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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125822, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467889

RESUMO

This study discovered one nitrate-calcium-based anammox start-up pathway. Compared with control, the start-up time of anammox was saved by 33.3%, and the average total nitrogen removal efficiency increased from 29.6% to 53.7% during the start-up. Besides, the continuous nitrite accumulation (1.18 mg/L) and a marked increase in the relative abundance of denitrifying and anammox bacteria were observed in the only Ca(NO3)2-added group. These results suggested that calcium nitrate induced partial denitrification to provide nitrite for anammox. Additionally, the role of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the Ca(NO3)2-added systems also deserved attention, for the contribution of DNRA to nitrate removal as well as the relative abundance of DNRA bacteria were both increased for the Ca(NO3)2-added groups. These results suggested that a mutualistic symbiosis among denitrification, DNRA and anammox exists in the calcium nitrate-added systems, which may explain the reason for acceleration of anammox start-up by adding calcium nitrate.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1619, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate global burden of refraction disorders by year, age, region, gender, socioeconomic status and other national characteristics in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and prevalence from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019 and World Bank Open Data 2019. METHODS: Global, regional, and national DALY numbers, crude DALY rates, age-standardized DALY and prevalence rates of refraction disorders were acquired from the GBD study 2019. Mobile cellular subscriptions, urban population, GDP per capita, access to electricity and total fertility rate were obtained from the World Bank to explore the factors that influenced the health burden of refraction disorders. Kruskal-Wallis test, linear regression and multiple linear regression were performed to evaluate the associations between the health burden with socioeconomic levels and other national characteristics. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was used to investigate the gender disparity. RESULTS: Globally, age-standardized DALY rates of refraction disorders decreased from 88.9 (95% UI: 60.5-120.3) in 1990 to 81.5 (95% UI: 55.0-114.8) in 2019, and might fall to 73.16 (95% UI: 67.81-78.51) by 2050. Age-standardized prevalence rates would also reduce to 1830 (95% UI: 1700-1960) by 2050, from 2080 (95% UI: 1870-2310) in 1990 to 1960 (95% UI: 1750-2180) in 2019. In low SDI region, age-standardized DALY rates (equation: Y = 114.05*X + 27.88) and prevalence rates (equation: Y = 3171.1*X + 403.2) were positively correlated with SDI in linear regression respectively. East Asia had the highest blindness rate caused by refraction disorders in terms of age-standardized DALY rates (11.20, 95% UI: 7.38-16.36). Gender inequality was found among different age groups and SDI regions. CONCLUSION: Health burden of refraction disorders decreased in recent years, and may continue to alleviate in the next three decades. Older ages, females and lower socioeconomic status were associated with higher refraction disorders health burden.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Carga Global da Doença , Idoso , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 664, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Root hair, a special type of tubular-shaped cell, outgrows from root epidermal cell and plays important roles in the acquisition of nutrients and water, as well as interactions with biotic and abiotic stress. Although many genes involved in root hair development have been identified, genetic basis of natural variation in root hair growth has never been explored. RESULTS: Here, we utilized a maize association panel including 281 inbred lines with tropical, subtropical, and temperate origins to decipher the phenotypic diversity and genetic basis of root hair length. We demonstrated significant associations of root hair length with many metabolic pathways and other agronomic traits. Combining root hair phenotypes with 1.25 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) via genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed several candidate genes implicated in cellular signaling, polar growth, disease resistance and various metabolic pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These results illustrate the genetic basis of root hair length in maize, offering a list of candidate genes predictably contributing to root hair growth, which are invaluable resource for the future functional investigation.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Zea mays , Resistência à Doença , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Zea mays/genética
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4069-4082, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467716

RESUMO

Trigonella foenum-graecum is an annual plant of the genus Trigonella in the Leguminosae family. It is widely distributed in China and has a long history of application. According to phytochemistry research, the seeds, stem, and leaves of this herb contain not only a variety of bioactive ingredients, including alkaloids, saponins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, and phenols, but also abundant nutrients such as unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids and various trace elements. Pharmacological studies have shown that both the extract of T. foenum-graecum and its chemical constituents exhibit hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antitumor, antioxidative, antimicro-bial, and hepatoprotective activities. This paper reviews the research progress on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of T. foenum-graecum, which may contribute to further development, application, and clinical research of this herb.


Assuntos
Trigonella , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4124-4130, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467723

RESUMO

This paper explores the statistical distribution characteristics of coating film thickness, so as to present a new method for determining coating endpoint based on 3σ criterion and logic regression. Firstly, the spectrum and thickness of 4 batch samples were collected. Secondly, the spectral range of normal products was obtained by 3σ criterion, with the spectral feature NI as the number of test spectrum in the above range. Then, the model based on 3σ criterion and logic regression was built according to the best condition in K-fold cross-validation and the determined threshold of qualified rate in the coating endpoint. Finally, the qualified rate of test set samples at different time points was calculated by the above model, and the above change trend and the threshold value were combined to determine the coating endpoint. The results of KS analysis showed the distribution of thickness of the qualified products followed the normal distribution(P=0.081>0.05). The accuracy of the coating endpoint determination was as high as 100% by the model based on 3σ criterion and logic regression when the determined threshold of qualified rate was 90%. Therefore, the 3σ criterion was feasible to the research of coating eligibility. This paper reveals certain random phenomena in the coating process, and the method features a high accuracy, quick analysis and a good interpretability, which provides a reference for online detection and qualify evaluation in future.


Assuntos
Lógica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Determinação de Ponto Final , Comprimidos
6.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 180: 109039, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481909

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to assess the effects of the hemoglobin glycation index (HGI) on hyperglycemia diagnosis and summarize the general characteristics of patients with a high-HGI phenotype. METHODS: The fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of participants (n = 47,648) were used to estimate a linear regression equation and determine the baseline HGI. Overall, 42,317 participants without a history of diabetes were included in the final analysis. The participants were divided into three groups according to the tertiles (low, moderate, and high) of baseline HGI. Proportions and variables were compared among the three HGI groups. A multivariate ordered logistic regression model was used to explore associations between related variables and the high-HGI phenotype. RESULTS: Regression analysis indicated that the high-HGI phenotype was positively associated with female sex, advanced age, obesity, increased low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and postprandial glycemic excursion levels (all P < 0.05). The prevalence of hyperglycemia increased from the low- to the high-HGI groups when using HbA1c for diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with high HGI have similar clinical characteristics. Measuring HbA1c alone for diagnosis could lead to inappropriate diabetes management decisions in people with low or high HGI.

7.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; : 166268, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a challenge. It is urgent to understand the microenvironment to improve therapy and prognosis. METHODS: Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze transcription expression profile of AML patient samples with complete clinical information from UCSC Xena TCGA-AML datasets and validate with GEO datasets. Western blot, qPCR, RNAi and CCK8 assay were used to assay the effect of GPX1 expression on AML cell viability and the expression of genes of interest. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed that highly expressed GPX1 in AML patients links to unfavorable prognosis. GPX1 expression was positively associated with not only fraction levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), monocytes and T cell exhaustion, the expression levels of MDSC markers, MDSC-promoting CCR2 and immune inhibitory checkpoints (TIM3/Gal-9, SIRPα and VISTA), but also negatively with low fraction levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Silencing GPX1 expression reduced AML cell viability and CCR2 expression. Moreover, GPX1-targetd kinases were PKC family, SRC family, SYK and PAK1, which promote AML progression and the resistance to therapy. Furthermore, Additionally, GPX1-associated prognostic signature (GPS) is an independent risk factor with high area under curve (AUC) values of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. High risk group based on GPS enriched not only with endocytosis which transfers mitochondria to favor AML cell survival in response to chemotherapy, but also NOTCH,WNT and TLR signaling which promote therapy resistance. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed the significant involvement of GPX1 in AML immunosuppression via and provided a prognostic signature for AML patients.

8.
ISA Trans ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493381

RESUMO

For power generation management and power system dispatching, it is of big significance to predict the consumption of electric energy accurately. For the sake of improving the prediction accuracy of power consumption, taking the complex features of time series data into consideration, a novel neural network sandwich structure with an improved attention mechanism is inserted into the double-layer bidirectional long short-term memory network shortened as A-DBLSTM is put forward in this article. In A-DBLSTM, compared with traditional attention mechanism, the presented attention mechanism focuses on different features in each time unit and the A-DBLLSTM network extracts time information in sequence. The parameter optimization of A-DBLSTM is based on the method of particle swarm optimization (PSO). For confirming the effectiveness and feasibility of A-DBLSTM, case studies using two datasets of the hourly temperature values and power loads between 2012 and 2014 and the electric energy consumption are carried out. The experimental results indicate that the presented A-DBLSTM with the novel sandwich network structure achieves superior performance in the aspects of the mean square error, root mean square, the average absolute error and the mean absolute percentage error to other advanced methods. What is more, the factors that have the greatest impact on the prediction performance can be found through analyzing the heatmap of the attention layer.

9.
Small ; : e2102316, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494366

RESUMO

Constructing a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on high-specific-capacity silicon (Si) anode is one of the most effective methods to reduce the crack of SEI and improve the cycling performance of Si anode. Herein, the authors construct a reinforced and gradient SEI on Si nanoparticles by an in-situ thiol-ene click reaction. Mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with thiol functional groups (SH) is first grafted on the Si nanoparticles through condensation reaction, which then in-situ covalently bonds with vinylene carbonate (VC) to form a reinforced and uniform SEI on Si nanoparticles. The modified SEI with sufficient elastic Lix SiOy can homogenize the stress and strain during the lithiation of Si nanoparticles to reduce their expansion and prevent the SEI from cracking. The Si nanoparticles-graphite blending anode with the reinforced SEI exhibits excellent performance with an initial coulombic efficiency of ≈90%, a capacity of 1053.3 mA h g-1 after 500 cycles and a high capacity of 852.8 mA h g-1 even at a high current density of 3 A g-1 . Moreover, the obtained anode shows superior cycling stability under both high loadings and lean electrolyte. The in-situ thiol-ene click reaction is a practical method to construct reinforced SEI on Si nanoparticles for next-generation high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498788

RESUMO

The severe interfacial side reactions of polymer electrolyte with LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM811) cathode and lithium (Li) metal anode become huge challenge to restrict ultra-stable cycling performance of solid-state NCM811/Li batteries. Herein, we propose a chemically stable ceramic-polymer-anchored solvent composite electrolyte with high ionic conductivity of 6.0×10-4 S cm-1, which enables the solid-state NCM811/Li batteries to stably cycle for 1500 times. The Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 nanowires (LNs) can tightly anchor the essential N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), which greatly enhances its electrochemical stability and suppresses the side reactions. We clearly identify the ceramic-polymer-liquid multiple ion transport mechanism of the LNs-PVDF-DMF composite electrolyte by tracking the 6Li and 7Li substitution behavior via solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, which endow homogeneous and efficient ions flux and uniform lithium depositions. The stable interface chemistry and efficient ion transport of LNs-PVDF-DMF contribute to superior performances of the solid-state batteries at wide temperature range of -20~60 ºC.

11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5575286, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545330

RESUMO

Purpose: Circular RNA as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) plays a significant role in the pathogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study, a circular RNA-related ceRNA regulatory network was constructed, which provides new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the treatment of breast cancer. Materials and methods. The expression profile datasets (GSE101123, GSE143564, GSE50428) of circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs were downloaded from the GEO database, and then differentially expressed RNAs (DEcircRNAs, DEmiRNAs, DEmRNAs) were obtained through the CSCD, TargetScan, miRDB, and miRTarBase databases. CircRNA-miRNA pairs and miRNA-mRNA pairs were constructed. Finally, a ceRNA regulatory network was established. Downstream analysis of the ceRNA network included GO, KEGG analysis, survival analysis, sub-network construction, the BCIP, and qRT-PCR verification. Results: In total, 144 differentially expressed (DE) DEcircRNA, 221 DEmiRNA, and 1211 DEmRNA were obtained, and 96 circRNA-miRNA pairs and 139 miRNA-mRNA pairs were constructed by prediction. The ceRNA regulatory network (circRNA-miRNA-mRNA) was constructed, which included 42 circRNA, 36miRNA, and 78 mRNA. GO function annotation showed genes were mainly enriched in receptor activity activated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and in the regulation of epithelial cell apoptosis. KEGG analysis showed genes were mainly enriched in the TGF-beta signaling, PI3K-Akt signaling, and Wnt signaling pathways. Four genes associated with survival and prognosis of breast cancer were obtained by survival analysis, the prognostic sub-network included 4 circRNA, 4 miRNA, and 4 mRNA. BCIP analysis and qRT-PCR verification confirmed that relative mRNA expression levels were consistent with those in the GEO database. Conclusion: A circRNA-related ceRNA regulatory network was constructed for breast cancer in this study and key genes affecting pathogenesis and progression were identified. These findings may help better understand and further explore the molecular mechanisms that affect the progression and pathogenesis of breast cancer.

12.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 50: 128325, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403724

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) treatment remains a critical unmet medical need. Studies in normal healthy volunteers and HF patients have shown that [Pyr1]apelin-13, the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor, improves cardiac function. However, the short half-life of [Pyr1]apelin-13 and the need for intravenous administration have limited the therapeutic potential for chronic use. We sought to identify potent, small-molecule APJ agonists with improved pharmaceutical properties to enable oral dosing in clinical studies. In this manuscript, we describe the identification of a series of pyrimidinone sulfones as a structurally differentiated series to the clinical lead (compound 1). Optimization of the sulfone series for potency, metabolic stability and oral bioavailability led to the identification of compound 22, which showed comparable APJ potency to [Pyr1]apelin-13 and exhibited an acceptable pharmacokinetic profile to advance to the acute hemodynamic rat model.

13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 575: 56-64, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461437

RESUMO

Prostate cancer, the most common non-cutaneous male cancer, is a public health problem with a third prevalence worldwide. PYCR1 and miR-1207-5p dysregulations were found in cancer progression. Our study aims to reveal the biological role of miR-1207-5p-PYCR1 axis in prostate cancer progression. First, we investigated the expression of miR-1207-5p in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines by RT-qPCR. Next, we confirmed miR-1207-5p targeting PYCR1 by luciferase assay. CCK-8 assay, BrdU assay, flow cytometry, and tanswell assay were applied for examining cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion in prostate cancer cells, respectively. In the present study, decreased miR-1207-5p expression was obviously observed in prostate cancer tissues and cells. Upregulation of miR-1207-5p hampered cellular proliferation and invasion, while enhanced cellular apoptosis. In addition, upregulation of PYCR1 elevated cell proliferation and invasion, but repressed apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Moreover, miR-1207-5p inhibited the expression of PYCR1 to repress prostate cancer tumorigenesis. MiR-1207-5p inhibited the expression of PYCR1 to repress the progression of prostate cancer by inhibiting cell growth and elevating cell apoptosis. Overall, our study clarifies the biological role of miR-1207-5p-PYCR1 axis in prostate cancer progression, which might be effective biomarkers for clinical treatment of prostate cancer.

14.
Cell Immunol ; 368: 104419, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371260

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complicated rheumatic autoimmune disease. Lectin, galactoside-binding soluble, 2 (LGALS2), LGALS3 and LGALS9, three members of the galectin family, play potential roles in autoimmune diseases, including RA. However, association of genetic polymorphisms of LGALS2, LGALS3 and LGALS9 with RA risk in a Southern Chinese Han population has not been elucidated. A case-control study was conducted herein, including 500 RA patients and 650 healthy individuals of Southern Chinese Han origin. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs7291467 for the LGALS2 gene, rs4644, rs4652, rs1009977, rs2274273 and rs17128183 for the LGALS3 gene, and rs4795835, rs3763959, rs4239242, rs3751093, rs732222 and rs4794976 for the LGALS9 gene, were genotyped. Polymorphisms were genotyped using the KASP method. Frequencies of rs1009977 genotype TG and rs3751093 genotype GA of LGALS3 gene were significantly different between RA patients and healthy controls (P = 0.049, P = 0.033). Allele T and genotypes TT and TT + TG of rs4794976 for LGALS9 gene were significantly correlated with RA risk (P = 0.017, P = 0.012, P = 0.041). Subgroup analysis revealed that rs1009977, rs2274273 and rs17128183 polymorphisms of LGALS3 gene and rs4795835 polymorphism of LGALS9 gene were correlated with several RA clinical manifestations (all P < 0.05). In addition, haplotype GCGTT showed an increased risk for RA (OR = 1.216, 95% CI: 1.028-1.438, P = 0.023), whereas haplotype GCGTG showed a reduced risk for RA susceptibility (OR = 0.779, 95% CI: 0.625-0.971, P = 0.026). In conclusion, LGALS3 and LGALS9 gene polymorphisms may associate with RA predisposition in a Southern Chinese Han population.

15.
Atherosclerosis ; 332: 33-40, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Osteopontin is implicated in atherosclerosis, and its expression is upregulated in response to brain injury. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the associations between plasma osteopontin levels and adverse clinical outcomes in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: We measured baseline plasma osteopontin levels in 3545 ischemic stroke patients from the China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke (CATIS). The primary outcome was the composite outcome of death and major disability (modified Rankin scale score ≥3) at 1 year after ischemic stroke, and secondary outcomes included major disability, death, and the composite outcome of death and vascular events. RESULTS: During 1 year of follow-up, patients in the fourth quartile of plasma osteopontin had the highest risks of primary outcome, major disability, death, and the composite outcome of death and vascular events. After multivariate adjustment, the odds ratios or hazard ratios (95 % confidence intervals) associated with each standard deviation increase in log-transformed osteopontin were 1.20 (1.09-1.33) for primary outcome, 1.11 (1.00-1.23) for major disability, 1.29 (1.10-1.52) for death, and 1.15 (1.01-1.30) for the composite outcome of death and vascular events. The addition of plasma osteopontin to conventional risk factors significantly improved the risk reclassification for the primary outcome (net reclassification improvement: 16.91%, p < 0.001; integrated discrimination improvement: 0.43%, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma osteopontin levels at baseline were associated with increased risks of adverse clinical outcomes at 1 year after ischemic stroke, suggesting that osteopontin is a promising prognostic biomarker for ischemic stroke.

16.
Gene ; 802: 145869, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352298

RESUMO

Skeletal myoblasts are activated satellite cells capable of proliferation and differentiation. Studies on mammalian myoblast differentiation and myogenesis could be carried out in vitro thanks to the availability of mouse myoblast cell line C2C12. Lacking of muscle cell line hinders the studies of teleost fish myogenesis. Here, we established a continuous skeletal muscle cell line from juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) muscle using explant method and subcultured more than 50 passages for over 150 days. Stable expression of myoblast-specific marker, MyoD (myoblast determination protein) and the potential of differentiation into multi-nucleated skeletal myotubes upon induction suggested the cell line were predominately composed of myoblasts. Transcriptome analysis revealed a total of 4375 genes differentially expressed at four time points after the switch to differentiation medium, which were mainly involved in proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. KIF22 (kinesin family member 22) and POLA1 (DNA polymerase alpha 1) were identified as the key genes involved in fish myoblast proliferation whereas MYL3 (myosin light chain 3) and TNNT2 (troponin T2) were determined as the crucial genes responsible for differentiation. In all, the continuous myoblasts cultured in this study provided a cell platform for future studies on marine fish myoblast differentiation and myogenesis. The molecular process of myoblast differentiation revealed in this study will open a window into the understanding of indeterminate muscle growth of large teleost.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/fisiologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Criopreservação , Transcriptoma
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16988, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417543

RESUMO

Airborne LiDAR bathymetry offers low cost and high mobility, making it an ideal option for shallow-water measurements. However, due to differences in the measurement environment and the laser emission channel, the received waveform is difficult to extract using a single algorithm. The choice of a suitable waveform processing method is thus of extreme importance to guarantee the accuracy of the bathymetric retrieval. In this study, we use a wavelet-denoising method to denoise the received waveform and subsequently test four algorithms for denoised-waveform processing, namely, the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution (RLD), blind deconvolution (BD), Wiener filter deconvolution (WFD), and constrained least-squares filter deconvolution (RFD). The simulation and measured multichannel databases are used to evaluate the algorithms, with focus on improving their performance after data-denoising and their capability of extracting water depth. Results show that applying wavelet denoising before deconvolution improves the extraction accuracy. The four algorithms perform better for the shallow-water orthogonal polarization channel (PMT2) than for the shallow horizontal row polarization channel (PMT1). Of the four algorithms, RLD provides the best signal-detection rate, and RFD is the most robust; BD has low computational efficiency, and WFD performs poorly in deep water (< 25 m).

18.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 620, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most widely cultivated fishes in China. High stocking density can reportedly affect fish growth and immunity. Herein we performed PacBio long-read single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and Illumina RNA sequencing to evaluate the effects of high stocking density on grass carp transcriptome. RESULTS: SMRT sequencing led to the identification of 33,773 genes (14,946 known and 18,827 new genes). From the structure analysis, 8,009 genes were detected with alternative splicing events, 10,219 genes showed alternative polyadenylation sites and 15,521 long noncoding RNAs. Further, 1,235, 962, and 213 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the intestine, muscle, and brain tissues, respectively. We performed functional enrichment analyses of DEGs, and they were identified to be significantly enriched in nutrient metabolism and immune function. The expression levels of several genes encoding apolipoproteins and activities of enzymes involved in carbohydrate enzymolysis were found to be upregulated in the high stocking density group, indicating that lipid metabolism and carbohydrate decomposition were accelerated. Besides, four isoforms of grass carp major histocompatibility complex class II antigen alpha and beta chains in the aforementioned three tissue was showed at least a 4-fold decrease. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggesting that fish farmed at high stocking densities face issues associated with the metabolism and immune system. To conclude, our results emphasize the importance of maintaining reasonable density in grass carp aquaculture.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Transcriptoma
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 715475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414134

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Identifying risks of stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is important for clinical management. We aimed to evaluate the association between gut microbiome composition and SAP in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted, and 188 AIS patients were enrolled as the training cohort. Fecal and serum samples were collected at admission. SAP was diagnosed by specialized physicians, and disease severity scores were recorded. Fecal samples were subjected to 16S rRNA V4 tag sequencing and analysed with QIIME and LEfSe. Associations between the most relevant taxa and SAP were analysed and validated with an independent cohort. Fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), serum D-lactate (D-LA), intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (iFABP) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) levels were measured. Results: Overall, 52 patients (27.7%) had SAP in the training cohort. The gut microbiome differed between SAP and non-SAP patients; specifically, Roseburia depletion and opportunistic pathogen enrichment were noted in SAP patients, as confirmed in the validation cohort (n=144, 28 SAP [19.4%]). Based on multivariate analysis, Roseburia was identified as a protective factor against SAP in both cohorts (training, aOR 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30-0.90; validation, aOR 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.85). The combination of these taxa into a microbial dysbiosis index (MDI) revealed that dysbiosis increased nearly 2 times risk of SAP (training, aOR 1.95; 95% CI, 1.19-3.20; validation, aOR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.15-4.26). Lower fecal SCFA levels and higher serum D-LA levels were observed in SAP patients. Furthermore, SAP was an independent risk factor of 30-day death and 90-day unfavorable outcome. Conclusion: We demonstrate that a microbial community with depleted Roseburia and enriched opportunistic pathogens is associated with increased risk of SAP among AIS patients. Gut microbiota screening might be useful for identifying patients at high risk for SAP and provide clues for stroke treatment.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pneumonia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , China/epidemiologia , Disbiose/complicações , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Risco
20.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131831, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411925

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are pollutants that are widely distributed in the aquatic environment. Fish are directly exposed to water and are at risk of ingesting a large amount of MPs. In the present study, the grass carp were exposed to two concentrations of MPs (1000 and 100 µg/L) and fluorescence signals were detected in the liver digestion solution. Grass carp exposed to MPs for 21-days showed liver cytoplasmic vacuolation and inhibited growth. At the end of the exposure period, the fish treated with MPs exhibited inhibition of the antioxidant system and enhancement oxidative stress in comparison with the control group. The transcriptome analysis of grass carp was then performed to reveal the molecular mechanism of the response to MPs. In total, 1554 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The results of GO and KEGG pathway analysis of the DEGs identified energy metabolism-related pathways and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Taken together, the present study not only highlighted oxidative stress and metabolism disorders related to MP ingestion, but also determined the risk of MP exposure to teleost.

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