationship between miR-215-5p and ZEB2. Results: The exposure to serum from DN patient (hDN-serum) significantly inhibited cell viability of podocytes, but ADSCs-Exo addition notably blunts cytotoxicity induced by the transient stimulus of hDN-serum. Besides, ADSCs-Exo administration powerfully impeded high glucose- (HG-) induced migration and injury of podocyte. With the podocyte dysfunction, several miRNAs presented a significant decline under the treatment of HG including miR-251-5p, miR-879-5p, miR-3066-5p, and miR-7a-5p, all of which were rescued by the addition of ADSCs-Exo. However, only miR-251-5p was a key determinant in the process of ADSCs-Exo-mediated protective role on podocyte damage. The miR-251-5p inhibitor counteracted the improvement from the ADSCs-Exo preparation on HG-induced proliferation inhibition and migration promotion. Additionally, miR-215-5p mimics alone remarkably reversed HG-induced EMT process of podocyte. Mechanistically, we confirmed that ADSCs-Exos mediated the shuttling of miR-215-5p to podocyte, thereby protecting against HG-induced metastasis, possibly through inhibiting the transcription of ZEB2. Conclusion: ADSCs-Exo has the protective effect on HG-evoked EMT progression of podocytes thru a mechanism involving ZEB2. Potentially, the ADSCs-Exo preparation is a useful therapeutic strategy for improving podocyte dysfunction and DN symptoms clinically.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194113

RESUMO

The modified starch-based hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking modified starch with sodium trimetaphosphate. Modified starch was obtained by esterification of tapioca starch with maleic anhydride. The degree of substitution (DS) increased significantly from 0.078 to 0.258 as the content of maleic anhydride increased from 6.67% to 33.33%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that starch was successfully esterified. In addition, the thermal properties of modified starch-based hydrogels were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetry analysis, which proved that hydrogels had better thermal stability. Esterified starch-based hydrogels showed excellent pH sensitivity by measuring of swelling degree. When DS was 0.250, the adsorption capacity and encapsulation efficiency of starch-based hydrogels were 399.23 µg/g and 80%, respectively, which exhibited satisfactory embedding properties for curcumin. Therefore, esterified tapioca starch-based hydrogels could be as the encapsulating materials to protect bioactive substances, which provided a theoretical basis for their application in food field and pharmaceuticals industry.

5.
Sci Adv ; 6(11): eaay2840, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201720

RESUMO

Wearable textile electronics are highly desirable for realizing personalized health management. However, most reported textile electronics can either periodically target a single physiological signal or miss the explicit details of the signals, leading to a partial health assessment. Furthermore, textiles with excellent property and comfort still remain a challenge. Here, we report a triboelectric all-textile sensor array with high pressure sensitivity and comfort. It exhibits the pressure sensitivity (7.84 mV Pa-1), fast response time (20 ms), stability (>100,000 cycles), wide working frequency bandwidth (up to 20 Hz), and machine washability (>40 washes). The fabricated TATSAs were stitched into different parts of clothes to monitor the arterial pulse waves and respiratory signals simultaneously. We further developed a health monitoring system for long-term and noninvasive assessment of cardiovascular disease and sleep apnea syndrome, which exhibits great advancement for quantitative analysis of some chronic diseases.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(5)2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182908

RESUMO

A facile and effective colorimetric-sensing platform based on the diazotization of phenosafranin for the detection of NO 2 - under acidic conditions using the Griess assay is presented. Diazotization of commercial phenosafranin produces a color change from purplish to blue, which enables colorimetric quantitative detection of NO 2 - . Optimal detection conditions were obtained at a phenosafranin concentration of 0.25 mM, HCl concentration of 0.4 M, and reaction time of 20 min. Under the optimized detection conditions, an excellent linearity range from 0 to 20 µM was obtained with a detection limit of 0.22 µM. Favorable reproducibility and selectivity of the colorimetric sensing platform toward NO 2 - were also verified. In addition, testing spiked ham sausage, bacon, and sprouts samples demonstrated its excellent practicability. The presented colorimetric sensing platform is a promising candidate for the detection of NO 2 - in real applications.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137376, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135322

RESUMO

Bioherbicide terpinolene is widely employed in the agricultural field because of its unique phytotoxic properties. However, little is known about the toxicity of bioherbicide on harmful algal blooms (HABs) and its mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the inhibiting effect of bioherbicide terpinolene on the growth and physiological change of Microcystis aeruginosa was determined. Results showed that the cell density and photosynthetic activity of microalgae were significantly inhibited by terpinolene. Activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) were decreased separately by 25.38% and 42.75% after 4 d of exposure to 1.47 mM terpinolene, suggesting the inhibiting effect of terpinolene on algal nitrogen metabolism. However, the transcript abundance of genes related to membrane protein cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX II) and ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporter) were enhanced separately by 3.15 and 1.69-fold compared with control, suggesting the resistance response of cells to terpinolene stress. Additionally, terpinolene not only increased the content of endogenous phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, and brassinolide, but also inhibited the expression of genes related to calcium-binding protein (CaBPs), one kind of calcium (Ca2+) sensors, suggesting its regulation on algal signal molecules. These findings helped to understand the ecotoxicity of terpinolene and guide the rational use of bioherbicide in agriculture.

8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 155: 112064, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217330

RESUMO

Good sleep is considered to be the cornerstone for maintaining both physical and mental health. However, nearly one billion people worldwide suffer from various sleep disorders. To date, polysomnography (PSG) is the most commonly used sleep-monitoring technology,however, it is complex, intrusive, expensive and uncomfortable. Unfortunately, present noninvasive monitoring technologies cannot simultaneously achieve high sensitivity, multi-parameter monitoring and comfort. Here, we present a single-layered, ultra-soft, smart textile for all-around physiological parameters monitoring and healthcare during sleep. With a high-pressure sensitivity of 10.79 mV/Pa, a wide working frequency bandwidth from 0 Hz to 40 Hz, good stability, and decent washability, the single-layered ultra-soft smart textile is simultaneously capable of real-time detection and tracking of dynamic changes in sleep posture, and subtle respiration and ballistocardiograph (BCG) monitoring. Using the set of patient generated health data, an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) monitoring and intervention system was also developed to improve the sleep quality and prevent sudden death during sleep. This work is expected to pave a new and practical pathway for physiological monitoring during sleep.

9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1108: 152-159, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222236

RESUMO

In this study, direct detection of fluazinam was realized using a fluorescent sensor using disulfide quantum dots (MoS2 QDs) via inner filter effect (IFE). The maximum excitation of as-prepared MoS2 QDs presented a complementary spectral-overlap with the maximum absorption of fluazinam. Thus the occurrence of inner filter effect led to the significant fluorescence quenching of MoS2 QDs. Additionally, fluorescent quenching efficiency of MoS2 QDs could be enhanced by the effects of π-π stacking, hydrogen bond and electrostatic interaction between fluazinam and MoS2 QDs, and these non-chemical bond responses also promoted the selectivity for fluazinam detection. Under the optimum conditions, the IFE-based fluorescent sensor exhibited a relative wide linear range from 50 nM to 25 µM with the LOD of 2.53 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, a paper-based sensor was established by cross-linking the MoS2 QDs into cellulose membrane for naked-eyed detection and digital analysis of fluazinam. The paper-based sensor presented a liner range from 10 µM to 800 µM for fluazinam detection with the LOD of 2.26 µM. Additionally, the acceptable recoveries were obtained for fluazinam detection in the spiked samples of tomato, potato and cucumber, indicating that the proposed method provided an effective sensing platform for real applications of fluazinam detection in food safety.

10.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 234: 118247, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179465

RESUMO

A novel solvothermal process for synthesizing InNbO4 nanomaterials was developed. In this manner, a series of InNbO4 samples was synthesized. It was shown that reaction temperature and precursor pH had strong influence on the attributes of InNbO4 samples. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that all the samples possessed monoclinic structure and the optimal reaction condition was found at 250 °C with a pH of 5. Scanning electron microscopy images of different InNbO4 samples showed various morphologies. Transmission electron microscopy verified the synthesized InNbO4-pH 5 was single-crystal cubes. X-ray photoelectron spectra verified the existence of In, Nb, and O in InNbO4-pH 5 sample. The band gap of InNbO4-pH 5 was calculated to be 2.51 eV. The photocurrent intensity of InNbO4-pH 5 was the highest among the prepared samples. The photocatalytic degradation of pefloxacin was investigated using these samples. The InNbO4-pH 5 exhibited best degradation efficiency among these samples. The removal efficiency of pefloxacin with InNbO4-pH 5 could reach 80.2% in 60 min. Based on free radical capture results, superoxide radicals and holes showed to be the dominant active species. In addition, UHPLC/MS/MS was used to identify the degradation intermediates. Five new pefloxacin degradation products were found and possible degradation pathways were suggested.

11.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-12, 2020 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009476

RESUMO

The interaction and action mechanism of starch with different phenolic compounds were investigated. By using scanning electron microscope, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, phenolic compounds exhibited the significant effects on the morphology, intensity of hydrogen bond, crystalline structure and thermal stability of starch, respectively. Furthermore, according to the analysis of molecular dynamics simulation by using short-chain glucose (SGS) as model, phenolic compounds could change the spatial configuration of starch, and had the obvious effects on the formation of hydrogen bonds (including intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds) and the strength of binding free energy. Meanwhile, epigallocatechin gallate possessed the strongest capacity to change the spatial configuration of starch with the consistent hydrogen bond occupancy and the lowest binding free energy. All present results suggested that phenolic compounds might be potentially utilised for improving the quality of starch in food industry.

12.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(3): 179, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076868

RESUMO

Small molecules are key targets in molecular biology, environmental issues, medicine and food industry. However, small molecules are challenging to be detected due to the difficulty of their recognition, especially in complex samples, such as in situ in cells or animals. The emergence of graphene/aptamer probes offers an excellent opportunity for small molecule quantification owing to their appealing attributes such as high selectivity, sensitivity, and low cost, as well as the potential for probing small molecules in living cells or animals. This paper (with 130 refs.) will review the application of graphene/aptamer probes for small molecule detection. We present the recent progress in the design and development of graphene/aptamer probes enabling highly specific, sensitive and rapid detection of small molecules. Emphasis is placed on the success in their development and application for monitoring small molecules in living cells and in vivo systems. By discussing the key advances in this field, we wish to inspire more research work of the development of graphene/aptamer probes for both on-site or in situ detection of small molecules and its applications for investigating the functions of small molecules in cells in a dynamic way. Graphical abstract Graphene/aptamer probes can be used to construct different platforms for detecting small molecules with high specificity and sensitivity, both in vitro and in situ in living cells and animals.

13.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 90: 234-243, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081319

RESUMO

Changes in solution chemistry and transport conditions can lead to the release of deposited MnO2 nanoparticles from a solid interface, allowing them to re-enter the aqueous environment. Understanding the release behavior of MnO2 nanoparticles from naturally occurring surfaces is critical for better prediction of the transport potential and environmental fate of MnO2 nanoparticles. In this study, the release of MnO2 nanoparticles was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), and different environmental surface types, solution pH values and representative macromolecular organics were considered. MnO2 nanoparticles were first deposited on crystal sensors at elevated NaNO3 concentrations before being rinsed with double-deionized water to induce their remobilization. The results reveal that the release rate of MnO2 depends on the surface type, in the decreasing order: SiO2 > Fe3O4 > Al2O3, resulting from electrostatic interactions between the surface and particles. Moreover, differences in solution pH can lead to variance in the release behavior of MnO2 nanoparticles. The release rate from surfaces was significantly higher at pH 9.8 that at 4.5, indicating that alkaline conditions were more favorable for the mobilization of MnO2 in the aquatic environment. In the presence of macromolecular organics, bovine serum albumin (BSA) can inhibit the release of MnO2 from the surfaces due to attractive forces. In presence of humic acid (HA) and sodium alginate (SA), the MnO2 nanoparticles were more likely to be mobile, which may be associated with a large repulsive barrier imparted by steric effects.

14.
Chemosphere ; 248: 125986, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006831

RESUMO

The processes of (n)ZVI/AC((nano)zero valent iron/activated carbon)micro-electrolysis were applied for nitrate removal from groundwater, aiming to reduce nitrate to N2, an environmentally friendly end product. (n)ZVI was utilized and combined with selected commercial AC to form the micro-electrolysis. Effect of different operational parameters, including reductant dosage, (n)ZVI/AC ratios, and reaction pH, on nitrate and TN removal were cleared. The results showed that nZVI presents higher reaction activities than ZVI in micro-electrolysis. With the increase of the (n)ZVI/AC mass ration from 1:2 to 2:1, the TN removal increased from 16.8% to 38.9%, then declined with the further increase of the ratio. The nitrate removal was negatively correlated with the initial pH of the solution. Compared to ZVI particles, even with a lower dosage, nZVI presented 100% nitrate removal at acidic and neutral pH conditions, and TN removal could maintain higher than 35% with pH lower than 9.0. A kinetic model was also established to explain the pathways of nitrate removal, and the results indicated that AC not only enriched nitrate as an adsorbent but also present highly potential in catalytic converting nitrate to N2. The technique presented great potentials in removing nitrate from water and a promising application prospect.

15.
Bioresour Technol ; 303: 122908, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028219

RESUMO

Biochar is widely used for nutrient removal in constructed wetlands (CWs); however, its influence on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from CWs remains unclear. Here, biochar was used to mitigate the global warming potential (GWP) from CWs and promote the removal of contaminants from simulated domestic wastewater under different influent chemical oxygen demand to nitrogen ratios (COD/N = 3, 6, 9, 12). Results demonstrated that biochar could improve the removal of COD, NH4+- N, and TN. The average N2O and CO2 fluxes were significantly lower and CH4 fluxes were higher in biochar-added CWs than those in none-biochar CWs. Biochar reduced GWP values of N2O and CH4 from 18.5% to 24.0%. N2O fluxes and GWP decreased, while CH4 and CO2 fluxes increased as COD/N ratios increased. Additionally, biochar increased the abundance of Geobacter and denitrifiers such as Hydrogenophaga. Overall, biochar could not only promote the removal of nutrients but also mitigate GWP in CWs.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Carvão Vegetal , Metano , Nitrogênio , Óxido Nitroso , Áreas Alagadas
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2554-2561, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027503

RESUMO

Excessive use of antibiotics in aquatic products is a serious problem for food safety and human health, and on-site detection of antibiotics is highly demanded. Herein, we proposed multivalence aptamer probes, allowing sensitive, label-free, and homogeneous detection of antibiotics in different aquatic products. Compared to commonly used aptamers, multivalence aptamer probes can provide multiple binding sites and a higher affinity for target molecules, and the iterative binding on different binding sites contributes to an amplified recognition effect, sharply increasing the response and sensitivity of aptamer probes. The 2-valence aptamer probes conferred a limit of detection of 0.097 nM for kanamycin detection, where it is estimated that their sensitivity is enhanced 12 times compared to 1-valence aptamer probes. Meanwhile, multivalence aptamer probes allowed us to specifically identify kanamycin among other antibiotics. It could detect kanamycin residual in aquatic products including river eel and puffer fish, as well as tap water with high precision. A multivalence design strategy of aptamer probes would significantly improve the detection performance of aptamers, facilitating the translation of aptamer for food safety control.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/síntese química , Aquicultura , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Água Doce/análise , Canamicina/análise , Limite de Detecção , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Water Res ; 173: 115530, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006807

RESUMO

The conventional biological nutrients removal process is challenged by insufficient organic carbon in influent. To cross such an organic-dependent barrier, a pilot-scale electrolysis-integrated anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (AAO) process was developed for enhanced removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) municipal wastewater. Average removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the electrolysis-AAO reached to 77.24% and 95.08% respectively, showing increases of 13.88% and 21.87%, as compared to the control reactor. Spatial variations of N and P showed that NH4+-N removal rate was promoted in aerobic zone of electrolysis-AAO. The intensified TN elimination, which was mostly reflected by abatement of NO3--N with the concomitant slight accumulation of NH4+-N and NO2--N, mainly occurred in anoxic2 compartment as the electrons supplied by electrolysis. Furthermore, minor P contents were measured and remained almost unchanged along the reaction units, indicating that chemical precipitation should be the dominant mechanism of P-removal in electrolysis-AAO. From the metagenomic-based taxonomy, phylum Actinobacteria was dramatically inhibited, and phylum Proteobacteria dominated the electrolysis-AAO. Particularly, nitrifying bacteria and multifarious autotrophic denitrifiers were enriched, meanwhile, a significant evolution of heterotrophic denitrifiers was found in electrolysis-AAO compared to control, which was mostly reflected by the inhibition of genus Candidatus Microthrix. Batch tests further confirmed that autotrophic denitrifiers using H2 and Fe2+ as essential electron sinks were mainly responsible for the electrolysis-induced denitrification. Differential metabolic capacities were revealed from the perspectives of functional enzymes and genes, and network analysis allowed insight of microbial taxa-functional genes associations and shed light on stronger relevance between autotrophic denitrifiers and denitrification-associated genes in the electrolysis-AAO system.

18.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051240

RESUMO

Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a wide variety of host organisms, including humans. The sporoplasm is the initial stage of microsporidian infection and proliferation, but its morphological and molecular characteristics are poorly understood. In this study, the sporoplasm of Nosema bombycis was successfully isolated and characterized after the induction of spore germination in vitro The sporoplasm was spherical, 3.64 ± 0.41 µm in diameter, had the typical two nuclei, and was nonrefractive. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that the sporoplasm was surrounded by a single membrane, and the cytoplasm was usually filled with relatively homogeneous granules, possibly ribosomes, and contained a vesicular structure comprising a concentric ring and coiled tubules. Propidium iodide staining revealed that the sporoplasm membrane showed stronger membrane permeability than did the cell plasma membrane. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the sporoplasm can gain entry to the host cell by phagocytosis. Transcriptome analysis of mature spores and sporoplasms showed that 541 significantly differentially expressed genes were screened (adjusted P value [P adj] < 0.05), of which 302 genes were upregulated and 239 genes were downregulated in the sporoplasm. The majority of the genes involved in trehalose synthesis metabolism, glycolysis, and the pentose phosphate pathway were downregulated, whereas 10 transporter genes were upregulated, suggesting that the sporoplasm may inhibit its own carbon metabolic activity and obtain the substances required for proliferation through transporter proteins. This study represents the first comprehensive and in-depth investigation of the sporoplasm at the morphological and molecular levels and provides novel insights into the biology of microsporidia and their infection mechanism.IMPORTANCE Once awoken from dormancy, the cellular matter of microsporidia is delivered directly into the host cell cytoplasm through the polar tube. This means that the microsporidia are difficult to study biologically in their active state without a contaminating signal from the host cell. Sporoplasm is a cell type of microsporidia in vitro, but relatively little attention has been paid to the sporoplasm in the past 150 years due to a lack of an effective separation method. Nosema bombycis, the first reported microsporidium, is a type of obligate intracellular parasite that infects silkworms and can be induced to germinate in alkaline solution in vitro We successfully separated the N. bombycis sporoplasm in vitro, and the morphological and structural characteristics were investigated. These results provide important insight into the biology and pathogenesis of microsporidia and potentially provide a possible strategy for genetic manipulation of microsporidia targeting the sporoplasm.

19.
Langmuir ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927899

RESUMO

We report a carbonaceous nanomotor with a characteristic flask-like hollow structure that can autonomously move under the propulsion of oxygen bubbles. The carbonaceous nanoflask (CNF) motor was fabricated by encapsulating platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) into the hollow cavity of the CNF. The internally encapsulated Pt NPs act as catalysts to decompose hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) fuel into oxygen bubbles. The generated oxygen bubbles recoil the motion of the CNF motors. Besides, the velocity of CNF motors can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of the H2O2 solution. The motion velocity increases with the increase of H2O2 concentration, up to 109.25 µm s-1 at 10% H2O2. This study provides important implications for understanding the motion behaviors of nanomotors with an internal cavity, and the self-propelled CNF motors as smart carrier systems have potential applications in the future.

20.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999031

RESUMO

AIM: Evaluate the relationship between anti-Xa activity and anticoagulant effect, and ascertain whether accumulation of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) occurs during haemodialysis. METHODS: There was an observational, single-centre study among participants who received the LMWH dalteparin, enoxaparin or nadroparin. A standard haemodialysis session lasted 4 hours. All included participants had anti-Xa activity measures at 0.5 and 4 hours. Extracorporeal circuit (ECC) clotting was evaluated by visual inspection of the haemodialyser and bubble trap after each haemodialysis session. The same person was tested at three consecutive haemodialysis sessions. RESULTS: Overall, 90 participants were enrolled and 259 haemodialysis sessions assessed. There was no significant difference in the mean anti-Xa activity at 0.5 and 4 hours for three consecutive sessions, so LMWH accumulation did not occur. There were 69 (26.6%) sessions in which, ECC clotting was visible. Compared with the group where circuit clotting did not occur, the LMWH dose and anti-Xa activity in the group where circuit clotting occurred were significantly lower. At 0.5 hour, anti-Xa <0.88 IU/mL had significantly higher odds of ECC clotting than that at ≥0.88 IU/mL. At 4 hours, anti-Xa <0.35 IU/mL had significantly higher odds of ECC clotting than that at ≥0.35 IU/mL. CONCLUSION: We found that over three haemodialysis sessions, no significant accumulation of LMWH was evident in subjects receiving a LMWH dose of between 2000 and 5000 IU for regular. Anti-Xa activity measurement can be used to adjust the dosage of LMWH and predict the anticoagulant effect during haemodialysis.

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