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1.
Internet Interv ; 35: 100720, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328277

RESUMO

Background: Loneliness is a widespread phenomenon associated with a number of negative health outcomes. Older individuals may constitute one important target group with a need for effective interventions. However, despite evidence showing that addressing maladaptive social cognition (e.g., via cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT]) is the most effective intervention strategy for reducing loneliness, most existing programs aimed at older individuals do not use that method. Further, in terms of mental health service use, older individuals have been found to be an extremely undertreated population. When developing interventions, active involvement of end users in the development process is essential to increase later uptake. Objective: The aim of the present study was to develop an internet-based CBT intervention for loneliness in older individuals (i.e., aged ≥65 years) applying a user-centered design. The present report provides an in-depth description of the development process. Methods: Two phases of qualitative data collection were conducted in parallel with intervention development using a sample of N = 12 participants including both potential end users (i.e., older adults) as well as experts (i.e., psychotherapists). Measures included semi-structured interviews and usability testing. Results: In Phase 1 interviews, participants indicated that they were predominantly positive about the idea of an internet-based program for loneliness targeting older individuals. Individualization and interactivity were named as crucial features. In Phase 2, usability testing of a prototype program provided important insights into technical barriers to intervention use. Further, participants reported that they were missing content on philosophy/theology and the role of descendants/relatives. Valuable insights from Phase 1 and Phase 2 were incorporated into the intervention program resulting in a 7-module internet-based self-help CBT intervention. Discussion: Findings of this study highlight the significance of including relevant stakeholders in the development process of an intervention. Additionally, results emphasize the high acceptance of internet-based interventions in this population, but also underline the need for considering age-specific aspects when developing treatments.

3.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 32(1): e1937, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Small area analysis is a health services research technique that facilitates geographical comparison of services supply and utilization rates between health service areas (HSAs). HSAs are functionally relevant regions around medical facilities within which most residents undergo treatment. We aimed to identify HSAs for psychiatric outpatient care (HSA-PSY) in Switzerland. METHODS: We used HSAr, a new and automated methodological approach, and comprehensive psychiatric service use data from insurances to identify HSA-PSY based on travel patterns between patients' residences and service sites. Resulting HSA-PSY were compared geographically, demographically and regarding the use of inpatient and outpatient psychiatric services. RESULTS: We identified 68 HSA-PSY, which were reviewed and validated by local mental health services experts. The population-based rate of inpatient and outpatient service utilization varied considerably between HSA-PSY. Utilization of inpatient and outpatient services tended to be positively associated across HSA-PSY. CONCLUSIONS: Wide variation of service use between HSA-PSY can hardly be fully explained by underlying differences in the prevalence or incidence of disorders. Whether other factors such as the amount of services supply did add to the high variation should be addressed in further studies, for which our functional mapping on a small-scale regional level provides a good analytical framework.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Área Programática de Saúde , Suíça/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
4.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(11-12): 7089-7114, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541186

RESUMO

Child maltreatment has been linked to insecure adult attachment. However, it is not yet clear how different child maltreatment types are associated with attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adulthood; and whether resilience against these insecure attachment styles is dependent on risk-specific resources. Therefore, this study explored differential pathways from child maltreatment types to attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adulthood and examined whether psychological resources (self-esteem) and social resources (perceived social support) show risk-specific effects. An online survey retrospectively assessed experiences of child maltreatment, the level of attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adulthood, self-esteem, and perceived social support in N = 604 former members of fundamentalist Christian faith communities (mean age = 41.27 years, SD = 12.50; 65.90% female). Cross-sectional data was analyzed using Bayesian network analysis. Only emotional child maltreatment showed direct relationships to insecure adult attachment. Specifically, emotional abuse and emotional neglect were associated with anxious and avoidant adult attachment, respectively. The effects of other child abuse types on adult attachment were mediated through emotional abuse, which indicated patterns of complex traumatization. Self-esteem mediated the effect of emotional abuse on anxious attachment, while perceived social support mediated the effect of emotional neglect on avoidant attachment. Social support was also linked to self-esteem and was therefore also important for individuals with experiences of emotional abuse. This study showed that child maltreatment types and their interactions are meaningfully linked to attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adulthood. Interventions for survivors of child maltreatment should focus on risk-specific resources to support their resilience.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Emoções , Criança , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Teorema de Bayes , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia
5.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1293187, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317685

RESUMO

Introduction: Digital interventions are increasingly regarded as a potential solution for the inaccessibility of mental health treatment across low-and-middle-income settings, especially for common mental disorders. Step-by-Step (SbS) is a digital, guided self-help intervention for depression found effective in two Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) in Lebanon. For research implementation and further scale-up, this paper reports the results of a qualitative evaluation of SbS among the Lebanese and others and displaced Syrians in Lebanon. Methods: Thirty-four Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were executed with participants of the RCTs, SbS staff members, and external stakeholders. Questions garnered feedback about the feasibility, acceptability, enabling factors, and barriers to adhering to the research, implementation, and the SbS intervention. A thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo, and key themes, topics, and recommendations, on research methods and the intervention itself, were generated and reported. Results: Results showed a high level of acceptability of SbS among Lebanese and Syrians and identified sub-groups for whom acceptance or use might be lower, such as older adults and people with limited access to the internet or smartphones. Furthermore, interviews identified the main enabling factors and barriers to adherence related to the research design, content, and delivery approach. Barriers related to feasibility included lengthy assessments as part of the RCTs, and mistrust related to delays in study compensations. Other common challenges were forgetting login credentials, poor internet connection, being busy and competing needs. Enabling factors and best practices included motivating participants to use the intervention through the weekly support provided by helpers, setting an oral contract for commitment, and dividing the compensations into several installments as part of the RCTs. Recommendations regarding sustainability were given. Discussion: The findings show that overall, SbS is feasible, acceptable, and much needed in Lebanon among the Lebanese and Syrians. This assessment identifies reasons for low adherence to the research and the intervention and presents improvement solutions. Recommendations generated in this paper inform the upscale of SbS and the planning, design, and implementation of future digital interventions in research and service provision settings in the mental health field.


Assuntos
Depressão , 60713 , Saúde Mental , População do Oriente Médio , Refugiados , Idoso , Humanos , Depressão/terapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Líbano , Síria , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados/psicologia
7.
PLoS Med ; 19(6): e1004025, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35737665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most displaced people with mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries do not receive effective care, and their access to care has deteriorated during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Digital mental health interventions are scalable when digital access is adequate, and they can be safely delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined whether a new WHO-guided digital mental health intervention, Step-by-Step, in which participants were supported by a nonspecialist helper, was effective in reducing depression among displaced people in Lebanon. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a single-blind, 2-arm pragmatic randomized clinical trial, comparing guided Step-by-Step with enhanced care as usual (ECAU) among displaced Syrians suffering from depression and impaired functioning in Lebanon. Primary outcomes were depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) and impaired functioning (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule-12, WHODAS) at posttreatment. Secondary outcomes included subjective well-being, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and self-described problems. A total of 569 displaced people from Syria with depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) and impaired functioning (WHODAS > 16) were randomized to Step-by-Step (N = 283; lost to follow-up: N = 167) or ECAU (N = 286; lost to follow-up: 133). Participants were considered to be lost to follow-up when they did not fill in the outcome measures at posttest or follow-up. Recruitment started on December 9, 2019 and was completed on July 9, 2020. The last follow-up assessments were collected in December 2020. The study team had access to the online platform, where they could see treatment arm assignment for each participant. All questionnaires were completed by participants online. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses showed intervention effects on depression (standardized mean differences [SMDs]: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.26; 0.70; p < 0.001), impaired functioning (SMD: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.14; 0.56; p < 0.001), post-traumatic stress (SMD: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.16; 0.56; p < 0.001), anxiety (SMD: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24; 0.68; p < 0.001), subjective well-being (SMD: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.26; 0.68; p < 0.001), and self-identified personal problems (SMD: 0.49; 95% CI 0.28; 0.70; p < 0.001). Significant effects on all outcomes were maintained at 3 months follow-up. During the trial, one serious adverse event occurred, unrelated to the intervention. The main limitation of the current trial is the high dropout rate. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that a guided, digital intervention was effective in reducing depression in displaced people in Lebanon. The guided WHO Step-by-Step intervention we examined should be made available to communities of displaced people that have digital access. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03720769.


Assuntos
Depressão , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Refugiados , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Refugiados/psicologia , Método Simples-Cego , Síria/etnologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 16(1): 30, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with mental illnesses are at an increased risk of experiencing human rights violations, stigma and discrimination. Even though mental health stigma and discrimination are universal, there appears to be a higher burden in low- and middle-income countries. Anti-stigma interventions need to be grounded in local evidence. The aim of this paper was to synthesize evidence on mental health stigma and discrimination in Ethiopia to inform the development of anti-stigma interventions. METHODS: This evidence synthesis was conducted as a part of formative work for the International Study of Discrimination and Stigma Outcomes (INDIGO) Partnership research program. Electronic searches were conducted using PubMed for scientific articles, and Google Search and Google Scholar were used for grey literature. Records fulfilling eligibility criteria were selected for the evidence synthesis. The findings were synthesized using a framework designed to capture features of mental health stigma to inform cultural adaptation of anti-stigma interventions. RESULTS: A total of 37 records (2 grey literature and 35 scientific articles) were included in the evidence synthesis. Some of these records were described more than once depending on themes of the synthesis. The records were synthesized under the themes of explanatory models of stigma (3 records on labels and 4 records on symptoms and causes), perceived and experienced forms of stigma (7 records on public stigma, 6 records on structural stigma, 2 records on courtesy stigma and 4 records on self-stigma), impact of stigma on help-seeking (6 records) and interventions to reduce stigma (12 records). Only two intervention studies assessed stigma reduction- one study showed reduced discrimination due to improved access to effective mental health care, whereas the other study did not find evidence on reduction of discrimination following a community-based rehabilitation intervention in combination with facility-based care. CONCLUSION: There is widespread stigma and discrimination in Ethiopia which has contributed to under-utilization of available mental health services in the country. This should be addressed with contextually designed and effective stigma reduction interventions that engage stakeholders (service users, service providers, community representatives and service developers and policy makers) so that the United Nations universal health coverage goal for mental health can be achieved in Ethiopia.

9.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 16(1): 23, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health-related stigma is a global public health concern and a major barrier to seeking care. In this study, we explored the role of stigma as a barrier to scaling up mental health services in primary health care (PHC) centres in Lebanon. We focused on the experiences of Healthcare Providers (HCPs) providing services to patients with mental health conditions (MHCs), the views of policy makers, and the perceptions of stigma or discrimination among individuals with MHCs. This study was conducted as part of INDIGO-PRIMARY, a larger multinational stigma reduction programme. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 45) were carried out with policy makers (n = 3), PHC management (n = 4), PHC staff (n = 24), and service users (SUs) (n = 14) between August 2018 and September 2019. These interviews explored mental health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of staff, challenges of providing treatment, and patient outcomes. All interviews were coded using NVivo and a thematic coding framework. RESULTS: The results of this study are presented under three themes: (1) stigma at PHC level, (2) stigma outside PHC centres, and (3) structural stigma. SUs did not testify to discrimination from HCPs but did describe stigmatising behaviour from their families. Interestingly, at the PHC level, stigma reporting differed among staff according to a power gradient. Nurses and social workers did not explicitly report incidents of stigma but described patients with MHCs as uncooperative, underscoring their internalized negative views on mental health. General practitioners and directors were more outspoken than nurses regarding the challenges faced with mental health patients. Mental health professionals revealed that HCPs still hold implicitly negative views towards patients with MHCs however their attitude has improved recently. Our analysis highlights five layers of stigma affecting SUs. CONCLUSION: This qualitative study reveals that stigma was still a key concern that affects patients with MHC. SUs reported experiencing overt stigmatising behaviour in the community but less explicit discrimination in a PHC setting. Our findings emphasise the importance of (1) combatting structural stigma through legal reform, (2) addressing interpersonal stigma, (3) committing PHC management to deliver high quality mental health integrated services, and (4) reducing intrapersonal stigma by building public empathy.

10.
Stress Health ; 38(5): 1058-1069, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500282

RESUMO

There is a lack of empirical research on the heterogeneity in well-being of individuals who disaffiliated (i.e., left or were expelled) from an exclusionary and demanding faith community. Thus, little quantitative knowledge exists on factors related to resilience in these individuals. Therefore, the study aims were twofold: (1) to identify profiles of well-being in ex-members; and (2) to examine the characteristics of the identified profiles. A cross-sectional online survey assessed ex-members of various fundamentalist Christian faith communities. Latent profile analysis identified latent heterogeneity within the sample. Well-being profile indicators included perceived stress, psychopathological symptoms, affect, and satisfaction with life. Profile-related characteristics included socio-demographics (i.e., gender, age), membership (i.e., reason for joining, duration, extent of involvement, reasons for exit, social support during exit, and time since the exit), and resilience-supporting resources (i.e., social support, self-esteem, sense of coherence, personality, socio-economic status). In the final sample (N = 622, Mage = 41.34 years; 65.60% female), four distinct profiles were identified: resilient (25.70%), normative (36.40%), vulnerable (27.20%), and adverse (10.70%). The resilient profile was characterised by higher age, lower reporting of abuse or maltreatment as exit reason, and highest levels of resilience-supporting resources. Ex-members of fundamentalist Christian faith communities differ substantially in their well-being. Membership aspects were only weakly related to current well-being, with the exception of the exit reason of abuse or maltreatment. This study provided novel quantitative insights into the well-being profiles of individuals who disaffiliated from a fundamentalist Christian faith community in German-speaking countries.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Apoio Social , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Classe Social
11.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 25(e1): e34-e40, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people with mental disorders in communities exposed to adversity in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) do not receive effective care. Digital mental health interventions are scalable when digital access is adequate, and can be safely delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a new WHO-guided digital mental health intervention, Step-by-Step, supported by a non-specialist helper in Lebanon, in the context of concurring economic, humanitarian and political crises, a large industrial disaster and the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind, two-arm pragmatic randomised trial, comparing guided Step-by-Step with enhanced care as usual (ECAU) among people suffering from depression and impaired functioning. Primary outcomes were depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9)) and impaired functioning (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule-12 (WHODAS)) at post-treatment. FINDINGS: 680 people with depression (PHQ-9>10) and impaired functioning (WHODAS>16) were randomised to Step-by-Step or ECAU. Intention-to-treat analyses showed effects on depression (standardised mean differences, SMD: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.97), impaired functioning (SMD: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.65), post-traumatic stress (SMD: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.79), anxiety (SMD: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.49 to 0.99), subjective well-being (SMD: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.62) and self-identified personal problems (SMD: 0.56; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.83). Significant effects on all outcomes were retained at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Guided digital mental health interventions can be effective in the treatment of depression in communities exposed to adversities in LMICs, although some uncertainty remains because of high attrition. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Guided digital mental health interventions should be considered for implementation in LMICs. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03720769.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão , Humanos , Depressão/terapia , Líbano , Pandemias , Método Simples-Cego
12.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 93: 102143, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313215

RESUMO

Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) was introduced as a new diagnostic category in ICD-11. It encompasses PTSD symptoms along with disturbances in self-organisation (DSO), i.e., affect dysregulation, negative self-concept, and disturbances in relationships. Quantitative research supports the validity of CPTSD across different cultural groups. At the same time, evidence reveals cultural variation in the phenomenology of PTSD, which most likely translates into cultural variation with regard to DSO. This theoretical review aims to set the ground for future research on such cultural aspects in the DSO. It provides a theoretical introduction to cultural clinical psychology, followed by a summary of evidence on cultural research related to PTSD and DSO. This evidence suggests that the way how DSO symptoms manifest, and the underlying etiological processes, are closely intertwined with cultural notions of the self, emotions, and interpersonal relationships and interpersonal relationships. We propose directions for future research and implications for culturally sensitive clinical practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Emoções , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Personalidade , Autoimagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
13.
Internet Interv ; 27: 100498, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35141136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a high proportion of older adults suffer from common mental disorder symptoms and psychosocial problems, only a small number of older individuals seek psychological treatment. Internet-based interventions have the potential to bridge this treatment gap. However, while there is extensive literature on internet-based treatments in younger to middle-aged adults, research on older individuals is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to summarize narratively and empirically the existing literature on the efficacy of internet-based interventions for the treatment of common mental disorder symptoms and psychosocial problems (loneliness, stress) in older individuals. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42021235129). Systematic literature searches were conducted in PsycInfo, Ageline, Medline, CINHAL, and Psyndex. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they a) focused on older adults, b) assessed the efficacy of an internet-delivered psychological intervention, c) included a control condition and d) assessed common mental disorder symptoms or psychosocial problems as outcomes. Meta-analyses were conducted based on studies that included a passive, minimally active or placebo control condition to estimate pooled effects on overall symptom severity as well as on specific psychological outcomes. RESULTS: 11 Studies met inclusion criteria, with the majority of interventions focusing on depression or anxiety symptoms and being based on CBT principles. Significant large effect of internet-based interventions for older adults were found for overall symptom severity (depression, anxiety, PTSD, stress) as well as for depression symptom severity. No significant effects were found for anxiety symptom severity. DISCUSSION: Our findings provide preliminary support that internet-based interventions might be a feasible and effective intervention method for the treatment of common mental disorder symptoms and stress in older adults. However, research in this area is still at an early stage. More studies are needed to shed light on the role of various treatment and patient characteristics in the efficacy of internet-delivered treatments.

14.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 31: e11, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35086602

RESUMO

AIMS: Stigma related to mental disorders is a barrier to quality mental healthcare. This scoping review aimed to synthesise literature on stigma related to mental disorders in Nepal to understand stigma processes. The anthropological concept of 'what matters most' to understand culture and stigma was used to frame the literature on explanatory models, manifestations, consequences, structural facilitators and mitigators, and interventions. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review with screening guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). A structured search was done using three international databases (PsycINFO, Medline and Web of Science), one Nepali database (NepJol) and cross-referencing for publications from 1 January 2000 through 24 June 2020. The search was repeated to include structural stigma-related terms. Quality of quantitative studies was assessed using the Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR) tool. The review was registered through the Open Science Framework (OSF) (osf.io/u8jhn). RESULTS: The searches yielded 57 studies over a 20-year period: 19 quantitative, 19 qualitative, nine mixed methods, five review articles, two ethnographies and three other types of studies. The review identified nine stigma measures used in Nepal, one stigma intervention, and no studies focused on adolescent and child mental health stigma. The findings suggest that 'what matters most' in Nepali culture for service users, caregivers, community members and health workers include prestige, productivity, privacy, acceptance, marriage and resources. Cultural values related to 'what matters most' are reflected in structural barriers and facilitators including lack of policies, programme planning and resources. Most studies using quantitative tools to assess stigma did not describe cultural adaptation or validation processes, and 15 out of the 18 quantitative studies were 'low-quality' on the SAQOR quality rating. The review revealed clear gaps in implementation and evaluation of stigma interventions in Nepal with only one intervention reported, and most stigma measures not culturally adapted for use. CONCLUSION: As stigma processes are complex and interlinked in their influence on 'what matters most' and structural barriers and facilitators, more studies are required to understand this complexity and establish effective interventions targeting multiple domains. We suggest that stigma researchers should clarify conceptual models to inform study design and interpretations. There is a need to develop procedures for the systematic cultural adaptation of stigma assessment tools. Research should be conducted to understand the forms and drivers of structural stigma and to expand intervention research to evaluate strategies for stigma reduction.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Nepal , Estigma Social
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258729, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma among healthcare providers is a barrier to the effective delivery of mental health services in primary care. Few studies have been conducted in primary care settings comparing the attitudes of healthcare providers and experiences of people with mental illness who are service users in those facilities. Such research is necessary across diverse global settings to characterize stigma and inform effective stigma reduction. METHODS: Qualitative research was conducted on mental illness stigma in primary care settings in one low-income country (Nepal), two lower-middle income countries (India, Tunisia), one upper-middle-income country (Lebanon), and three high-income countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy). Qualitative interviews were conducted with 248 participants: 64 primary care providers, 11 primary care facility managers, 111 people with mental illness, and 60 family members of people with mental illness. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. RESULTS: Primary care providers endorsed some willingness to help persons with mental illness but reported not having appropriate training and supervision to deliver mental healthcare. They expressed that people with mental illness are aggressive and unpredictable. Some reported that mental illness is incurable, and mental healthcare is burdensome and leads to burnout. They preferred mental healthcare to be delivered by specialists. Service users did not report high levels of discrimination from primary care providers; however, they had limited expectations of support from primary care providers. Service users reported internalized stigma and discrimination from family and community members. Providers and service users reported unreliable psychiatric medication supply and lack of facilities for confidential consultations. Limitations of the study include conducting qualitative interviews in clinical settings and reliance on clinician-researchers in some sites to conduct interviews, which potentially biases respondents to present attitudes and experiences about primary care services in a positive manner. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care providers' willingness to interact with people with mental illness and receive more training presents an opportunity to address stigmatizing beliefs and stereotypes. This study also raises important methodological questions about the most appropriate strategies to accurately understand attitudes and experiences of people with mental illness. Recommendations are provided for future qualitative research about stigma, such as qualitative interviewing by non-clinical personnel, involving non-clinical staff for recruitment of participants, conducting interviews in non-clinical settings, and partnering with people with mental illness to facilitate qualitative data collection and analysis.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Itália , Líbano , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tunísia
16.
Internet Interv ; 24: 100380, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-mental health interventions may help to bridge the mental health treatment gap. Evidence on their effectiveness is compelling in high-income countries. Not enough evidence has been generated on their use with communities affected by adversity in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO), the National Mental Health Programme (NMMP) at Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) in Lebanon and other partners have adapted a WHO intervention called Step-by-Step for use with Lebanese and displaced people living in Lebanon. Step-by-Step is a minimally guided, internet-based intervention for adults with depression. In this study, a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) and a qualitative process evaluation were conducted to explore the feasibility and the acceptability of the research methods, and the intervention, in preparation for two fully powered trials to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Step-by-Step in Lebanon. METHOD: Participants were recruited through social media. Inclusion criteria were: being able to understand and speak Arabic or English; access to an internet connected device; aged over 18; living in Lebanon; scores above cut-off on the Patient Health Questionnaire and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or enhanced care as usual. They completed post-assessments eight weeks after baseline, and follow-up assessments another three months later. Primary outcomes were depression and level of functioning, secondary outcomes were anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and well-being. Qualitative interviews were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the research procedures and the intervention. RESULTS: A total of N = 138 participants, including 33 Syrians, were recruited and randomised into two equal groups. The dropout rate was higher in the control group (73% post- and 82% follow-up assessment) than in the intervention group (63% post- and 72% follow-up assessment). The intervention was perceived as relevant, acceptable and beneficial to those who completed it. Suggestions were made to further adapt the content and to make the intervention more engaging. Statistical analyses were conducted despite the small sample size. Complete cases analysis showed a statistically significant symptom reduction in depression, anxiety, disability, and post-traumatic stress, and statistically significant improvement in well-being and functioning. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed non-significant effects. CONCLUSION: The research design, methods and procedures are feasible and acceptable in the context of Lebanon and can be applied in the RCTs. Preliminary findings suggest that Step-by-Step may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and improving functioning and well-being.

17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e21585, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of availability of evidence-based services for people exposed to adversity globally has led to the development of psychological interventions with features that will likely make them more scalable. The evidence for the efficacy of e-mental health from high-income countries is compelling, and the use of these interventions could be a way to increase the coverage of evidence-based psychological interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Step-by-Step is a brief (5-session) intervention proposed by the World Health Organization as an innovative approach to reducing the suffering and disability associated with depression. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a locally adapted version of Step-by-Step with Syrian nationals (trial 1) and Lebanese nationals and other populations residing in Lebanon (trial 2). METHODS: This Step-by-Step trial involves 2 parallel, two-armed, randomized controlled trials comparing the e-intervention Step-by-Step to enhanced care as usual in participants with depressive symptoms and impaired functioning. The randomized controlled trials are designed and powered to detect effectiveness in 2 populations: Syrians in Lebanon (n=568) and other people residing in Lebanon (n=568; Lebanese nationals and other populations resident in Lebanon). The primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and functioning (measured with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0). Secondary outcomes include anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, personalized measures of psychosocial problems, subjective well-being, and economic effectiveness. Participants are mainly recruited through online advertising. Additional outreach methods will be used if required, for example through dissemination of information through partner agencies and organizations. They can access the intervention on a computer, tablet, and mobile phone through a hybrid app. Step-by-Step has 5 sessions, and users are guided by trained nonspecialist "e-helpers" providing phone-based or message-based support for around 15 minutes a week. RESULTS: The trials were funded in 2018. The study protocol was last verified June 20, 2019 (WHO ERC.0002797) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03720769). The trials started recruitment as of December 9, 2019, and all data collection was completed in December 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The Step-by-Step trials will provide evidence about the effectiveness of an e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. If the intervention proves to be effective, this will inform future scale-up of this and similar interventions in Lebanon and in other settings across the world. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03720769; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03720769. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21585.

18.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 55: 102466, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma is a barrier for help-seeking, mental health service access, and contributes to the mental health treatment gap. Because the mental health treatment gap is greatest in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective strategies to reduce stigma in these settings. To date, there has been a lack of synthesis of findings from interventions to reduce stigma related to mental disorders within India. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted to provide an overview of the characteristics and effectiveness of stigma reduction interventions studies in India. PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched for literature published up to 30th June 2020. RESULTS: From a total of 1,984 articles identified, only 9 were eligible for final inclusion, published between 1990-2020. No study was found from North, North-East, Central or East India. Most stigma-reduction interventions were multi-level, that is, using a combination of intra-personal, inter-personal and community level strategies to target changes in outcomes of individuals, environments and community groups. Three studies focused on health and stigma-related changes at the organisational/institutional level. No interventions focused on the governmental/structural level. There were only two randomised controlled trials, and two studies focused on all three stigma components of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Most interventions were delivered to community members. None focused on mental health professionals as intervention delivery target. CONCLUSION: There is a need for the development of comprehensive, culturally acceptable evidence-based interventions that act at multiple levels, and involve a mixture of various stigma reducing strategies with multiple target groups.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Índia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Estigma Social
19.
Clin Psychol Eur ; 3(Spec Issue): e5513, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405674

RESUMO

Background: Refugees and asylum seekers in Europe are affected by high prevalence of common mental disorders. Under the call 'mental health of refugee populations', the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (FMER) funded a series of research projects to test evidence-based psychological interventions among refugee populations in Germany. In addition, the "Task force for cultural adaptation of mental health interventions for refugees" was established to develop a structured procedure for harmonising and documenting cultural adaptations across the FMER-funded research projects. Method: A template for documenting cultural adaptations in a standardised manner was developed and completed by researchers in their respective projects. Documentation contained original data from formative research, as well as references and other sources that had been used during the adaptation process. All submitted templates and additional materials were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Research projects under the FMER call include minors, adults, and families from different origins with common mental disorders. Two studies used and adapted existing manuals for the treatment of PTSD. Four studies adapted existing transdiagnostic manuals, three of which had already been developed with a culture-sensitive focus. Four other studies developed new intervention manuals using evidence-based treatment components. The levels of cultural adaptation varied across studies, ranging from surface adaptations of existing manuals to the development of new, culture-sensitive interventions for refugees. Conclusions: Cultural adaptation is often an iterative process of piloting, feedback, and further adaptation. Having a documentation system in place from start helps structuring this process and increases transparency.

20.
Clin Psychol Eur ; 3(Spec Issue): e4623, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405676

RESUMO

Background: This study aims to provide a transparent and replicable documentation approach for the cultural adaptation of a cognitive-behavioural transdiagnostic intervention (Common Elements Treatment Approach, CETA) for Arabic-speaking refugees with common mental disorders in Germany. Method: A mixed-methods approach was used, including literature review, interviews, expert decisions and questionnaires, in order to adapt the original CETA as well as an internet-based guided version (eCETA). The process of cultural adaptation was based on a conceptual framework and was facilitated by an adaptation monitoring form as well as guidelines which facilitate the reporting of cultural adaptation in psychological trials (RECAPT). Results: Consistent with this form and the guidelines, the decision-making process of adaptation proved to be coherent and stringent. All specific CETA treatment components seem to be suitable for the treatment of Arabic-speaking refugees in Germany. Adaptations were made to three different elements: 1) Cultural concepts of distress: a culturally appropriate explanatory model of symptoms was added; socially accepted terms for expressing symptoms (for eCETA only) and assessing suicidal ideation were adapted; 2) Treatment components: no adaptations for theoretically/empirically based components of the intervention, two adaptations for elements used by the therapist to engage the patient or implement the intervention (nonspecific elements), seven adaptations for skills implemented during sessions (therapeutic techniques; two for eCETA only) and 3) Treatment delivery: 21 surface adaptations (10 for eCETA only), two eCETA-only adaptations regarding the format. Conclusion: The conceptual framework and the RECAPT guidelines simplify, standardise and clarify the cultural adaptation process.

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