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1.
Mil Med Res ; 11(1): 20, 2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are traditionally viewed as first responders but have a short onset of action in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the heterogeneity, multifunctionality, and time-dependent modulation of brain damage and outcome mediated by neutrophils after TBI remain poorly understood. METHODS: Using the combined single-cell transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics analysis from TBI patients and the TBI mouse model, we investigate a novel neutrophil phenotype and its associated effects on TBI outcome by neurological deficit scoring and behavioral tests. We also characterized the underlying mechanisms both in vitro and in vivo through molecular simulations, signaling detections, gene expression regulation assessments [including dual-luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays], primary cultures or co-cultures of neutrophils and oligodendrocytes, intracellular iron, and lipid hydroperoxide concentration measurements, as well as forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) conditional knockout mice. RESULTS: We identified that high expression of the FOXO1 protein was induced in neutrophils after TBI both in TBI patients and the TBI mouse model. Infiltration of these FOXO1high neutrophils in the brain was detected not only in the acute phase but also in the chronic phase post-TBI, aggravating acute brain inflammatory damage and promoting late TBI-induced depression. In the acute stage, FOXO1 upregulated cytoplasmic Versican (VCAN) to interact with the apoptosis regulator B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2)-associated X protein (BAX), suppressing the mitochondrial translocation of BAX, which mediated the antiapoptotic effect companied with enhancing interleukin-6 (IL-6) production of FOXO1high neutrophils. In the chronic stage, the "FOXO1-transferrin receptor (TFRC)" mechanism contributes to FOXO1high neutrophil ferroptosis, disturbing the iron homeostasis of oligodendrocytes and inducing a reduction in myelin basic protein, which contributes to the progression of late depression after TBI. CONCLUSIONS: FOXO1high neutrophils represent a novel neutrophil phenotype that emerges in response to acute and chronic TBI, which provides insight into the heterogeneity, reprogramming activity, and versatility of neutrophils in TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Neutrófilos , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Encéfalo , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Depressão , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Ferro
2.
Appl Opt ; 63(10): 2570-2577, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568538

RESUMO

The limited excitation efficiency of quantum dots in the detection of subsurface defects in optical elements by quantum dot fluorescence gives rise to insufficient accuracy. To enhance the excitation efficiency of quantum dots, we studied the modulation of the polarization direction of linearly polarized incident light on quantum dot fluorescence. We first apply density matrix evolution theory to study the quantum dots interacting with linearly polarized incident light and emitting fluorescence. The fluorescence intensity exhibits cosine oscillations versus modulated laser polarization. It reaches a maximum value at the polarization angle zero, and then decreases as the angle becomes larger until π/2. The experimental results for the quantum dot in both solutions and subsurface defect of optical elements confirmed these results. For optical elements tagged with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, the fluorescence intensity increases by 61.7%, and the area for the detected subsurface defects increases by 142.9%. Similarly, for C and InP/ZnS quantum dots, there are also increases in both the fluorescence intensity and the area of subsurface defects. Our study suggests that the subsurface defect detection in optical elements by the linearly polarized incident light could enhance the detection accuracy of subsurface defects in optical elements, and potentially achieve super-resolution imaging of subsurface defects.

3.
AIDS ; 38(6): 803-812, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is conflicting data regarding the response of older people with HIV (PWH) to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term immunological and virological responses, changes in regimen, and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in older participants (50+ years) compared with younger (18-34 years) and middle-aged (35-49 years) PWH. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was conducted on 1622 participants who received ART in Yunnan Province, China, from 2010 to 2019. The study compared CD4+ T-cell counts, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and relative numbers between different groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify variables associated with the occurrence of immune reconstitution insufficiency. The rates of immune reconstitution, incidence of ADRs, and rates of treatment change were analyzed using the chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Over 95% achieved viral load 200 copies/ml or less, with no age-related difference. However, older participants exhibited significantly lower CD4+ T-cell counts and CD4+/CD8+ recovery post-ART (P < 0.001), with only 32.21% achieving immune reconstitution (compared with young: 52.16%, middle-aged: 39.29%, P < 0.001) at the end of follow-up. Middle-aged and elderly participants changed ART regimens more because of ADRs, especially bone marrow suppression and renal dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Although the virological response was consistent across age groups, older individuals showed poorer immune responses and higher susceptibility to side effects. This underscores the need for tailored interventions and comprehensive management for older patients with HIV.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , China , Resultado do Tratamento , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Carga Viral
4.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 37(2): 157-169, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582978

RESUMO

Objective: China is among the 30 countries with a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, and TB remains a public health concern. Kashgar Prefecture in the southern Xinjiang Autonomous Region is considered as one of the highest TB burden regions in China. However, molecular epidemiological studies of Kashgar are lacking. Methods: A population-based retrospective study was conducted using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to determine the characteristics of drug resistance and the transmission patterns. Results: A total of 1,668 isolates collected in 2020 were classified into lineages 2 (46.0%), 3 (27.5%), and 4 (26.5%). The drug resistance rates revealed by WGS showed that the top three drugs in terms of the resistance rate were isoniazid (7.4%, 124/1,668), streptomycin (6.0%, 100/1,668), and rifampicin (3.3%, 55/1,668). The rate of rifampicin resistance was 1.8% (23/1,290) in the new cases and 9.4% (32/340) in the previously treated cases. Known resistance mutations were detected more frequently in lineage 2 strains than in lineage 3 or 4 strains, respectively: 18.6% vs. 8.7 or 9%, P < 0.001. The estimated proportion of recent transmissions was 25.9% (432/1,668). Multivariate logistic analyses indicated that sex, age, occupation, lineage, and drug resistance were the risk factors for recent transmission. Despite the low rate of drug resistance, drug-resistant strains had a higher risk of recent transmission than the susceptible strains (adjusted odds ratio, 1.414; 95% CI, 1.023-1.954; P = 0.036). Among all patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB), 78.4% (171/218) were attributed to the transmission of DR-TB strains. Conclusion: Our results suggest that drug-resistant strains are more transmissible than susceptible strains and that transmission is the major driving force of the current DR-TB epidemic in Kashgar.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Humanos , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Mutação
5.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615131

RESUMO

Parents play a crucial role in adolescents' Internet use. Both general parenting (i.e., autonomy-supportive and controlling parenting) and Internet-specific parenting (i.e., restrictive mediation, active mediation, and parental encouragement) are related to adolescents' online behaviors. However, existing studies have focused either on an Internet-specific parenting or general parenting strategy and have neglected their interaction, failing to capture the intricate nature of the parenting context of youth's online behaviors. Few studies have examined parental encouragement or acknowledged the bidirectional influence of parenting on adolescents' online behaviors. To address this gap, this study employed a cross-lagged panel network model to examine the associations among restrictive and active mediation, parental encouragement, and autonomy-supportive and controlling parenting, as well as the interplay of all five parenting strategies with adolescents' online behaviors. A total of 564 Chinese students (51.1% male; mean age = 14.54, SD = 0.7) completed the survey at two time points. The results indicate that in most cases, previous online behaviors are significant and strong predictors of subsequent parenting strategies and not vice versa, corroborating the child effect. The parent and reciprocal effects were observed in the problematic smartphone-use domain, suggesting that the effects may differ for distinct behavioral domains. The effects of parental mediation extend beyond parental encouragement, implying that risk-prevention-related parenting is an effective means of guiding adolescents' online behaviors. Autonomy-relevant general parenting is closely related to active mediation and parental encouragement, while restrictive general parenting is closely related to restrictive mediation, suggesting a consistency between Internet-specific and general parenting strategies.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603541

RESUMO

The urgent need for CO2 capture and hydrogen energy has attracted great attention owing to greenhouse gas emissions and global warming problems. Efficient CO2 capture and H2 purification with membrane technology will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and help reach a carbon-neutral society. Here, 4-sulfocalix[4]arene (SC), which has an intrinsic cavity, was embedded into the Matrimid membrane as a molecular gatekeeper for CO2 capture and H2 purification. The interactions between SC and the Matrimid polymer chains immobilize SC molecules into the interchain gaps of the Matrimid membrane, and the strong hydrogen and ionic bondings were able to form homogeneous mixed-matrix membranes. The incorporation of the SC molecular gatekeeper with exceptional molecular-sieving properties improved the gas separation performance of the mixed-matrix membranes. Compared with that of the Matrimid membrane, the CO2 permeability of the Matrimid-SC-3% membrane increased from 16.75 to 119.78 Barrer, the CO2/N2 selectivity increased from 29.39 to 106.95, and the CO2/CH4 selectivity increased from 29.91 to 140.92. Furthermore, when the permeability of H2 was increased to 172.20 Barrer, the H2/N2 and H2/CH4 selectivities reached approximately 153.75 and 202.59, respectively, which are far superior to those of most existing Matrimid-based materials. The mixed-matrix membranes also exhibited excellent long-term operation stability, with separation performance for several important gas pairs still overtaking the Robeson upper limit after aging for 400 days.

7.
Plants (Basel) ; 13(6)2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592823

RESUMO

The importance of rootstock in citrus production lies in its crucial role in determining tree growth, environmental stress tolerance, and fruit quality. Citrus junos Siebold ex Tanaka cv. Shuzhen No. 1, a recently developed rootstock, demonstrates excellent graft compatibility and abiotic stress tolerance. The objective of this study was to assess ten hybrid citrus cultivars grafted onto two C. junos rootstock selections, with the aim of determining the potential for industrial utilization of the new citrus rootstock. All graft junctions are mature and well established. Vigorous growth characterized all ten citrus cultivars on Shuzhen No. 1, with the largest tree's height reaching 280.33 cm (Wogan scion) and the widest scion's diameter being 67.52 cm (Chunjian scion). However, the scion-to-rootstock diameter ratio was the lowest at 0.62 (Chunxiang scion). C. junos rootstock selections significantly affected fruit weight (five of ten scions) and fruit color (seven of ten scions) but had negligible impact on peel thickness (nine of ten scions). Furthermore, rootstock type had a significant influence on fruit quality. In conclusion, our findings indicate strong graft compatibility between all scions and C. junos rootstocks, which can impact overall size and fruit quality. Based on these results, Shuzhen No. 1 is recommended as a valuable citrus rootstock.

8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1303: 342477, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609257

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas12a-based nucleic acid assays have been increasingly used for molecular diagnostics. However, most current CRISPR/Cas12a-based RNA assays require the conversion of RNA into DNA by preamplification strategies, which increases the complexity of detection. Here, we found certain chimeric DNA-RNA hybrid single strands could activate the trans-cleavage activity of Cas12a, and then discovered the activating effect of split ssDNA and RNA when they are present simultaneously. As proof of concept, split nucleic acid-activated Cas12a (SNA-Cas12a) strategy was developed for direct detection of miR-155. By adding a short ssDNA to the proximal end of the crRNA spacer sequence, we realized the direct detection of RNA targets using Cas12a. With the assistance of ssDNA, we extended the limitation that CRISPR/Cas12a cannot be activated by RNA targets. In addition, by taking advantage of the programmability of crRNA, the length of its binding to DNA and RNA was optimized to achieve the optimal efficiency in activating Cas12a. The SNA-Cas12a method enabled sensitive miR-155 detection at pM level. This method was simple, rapid, and specific. Thus, we proposed a new Cas12a-based RNA detection strategy that expanded the application of CRISPR/Cas12a.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Ácidos Nucleicos , MicroRNAs/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , RNA Guia de Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética
9.
Food Chem X ; 21: 101252, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426077

RESUMO

The capability of 5, 10, 15 mM γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to improve the postharvest quality and antioxidant system of strawberry was evaluated in this study. The application of GABA had no effect on fruit skin color and firmness. The weight loss in fruits treated with 10 mM GABA was significantly lower than the control. GABA treatments resulted in higher levels of total soluble sugar, titratable acid, SOD and CAT activities with 10 mM being the most significant effect. Specifically, 10 mM GABA significantly induced the accumulation of fructose, oxalic acid, and succinic acid. Besides, GABA application increased the content of total anthocyanins and total flavonoids, and DPPH radical scavenging activity in fruits. The GABA-treated fruits especially at 5 mM and 10 mM displayed less ROS and MDA. These data suggested that application of 10 mM GABA might be a promising strategy to improve the postharvest marketability of strawberry.

10.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 10: 32, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38455382

RESUMO

The emergence of microhemispherical resonant gyroscopes, which integrate the advantages of exceptional stability and long lifetime with miniaturization, has afforded new possibilities for the development of whole-angle gyroscopes. However, existing methods used for manufacturing microhemispherical resonant gyroscopes based on MEMS technology face the primary drawback of intricate and costly processing. Here, we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of the first 3D-printable microhemispherical shell resonator for a Coriolis vibrating gyroscope. We remarkably achieve fabrication in just two steps bypassing the dozen or so steps required in traditional micromachining. By utilizing the intricate shaping capability and ultrahigh precision offered by projection microstereolithography, we fabricate 3D high-aspect-ratio resonant structures and controllable capacitive air gaps, both of which are extremely difficult to obtain via MEMS technology. In addition, the resonance frequency of the fabricated resonators can be tuned by electrostatic forces, and the fabricated resonators exhibit a higher quality factor in air than do typical MEMS microhemispherical resonators. This work demonstrates the feasibility of rapidly batch-manufacturing microhemispherical shell resonators, paving the way for the development of microhemispherical resonator gyroscopes for portable inertial navigation. Moreover, this particular design concept could be further applied to increase uptake of resonator tools in the MEMS community.

11.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 228, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins play important roles in plant growth and development, as well as stresses responsiveness. Nowadays, it has been found that LEAs also have function in fruit ripening. However, the comprehensive analysis on a genome-wide basis of LEA family remains limited, and the role of LEA in fruit ripening has not been fully explored yet, especially in strawberry, an economic important plant and ideal material for studying fruit ripening. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 266 putative LEA proteins were identified and characterized in strawberry genome. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that they were mostly localized in chloroplast, cytoplasm and nucleus. Duplication events detection revealed that whole genome duplication or segmental was the main driver for the expansion of LEA family in strawberry. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that FaLEAs were classified into eight groups, among which, LEA2 was the largest subgroup with 179 members, followed by LEA3, dehydrin (DHN), LEA4 and SMP (seed maturation protein). The LEA1 and DHN groups were speculated to play dominant roles in strawberry fruit development and ripening, according to their larger proportion of members detected as differentially expressed genes during such process. Notably, the expression of FaLEA167 belonging to LEA1 group was altered by strawberry maturation, and inhibited by overexpression of negative regulators of ripening (a cytosolic/plastid glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, FaGAPC2 and a cytosolic pyruvate kinase, FaPKc2.2). Subsequently, overexpression of FaLEA167 significantly increased the percentage of fruit at green stage, while reduced the full red fruit proportion. In consistent, the anthocyanins content and the fruit skin color variable reflecting a range from greenness to redness (a* value) were significantly reduced. Whereas, FaLEA167 overexpression apparently up-regulated citric acid, soluble protein and malondialdehyde content, but had no obvious effects on total soluble solids, sugar, flavonoids, phenolics content and antioxidant capacity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings not only provided basic information of FaLEA family for further functional research, but also revealed the involvement of FaLEA167 in negatively regulating strawberry fruit ripening, giving new insights into understanding of FaLEA functions.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Frutas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
12.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482979

RESUMO

Sirtuins (SRTs) are a group of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ )-dependent deacetylase that target both histone and nonhistone proteins. The biological function of SRT in horticultural plants has been rarely studied. In this study, FaSRT1-2 was identified as a key member of the 8 FaSRTs encoded in cultivated strawberry genome. Transient overexpression of FaSRT1-2 in strawberry fruit accelerated ripening, increased the content of anthocyanins and sugars, enhanced ripening-related gene expression. Moreover, stable transformation of FaSRT1-2 in strawberry plants resulted in enhanced vegetative growth, increased sensitivity to heat stress and increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea infection. Interestingly, knocking out the homologous gene in woodland strawberry had the opposite effects. Additionally, we found the content of stress-related hormone abscisic acid (ABA) was decreased, while the growth-related gibberellin (GA) concentration was increased in FaSRT1-2 overexpression lines. Gene expression analysis revealed induction of heat shock proteins, transcription factors, stress-related and antioxidant genes in the FaSRT1-2-overexpressed plants while knocked-out of the gene had the opposite impact. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that FaSRT1-2 could positively promote strawberry plant vegetative growth and fruit ripening by affecting ABA and GA pathways. However, it negatively regulates the resistance to heat stress and B. cinerea infection by influencing the related gene expression.

13.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2336, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485980

RESUMO

Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are in a quantum disordered state that is highly entangled and has fractional excitations. As a highly sought-after state of matter, QSLs were predicted to host spinon excitations and to arise in frustrated spin systems with large quantum fluctuations. Here we report on the experimental observation and theoretical modeling of QSL signatures in monolayer 1T-NbSe2, which is a newly emerging two-dimensional material that exhibits both charge-density-wave (CDW) and correlated insulating behaviors. By using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS), we confirm the presence of spin fluctuations in monolayer 1T-NbSe2 by observing the Kondo resonance as monolayer 1T-NbSe2 interacts with metallic monolayer 1H-NbSe2. Subsequent STM/STS imaging of monolayer 1T-NbSe2 at the Hubbard band energy further reveals a long-wavelength charge modulation, in agreement with the spinon modulation expected for QSLs. By depositing manganese-phthalocyanine (MnPc) molecules with spin S = 3/2 onto monolayer 1T-NbSe2, new STS resonance peaks emerge at the Hubbard band edges of monolayer 1T-NbSe2. This observation is consistent with the spinon Kondo effect induced by a S = 3/2 magnetic impurity embedded in a QSL. Taken together, these experimental observations indicate that monolayer 1T-NbSe2 is a new promising QSL material.

14.
Opt Lett ; 49(6): 1575-1578, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489454

RESUMO

Spatiotemporal mode-locked (STML) fiber lasers have become a new platform for investigating nonlinear phenomena. In this work, spatiotemporal dual-periodic soliton pulsation (SDSP) is firstly observed in an STML fiber laser. It is found that in the SDSP, the long-period pulsations (LPPs) of different transverse modes are synchronous, while the short-period pulsations (SPPs) exhibit asynchronous modulations. The numerical simulation confirms the experimental results and further reveals that the proportion of transverse mode components can manipulate the periods of the LPP and SPP but does not affect the synchronous and asynchronous pulsations of different transverse modes. The obtained results bring the study of spatiotemporal dissipative soliton pulsation into the multi-period modulation stage, which helps to understand the complex spatiotemporal dynamics in STML fiber lasers and discover new dynamics in high-dimensional nonlinear systems.

15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(2): 1185-1195, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38471955

RESUMO

Microplastics are an emerging contaminant that can persist in the environment for extended periods, posing risks to ecological systems. Recently, microplastic pollution has emerged as a major global environmental problem. In order to ensure accurate and scientific evaluation of the ecological risks associated with microplastic pollution, it is of paramount importance to improve the simplicity and reliability of microplastic identification, systematically analyze the pollution characteristics of microplastics in various environmental media, and clarify their environmental impacts. Machine learning technology has gained widespread attention in microplastic research by learning and analyzing large volumes of data to establish result evaluation or prediction models. The use of machine learning can enhance the automation and identification efficiency of visual and spectral identification of microplastics, provide scientific support for tracing the sources of microplastic pollution, and help reveal the complex environmental effects of microplastics. This review provides a summary of the application characteristics and limitations of machine learning in the aforementioned areas by reviewing the progress made in research that employs machine learning technology in microplastic identification and environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, the findings of the review will provide suggestions and prospects for the development and application of machine learning in related areas.

16.
Langmuir ; 40(11): 5799-5808, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501264

RESUMO

Nanopores are powerful single-molecule sensors for analyzing biomolecules such as DNA and proteins. Understanding the dynamics of DNA capture and translocation through nanopores is essential for optimizing their performance. In this study, we examine the effects of applied voltage and pore diameter on current blockage, translocation time, collision, and capture location by translocating λ-DNA through 5.7 and 16 nm solid-state nanopores. Ionic current changes are used to infer DNA conformations during translocation. We find that translocation time increases with pore diameter, which can be attributed to the decrease of the stall force. Linear and exponential decreases of collision frequency with voltage are observed in the 16 and 5.7 nm pores, respectively, indicating a free energy barrier in the small pore. Moreover, the results reveal a voltage-dependent bias in the capture location toward the DNA ends, which is explained by a "pulley effect" deforming the DNA as it approaches the pore. This study provides insights into the physics governing DNA capture and translocation, which can be useful for promoting single-file translocation to enhance nanopore sensing.


Assuntos
Nanoporos , DNA , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Transporte de Íons , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the brewing of soy sauce, the conversion of multiple substances is driven by various microorganisms and their secreted enzyme systems. Soy sauce mash is an important source of enzyme systems during moromi fermentation, but the changes of enzyme systems in soy sauce mash during moromi fermentation are poorly understood. In order to explore the predominant enzyme systems existing during moromi fermentation and to explain the characteristics of the enzyme system changes, an enzymatic activities assay and 4D-label-free proteomics analysis were conducted on soy sauce mash at different stages of fermentation. RESULTS: The activities of hydrolytic enzymes in soy sauce mash decreased continuously throughout the fermentation process, while most of the characteristic physicochemical substances in soy sauce mash supernatant had already accumulated at the early stage of fermentation. Four hydrolytic enzymes were found to be positively correlated with important physicochemical indexes by principal component analysis and Pearson correlation analysis. The proteomics analysis revealed three highly upregulated enzymes and two enzymes that were present in important metabolic pathways throughout the fermentation process. Furthermore, it was found that Aspergillus oryzae was able to accumulate various nutrients in the soy sauce mash by downregulating most of its metabolic pathways. CONCLUSION: Enzymes present with excellent properties during the moromi fermentation period could be obtained from these results. Meanwhile, the characterization of the metabolic pathways of microorganisms during the moromi fermentation period was revealed. The results provide a basis for more scientific and purposeful improvement of moromi fermentation in the future. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477512

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Constitutional delay of puberty (CDP) is highly heritable, but the genetic basis for CDP is largely unknown. Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) can be caused by rare genetic variants, but in about half of cases, no rare-variant cause is found. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether common genetic variants that influence pubertal timing contribute to CDP and IHH. DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: 80 individuals with CDP; 301 with normosmic IHH, and 348 with Kallmann syndrome; control genotyping data from unrelated studies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Polygenic scores (PGS) based on genome-wide association studies for timing of male pubertal hallmarks and age at menarche (AAM). RESULTS: The CDP cohort had higher PGS for male pubertal hallmarks and for AAM compared to controls (for male hallmarks, Cohen's d = 0.85, p = 1 × 10-16; for AAM, d = 0.67, p = 1 × 10-10). The normosmic IHH cohort also had higher PGS for male hallmarks compared to controls, but the difference was smaller (male hallmarks d = 0.20, p = 0.003; AAM d = 0.10, p = 0.055). No differences were seen for the KS cohort compared to controls (male hallmarks d = 0.04, p = 0.45; AAM d = -0.03, p = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variants that influence pubertal timing in the general population contribute strongly to the genetics of CDP, weakly to normosmic IHH, and potentially not at all to KS. These findings demonstrate that the common-variant genetics of CDP and normosmic IHH are largely but not entirely distinct.

19.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(4): 237, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509239

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Surgery for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is characterized by a poor prognosis and high complication rate, resulting in a heavy symptom burden and poor health-related quality of life (QOL). We evaluated longitudinal patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to analyze the correlations between symptoms and QOL and their changing characteristics during postoperative rehabilitation. METHODS: We investigated patients with ESCC who underwent minimally invasive McKeown esophagectomy at Sichuan Cancer Hospital between April 2019 and December 2019. Longitudinal data of the clinical characteristics and PROs were collected. The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL questionnaires were used to assess symptoms and QOL and compare the trajectories of PROs during the investigation. RESULTS: A total of 244 patients with ESCC were enrolled in this study. Regarding QOL, role and emotional functions returned to baseline at 1 month after surgery, and cognitive and social functions returned to baseline at 3 months after surgery. However, physical function and global QOL did not return to baseline at 1 year after surgery. At 7 days and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, the main symptoms of the patients were negatively correlated with physical, role, emotional, cognitive, and social functions and the overall health status (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with ESCC experience reduced health-related QOL and persisting symptoms after minimally invasive McKeown esophagectomy, but a recovery trend was observed within 1 month. The long-term QOL after esophagectomy is acceptable.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Esofagectomia/efeitos adversos , Exame Físico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 202, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Expansion and contraction of inverted repeats can cause considerable variation of plastid genomes (plastomes) in angiosperms. However, little is known about whether structural variations of plastomes are associated with adaptation to or occupancy of new environments. Moreover, adaptive evolution of angiosperm plastid genes remains poorly understood. Here, we sequenced the complete plastomes for four species of xerophytic Ceratocephala and hydrophytic Myosurus, as well as Ficaria verna. By an integration of phylogenomic, comparative genomic, and selection pressure analyses, we investigated evolutionary patterns of plastomes in Ranunculeae and their relationships with adaptation to dry and aquatic habitats. RESULTS: Owing to the significant contraction of the boundary of IRA/LSC towards the IRA, plastome sizes and IR lengths of Myosurus and Ceratocephala are smaller within Ranunculeae. Compared to other Ranunculeae, the Myosurus plastome lost clpP and rps16, one copy of rpl2 and rpl23, and one intron of rpoC1 and rpl16, and the Ceratocephala plastome added an infA gene and lost one copy of rpl2 and two introns of clpP. A total of 11 plastid genes (14%) showed positive selection, two genes common to Myosurus and Ceratocephala, seven in Ceratocephala only, and two in Myosurus only. Four genes showed strong signals of episodic positive selection. The rps7 gene of Ceratocephala and the rpl32 and ycf4 genes of Myosurus showed an increase in the rate of variation close to 3.3 Ma. CONCLUSIONS: The plastomic structure variations as well as the positive selection of two plastid genes might be related to the colonization of new environments by the common ancestor of Ceratocephala and Myosurus. The seven and two genes under positive selection might be related to the adaptation to dry and aquatic habitats in Ceratocephala and Myosurus, respectively. Moreover, intensified aridity and frequent sea-level fluctuations, as well as global cooling, might have favored an increased rate of change in some genes at about 3.3 Ma, associated with adaptation to dry and aquatic environments, respectively. These findings suggest that changing environments might have influenced structural variations of plastomes and fixed new mutations arising on some plastid genes owing to adaptation to specific habitats.


Assuntos
Genomas de Plastídeos , Ranunculaceae , Evolução Molecular , Sequência de Bases , Ranunculaceae/genética , Filogenia , Genomas de Plastídeos/genética
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