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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 453-469, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375928

RESUMO

Approximately 94 to 220 million people worldwide are at risk of drinking well water containing arsenic > 10 µg/L, the WHO guideline value. To identify non-compliant domestic wells, assess health risks and reduce exposure, accurate and rapid on-site inorganic arsenic screening methods are desirable because all domestic wells worldwide need to be tested. Here, the principles, advantages and limitations of commonly used colorimetry, electrochemistry, and biosensing methods are critically reviewed, with the performance compared with laboratory-based benchmark methods. Most commercial kits are based on the classic Gutzeit reaction. Despite being semi-quantitative, the more recent and more expensive products display improved and acceptable accuracy and shorter testing time (∼10 min). Carried out by trained professionals, electrochemical methods are also feasible for on-site analysis, although miniaturization is desirable yet challenging. Biosensing using whole bacterial cells or bio-engineered materials such as aptamers is promising, if incorporated with function specific nanomaterials and biomaterials. Since arsenic is frequently found as arsenite in reducing groundwater and subject to oxidation during sampling, transportation and storage, on-site separation and sample preservation are feasible but the specific methods should be chosen based on sample matrix and tested before use. To eliminate arsenic exposure among hundreds of millions of mostly rural residents worldwide, we call for concerted efforts in research community and regulatory authority to develop accurate, rapid, and affordable tests for on-site screening and monitoring of arsenic in drinking water. Access to affordable testing will benefit people who are socioeconomically disadvantaged.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Arsenicais , Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Arsênio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água Potável/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Abastecimento de Água
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130345, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36444076

RESUMO

Developing highly efficient catalysts for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation is an important issue in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) technology. In this work, cobalt and nitrogen-doped ultrathin oxygen-rich carbon nanosheets derived from 2D metal-organic framework (MOF) were successfully fabricated. The as-prepared catalyst can effectively degrade tetracycline (TC) with a high reaction constant (0.088 min-1). Quenching test, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technology, and the electrochemical test indicate that the radical pathway plays a minor role in the degradation process, the 1O2 based nonradical pathway dominates the reaction. Experimental and density functional theory (DFT) studies revealed that the Co-N sites on the carbon structure serve as the dominant active sites, and the oxygen functional groups in close vicinity to Co-N sites can dramatically influence local electronic structure and its interaction with PMS molecule, a high correlation between the reaction constant and hydroxy groups content could be due to the Co-N sites close to hydroxyl groups has a moderate PMS adsorption energy. This work provides new insight into the design of highly efficient Fenton-like catalysts.


Assuntos
Cobalto , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Carbono , Oxigênio , Catálise , Nitrogênio
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18657, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333327

RESUMO

Rho GTPases are regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and their activity is modulated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine nucleotide exchanging factors (GEFs). Glomerular podocytes have numerous actin-based projections called foot processes and their alteration is characteristic of proteinuric kidney diseases. We reported previously that Rac1 hyperactivation in podocytes causes proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in mice. However, which GAP and GEF modulate Rac1 activity in podocytes remains unknown. Here, using a proximity-based ligation assay, we identified CdGAP (ARHGAP31) and ß-PIX (ARHGEF7) as the major regulatory proteins interacting with Rac1 in human podocytes. CdGAP interacted with ß-PIX through its basic region, and upon EGF stimulation, they both translocated to the plasma membrane in podocytes. CdGAP-depleted podocytes had altered cell motility and increased basal Rac1 and Cdc42 activities. When stimulated with EGF, CdGAP-depleted podocytes showed impaired ß-PIX membrane-translocation and tyrosine phosphorylation, and reduced activities of Src kinase, focal adhesion kinase, and paxillin. Systemic and podocyte-specific CdGAP-knockout mice developed mild but significant proteinuria, which was exacerbated by Adriamycin. Collectively, these findings show that CdGAP contributes to maintain podocyte function and protect them from injury.


Assuntos
Podócitos , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Podócitos/metabolismo , Adesões Focais , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/metabolismo , Proteinúria/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 113(Pt A): 109263, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening disease which has high mortality and lacks effective pharmacological treatments. Excessive inflammation and oxidative stress are the key pathogenesis of ALI. Mefunidone (MFD), a novel small molecule compound, displayed anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative stress effects on streptozocin (STZ) and db/db mice in our previous studies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MFD on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and explore the potential molecular mechanisms. METHODS: We investigated the effects of MFD on LPS-induced ALI mouse model and LPS-stimulated immortalized mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (iBMDMs). RESULTS: MFD could alleviate pulmonary structure disorder and attenuate pulmonary neutrophils infiltration induced by LPS. MFD could also decreased proinflammatory cytokines release and reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation stimulated by LPS. Further, MFD could significantly reduce LPS-induced phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), increase expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and restore the expressions of antioxidant enzymes. CONCLUSION: Our results firstly supported that MFD effectively protected LPS-induced ALI against inflammation and oxidative stress through inhibiting MAPK signaling pathway and activating Nrf2 pathway.

5.
iScience ; 25(11): 105382, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345339

RESUMO

Immunotherapy shows durable response but only in a subset of patients, and test for predictive biomarkers requires procedures in addition to routine workflow. We proposed a confounder-aware representation learning-based system, genopathomic biomarker for immunotherapy response (PITER), that uses only diagnosis-acquired hematoxylin-eosin (H&E)-stained pathological slides by leveraging histopathological and genetic characteristics to identify candidates for immunotherapy. PITER was generated and tested with three datasets containing 1944 slides of 1239 patients. PITER was found to be a useful biomarker to identify patients of lung adenocarcinoma with both favorable progression-free and overall survival in the immunotherapy cohort (p < 0.05). PITER was significantly associated with pathways involved in active cell division and a more immune activating microenvironment, which indicated the biological basis in identifying patients with favorable outcome of immunotherapy. Thus, PITER may be a potential biomarker to identify patients of lung adenocarcinoma with a good response to immunotherapy, and potentially provide precise treatment.

6.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421464

RESUMO

Controlled atmosphere (CA) has been demonstrated to maintain the shelf-life quality of fruits, but its effect on the antioxidant activities and phenolic content of yellow peach is not comprehensive. This study analyzed the role of CA on the quality of shelf period, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of "Jinxiu" yellow peach. Yellow peach was left under specific aeration conditions (3.5-4% CO2, 2-3% O2, 92-95.5% N2, 1 ± 0.5 °C) and the control (1 ± 0.5 °C) for 21 d, to observe changes in physiological parameters of the fruit during 10 d of the shelf life (25 ± 1 °C). The result showed that CA reduced the weight loss rate (WLR), decay rate (DR), and browning index (BI) of yellow peaches. Furthermore, the CA held a high level of total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenol content (TPC) and phenolic content in the fruit. Antioxidant analysis showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activity was lower and free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) and antioxidant enzyme activities (POD and PAL) were higher in the CA group. Combining the results of significance analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) clearly identified the differences between the CA group and the control group. The results showed that the CA could maintain higher phenolic content and reduce the oxidation of yellow peach fruit and enhance fruit quality by affecting the antioxidant activities of yellow peach.

7.
Entropy (Basel) ; 24(11)2022 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421501

RESUMO

Data representation has been one of the core topics in 3D graphics and pattern recognition in high-dimensional data. Although the high-resolution geometrical information of a physical object can be well preserved in the form of metrical data, e.g., point clouds/triangular meshes, from a regular data (e.g., image/audio) processing perspective, they also bring excessive noise in the course of feature abstraction and regression. For 3D face recognition, preceding attempts focus on treating the scan samples as signals laying on an underlying discrete surface (mesh) or morphable (statistic) models and by embedding auxiliary information, e.g., texture onto the regularized local planar structure to obtain a superior expressive performance to registration-based methods, but environmental variations such as posture/illumination will dissatisfy the integrity or uniform sampling condition, which holistic models generally rely on. In this paper, a geometric deep learning framework for face recognition is proposed, which merely requires the consumption of raw spatial coordinates. The non-uniformity and non-grid geometric transformations in the course of point cloud face scanning are mitigated by modeling each identity as a stochastic process. Individual face scans are considered realizations, yielding underlying inherent distributions under the appropriate assumption of ergodicity. To accomplish 3D facial recognition, we propose a windowed solid harmonic scattering transform on point cloud face scans to extract the invariant coefficients so that unrelated variations can be encoded into certain components of the scattering domain. With these constructions, a sparse learning network as the semi-supervised classification backbone network can work on reducing intraclass variability. Our framework obtained superior performance to current competing methods; without excluding any fragmentary or severely deformed samples, the rank-1 recognition rate (RR1) achieved was 99.84% on the Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) v2.0 dataset and 99.90% on the Bosphorus dataset.

8.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(31): 11371-11380, 2022 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36387799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Correlation between Triglyceride (TG) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) remains largely unknown in overweight and non-overweight patients. AIM: To investigated the dynamic changes of eGFR and lipid profiles during 3-year tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and overweight. METHODS: A total of 202 CHB patients who received TDF treatment at the Third People's Hospital of Changzhou (Changzhou, China) and Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital (Nanjing, China) between January 2016 and May 2018 were retrospectively enrolled. According to the body mass index (BMI) at the initiation of TDF treatment, CHB patients were divided into overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and non-overweight (BMI < 25 kg/m2) groups. Logistic regression was applied for the analysis of risk factors for eGFR < 90 mL/(min·1.73 m2). RESULTS: There is no significant difference in hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV DNA) negativity and hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) loss between patients with overweight and non-overweight (both P > 0.05). More patients in non-overweight group achieved alanine aminotransferase normalization compared with those in overweight group (χ 2 = 11.036, P < 0.01). In non-overweight patients, the eGFR significantly declined in the 1st year (P < 0.01), then remained at a relatively lower level. TG significantly declined in the 2nd year (P = 0.02) and increased in the 3rd year. Moreover, TG was negatively correlated with GFR at the four-time points (P = 0.002, 0.030, 0.007, 0.008, respectively). In overweight patients, eGFR and TG remained relatively stable during the 3-year treatment, and eGFR showed no significant relationship with TG. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that age [P < 0.01, 95%CI (0.97-1.005)] and baseline eGFR [P < 0.01, 95%CI (5.056-33.668)] were independent risk factors for eGFR < 90 mL/(min·1.73 m2) at the 3rd year. CONCLUSION: Dynamic changes in renal function were conversely related to TG during TDF treatment in patients with CHB and normal BMI, but not with overweight.

9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 637: 161-169, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403479

RESUMO

The influence of son of sevenless homolog 1 (SOS1) on invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells was investigated. HCC cells were transfected with siRNA and lentivirus to achieve SOS1 knock down/overexpression and changes in RNA and protein levels analyzed by q-PCR and Western blotting (WB). Transwell assay was utilized to assess variations in cell invasion and migration in vitro and by a lung metastasis model of liver cancer in vivo. High expression of SOS1 was observed in most human liver cancers, which indicated a worse prognosis. SOS1 knockout in HepG2 cells significantly decreased cell invasion and migration. SOS1 knockout also reduced the number of metastatic foci in a lung metastasis model of HCC established in nude mice. SOS1 knockout inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HepG2 cells as well as the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Overexpression of SOS1 in Huh7 cells had the opposite effect. To conclude, SOS1 may induce the EMT by the activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, thereby enhancing invasion, migration and metastasis of HCC cells. These findings may expose SOS1 as a new HCC therapeutic target.

10.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418508

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the changes of four major inflammasomes in adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) and preliminarily evaluate the therapeutic effect of carboxyamidotriazole (CAI), which has previously been reported to have the significant anti-inflammatory activity. METHOD: The mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammasome components in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AOSD patients and healthy controls (HC) were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Poly(dA:dT)-induced AIM2 inflammasome and flagellin-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation models were established in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). The levels of cytokines in serum and culture supernatants were measured by ELISA method. RESULTS: The serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α in AOSD patients were significantly higher than those in HC. However, the mRNA expressions of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-18, and TNF-α in PBMCs did not differ markedly in AOSD patients in comparison with HC. Significantly increased mRNA levels of AIM2, NLRC4, ASC, and caspase-1 were observed in patients with AOSD when compared with HC, while NLRP1 and NLRP3 showed no change in AOSD samples. In addition, CAI treatment could significantly reduce the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α secreted by AOSD PBMCs and inhibit AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes activation in BMDMs. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in AOSD might be associated with NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes activation. CAI is likely to have the therapeutic potential for AOSD by inhibiting NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes activation and reducing the proinflammatory cytokines and worthy of further investigation. These results provide new ideas for elucidating the pathogenesis of AOSD and providing specific targeted therapy. Key points • Significantly higher mRNA levels of AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammsome signaling were observed in AOSD patients compared with health controls, indicating that AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammsome activation might be related to the increased proinflammatory cytokines in AOSD. • CAI treatment markedly reduced the secretion levels of cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α in AOSD PBMCs and inhibited AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasome activation.

12.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 8183-8190, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405372

RESUMO

Introduction: Processed betel quid product chewing is a public health problem in areca non-plant areas in China. However, there is no valid instrument to screen for betel quid use disorder (BQUD) in mainland China. We developed a self-administered screening test for betel quid use disorders (SST-BQUD) and tested its reliability and validity in a sample of betel quid chewers (BQCers) in Hunan, China. Methods: Items of SST-BQUD were selected from the test results of an item pool, which includes 52 questions related to the psycho-social and behavioral presentations of BQUD. All participants, in a self-administered manner, completed the item pool. A subsample completed the re-test one week later. Two psychiatrists interviewed all participants to ascertain the presence of BQUD. The receiver Operating Characteristic curve was used to determine the best cut-off value to discriminate BQUD. Results: One hundred and twelve BQCers were recruited. Based on the statistical analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, 14 yes/no questions were selected for SST-BQUD. As indicated by Cronbach's α coefficient, the internal consistency was 0.876. The area under the curve of SST-BQUD was 0.881, representing a satisfactory diagnostic value. The one-week re-test reliability test was 0.771 (P<0.001), suggesting good stability over time. The optimal cut-off score for BQUD screening was six, with a sensitivity of 0.921 and a specificity of 0.716, implying the satisfactory accuracy of SST-BQUD to screen for BQUD. Conclusion: The standard version of SST-BQUD consists of 14 items. The total score of SST-BQUD was the sum of affirmative answers, with higher scores denoting a more severe BQUD symptom. If one answered six or more times "yes" to these 14 questions, they can be classified with BQUD. The SST-BQUD is a valid screening method for BQUD among BQCers in betel quid processed area.

13.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1013419, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408161

RESUMO

Background: Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare benign non-Langerhans cell histiocytic proliferative disease. RDD with central nervous system (CNS) involvement (CNS-RDD) is extremely rare. Its etiology is unclear, and there are no consensus recommendations for its treatment. More studies are needed to elucidate the clinical and radiological manifestations and prognosis of CNS-RDD. Methods: From January 2012 to June 2022, 12 patients with CNS-RDD (intracranial or spinal) were retrospectively evaluated, including collecting clinical data, imaging data, and pathological findings; summarizing imaging characteristics; and conducting follow-up studies on CND-RDD patient treatment and prognosis. Results: Twelve CNS-RDD patients (nine male and three female patients, aged 12-67 years) were enrolled in this study. Nine patients represented convex and/or skull base RDD (eight with edema, six with lobulation and/or pseudopodium sign, four with multiple intracranial lesions), two patients had parenchymal RDD, and one patient had spinal cord subdural lesions. Symptoms of patients would vary according to the locations of the lesion, including but not limited to headaches, dizziness, seizures, cranial nerve dysfunction, and visual impairment. The immunohistochemistry of RDD showed positive expression of S100 and CD68 but not CD1a. Total resection (n = 7), subtotal resection (n = 3), partial resection (n = 1), and stereotaxic biopsy (n = 1) were achieved, respectively. A combination of chemotherapy plus steroid therapy was performed on two patients (relapsing case and residual lesion) and showed a remarkable effect. Conclusion: CNS-RDD, as a rare disease, presents a significant diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Solitary CNS-RDD are easily misdiagnosed as meningioma. However, when the MRI imaging of the disease represents dura-based masses with significant edema, homogeneous enhancement, lobulation, and/or pseudopodium sign, we should consider it might be the CNS-RDD. Surgery is an important and effective therapy for CNS-RDD. Steroids and chemotherapy are safe and effective for the postoperative treatment of relapsing cases or residual lesions.

15.
Org Lett ; 2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403156

RESUMO

A chiral Lewis base catalyzed enantioselective N-allylic alkylation of 2-hydroxypyridines and MBH carbonates is documented, affording a convenient access to N-alkylated 2-pyridones with up to 99% ee and 99% yield. Experimental and computational studies have revealed that the strong hydrogen bond interaction between the chiral Lewis base catalyst and 2-hydroxypyridines plays a crucial role in this reaction for the reactivity, chemoselectivity, and enantioselectivity.

16.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 1042842, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36386347

RESUMO

Objective: To search for significant biomarkers associated with sudden death (SD). Methods: Differential genes were screened by comparing the whole blood samples from 15 cases of accidental death (AD) and 88 cases of SD. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network selects core genes that interact most frequently. Machine learning is applied to find characteristic genes related to SD. The CIBERSORT method was used to explore the immune-microenvironment changes. Results: A total of 10 core genes (MYL1, TNNC2, TNNT3, TCAP, TNNC1, TPM2, MYL2, TNNI1, ACTA1, CKM) were obtained and they were mainly related to myocarditis, hypertrophic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Characteristic genes of MYL2 and TNNT3 associated with SD were established by machine learning. There was no significant change in the immune-microenvironment before and after SD. Conclusion: Detecting characteristic genes is helpful to identify patients at high risk of SD and speculate the cause of death.

17.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(11)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36365102

RESUMO

The cell membrane, as the protecting frontier of cells, is closely related to crucial biological behaviors including cell growth, death, and division. Lots of fluorescent probes have been fabricated to monitor cell membranes due to their simplicity and intuitiveness. However, the efficiency of those traditional probes has been limited by their susceptibility to photobleaching and poor water solubility. In this study, we have reported Ru(II)-coumarin complexes consisting of ruthenium, 1,10-phenanthroline, and coumarin 6 to further form self-assembled nanoprobes, for cell membrane targeting and imaging. The fluorescent property could be switchable from red to green through the dynamic disassembly of nanoprobes. Compared with commercial Dil, biocompatible nanoprobes exhibited superior stability for long-term cell imaging, along with remarkedly reduced background interference. Therefore, our self-assembled nanoprobe provides a powerful solution for investigating lipid trafficking with optical imaging.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429560

RESUMO

As a policy that is widely used worldwide, Vision Zero is a long-term strategic goal for road safety in China. The aim of this paper is to examine the literature in the field of Vision Zero retrieved by the Web of Science (WOS) Core Collection database from 1997 to 2021 based on mapping knowledge domain (MKD) and bibliometric methods. In this paper, we analyzed the overall development level of Vision Zero at different stages using the statistical analysis of the distribution of literature years. Based on the analysis, four major research directions of Vision Zero are obtained through keywords co-occurrence analysis, including "Vision Zero in road safety", "vulnerable road users' risks", "effect of speed on severity", and "responsibility management for crashes". Furthermore, we explore the influence and development potential of each country and region of Vision Zero based on the number and citation frequency of the literature, and the distribution of time dimensions. Among the research topics, all countries and regions are clustered into four clusters, and the current status of Vision Zero for countries in the most influential clusters, which include Sweden, the United States, Australia, China, and Norway, have been presented. Finally, an analysis of road safety in China is carried out, which includes displaying the changes in the number of road accidents, fatalities, and serious injuries in China between 2009 and 2018, comparing the fatalities per 10,000 vehicles and the fatalities per 100,000 people between China and other countries, and describing China's strategic routes toward Vision Zero.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Políticas , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Segurança , China , Bibliometria
19.
J Integr Neurosci ; 21(6): 164, 2022 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia that strongly correlates to the patients' difficulties in independent living and occupational functioning. Synaptic dysfunction may result in cognitive and behavioral changes similar to what have been identified in schizophrenia. Shi-Zhen-An-Shen Decoction (SZASD) is the empirical formula of traditional Chinese medicine adopted in treating psychiatric symptoms, especially the cognitive impairment in schizophrenia patients, with proven efficacy in the long term of clinical practice in Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University. However, the mechanisms of SZASD on the cognitive improvement in schizophrenia is still unclear. Here, we aim to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the impact of SZASD on the cognitive impairment in MK801-induced schizophrenia-like rats. METHODS: Six rat groups (n = 12 per group) were subjected to different treatments for 14 days. All the six groups were injected intraperitoneally with a given volume of 0.9% saline and MK801 (0.2 mg/kg) for consecutive 14 days for modelling. And the rats in the SZASD-treated groups and the clozapine-treated group were given SZASD (low, middle, and high doses) or clozapine, respectively, by intragastric administration. Then, we performed behavioral tests after the treatments, and the rats were sacrificed on the 19th day for biological analysis. RESULTS: Behavioral tests indicated that SZASD mitigated the aberrant motor activity and improved schizophrenia-like rats' spatial reference memory and sensory gating ability. Furthermore, SZASD significantly increased the expressions of PSD95, BDNF, and synapsin I in the hippocampus of MK801-induced schizophrenia-like rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that SZASD may ameliorate cognitive impairment by restoring the levels of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Clozapina , Disfunção Cognitiva , Esquizofrenia , Ratos , Animais , Maleato de Dizocilpina/efeitos adversos , Esquizofrenia/induzido quimicamente , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico
20.
PeerJ ; 10: e14271, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36340191

RESUMO

C. korshinskii is one of the most widely-planted sand-fixing legumes in northwest China and exploring its rhizosphere microbiome is of great ecological importance. However, the effect of long-term sand fixation on the composition, diversity, and underlying functions of microbes in the C. korshinskii rhizosphere in dryland ecosystems remain unclear. Here, we performed high-throughput sequencing using a 16S rRNA (absolute quantification) and bacterial functional annotation of prokaryotic taxa (FAPROTAX) analysis and an ITS (relative quantification) and fungal functional guild (FUNGuild) analysis to investigate the C. korshinskii rhizosphere microbiome and metabolic functional groups at different sand-fixing ages (six years, CK6; twelve years, CK12; and eighteen years, CK18) and determined the physicochemical properties of the rhizosphere soil. Results showed that the key bacterial taxa of the rhizosphere were significantly more abundant in CK18 than in CK12 and CK6 at the phylum-class-genus level, and that fungal Glomeromycota was also significantly more abundant in the CK18 rhizosphere compared to CK12 and CK6. Among these bacterial taxa, the enrichment effect of key, functional, genus-level species of bacteria was the most obvious, including Rhizobium, Ensifer, Neorhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, and Flavobacterium, which are N-fixing and/or phosphate-solubilizing groups. The significant improvement seen in the physicochemical properties of the CK18 rhizosphere soil, including the higher total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), higher N:P ratio, and lower C:N ratio, all demonstrated the relationship between the rhizosphere microbes and soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. A redundancy analysis (RDA) of different taxonomic levels indicated a close positive relationship between rhizosphere microbes and AN. In addition, the functional groups of the C. korshinskii rhizosphere bacteria were closely related to soil AN and were mainly composed of chemoheterotrophy and aerobic chemoheterotrophy. A Spearman correlation analysis revealed that these functional groups were mainly identified from bacterial Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and fungal Glomeromycota. Our study provides evidence that the rhizosphere microbes of C. korshinskii are closely related to the accumulation of N in the restoration of desert ecosystems, and that the ecological functional processes they are involved in mainly involve C and N cycles, which play an important role in desertification reversal.

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