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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258729, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma among healthcare providers is a barrier to the effective delivery of mental health services in primary care. Few studies have been conducted in primary care settings comparing the attitudes of healthcare providers and experiences of people with mental illness who are service users in those facilities. Such research is necessary across diverse global settings to characterize stigma and inform effective stigma reduction. METHODS: Qualitative research was conducted on mental illness stigma in primary care settings in one low-income country (Nepal), two lower-middle income countries (India, Tunisia), one upper-middle-income country (Lebanon), and three high-income countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy). Qualitative interviews were conducted with 248 participants: 64 primary care providers, 11 primary care facility managers, 111 people with mental illness, and 60 family members of people with mental illness. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. RESULTS: Primary care providers endorsed some willingness to help persons with mental illness but reported not having appropriate training and supervision to deliver mental healthcare. They expressed that people with mental illness are aggressive and unpredictable. Some reported that mental illness is incurable, and mental healthcare is burdensome and leads to burnout. They preferred mental healthcare to be delivered by specialists. Service users did not report high levels of discrimination from primary care providers; however, they had limited expectations of support from primary care providers. Service users reported internalized stigma and discrimination from family and community members. Providers and service users reported unreliable psychiatric medication supply and lack of facilities for confidential consultations. Limitations of the study include conducting qualitative interviews in clinical settings and reliance on clinician-researchers in some sites to conduct interviews, which potentially biases respondents to present attitudes and experiences about primary care services in a positive manner. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care providers' willingness to interact with people with mental illness and receive more training presents an opportunity to address stigmatizing beliefs and stereotypes. This study also raises important methodological questions about the most appropriate strategies to accurately understand attitudes and experiences of people with mental illness. Recommendations are provided for future qualitative research about stigma, such as qualitative interviewing by non-clinical personnel, involving non-clinical staff for recruitment of participants, conducting interviews in non-clinical settings, and partnering with people with mental illness to facilitate qualitative data collection and analysis.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Índia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Itália , Líbano , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tunísia
2.
Internet Interv ; 24: 100380, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747798

RESUMO

Background: E-mental health interventions may help to bridge the mental health treatment gap. Evidence on their effectiveness is compelling in high-income countries. Not enough evidence has been generated on their use with communities affected by adversity in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO), the National Mental Health Programme (NMMP) at Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) in Lebanon and other partners have adapted a WHO intervention called Step-by-Step for use with Lebanese and displaced people living in Lebanon. Step-by-Step is a minimally guided, internet-based intervention for adults with depression. In this study, a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) and a qualitative process evaluation were conducted to explore the feasibility and the acceptability of the research methods, and the intervention, in preparation for two fully powered trials to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Step-by-Step in Lebanon. Method: Participants were recruited through social media. Inclusion criteria were: being able to understand and speak Arabic or English; access to an internet connected device; aged over 18; living in Lebanon; scores above cut-off on the Patient Health Questionnaire and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or enhanced care as usual. They completed post-assessments eight weeks after baseline, and follow-up assessments another three months later. Primary outcomes were depression and level of functioning, secondary outcomes were anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and well-being. Qualitative interviews were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the research procedures and the intervention. Results: A total of N = 138 participants, including 33 Syrians, were recruited and randomised into two equal groups. The dropout rate was higher in the control group (73% post- and 82% follow-up assessment) than in the intervention group (63% post- and 72% follow-up assessment). The intervention was perceived as relevant, acceptable and beneficial to those who completed it. Suggestions were made to further adapt the content and to make the intervention more engaging. Statistical analyses were conducted despite the small sample size. Complete cases analysis showed a statistically significant symptom reduction in depression, anxiety, disability, and post-traumatic stress, and statistically significant improvement in well-being and functioning. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed non-significant effects. Conclusion: The research design, methods and procedures are feasible and acceptable in the context of Lebanon and can be applied in the RCTs. Preliminary findings suggest that Step-by-Step may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and improving functioning and well-being.

3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e21585, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of availability of evidence-based services for people exposed to adversity globally has led to the development of psychological interventions with features that will likely make them more scalable. The evidence for the efficacy of e-mental health from high-income countries is compelling, and the use of these interventions could be a way to increase the coverage of evidence-based psychological interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Step-by-Step is a brief (5-session) intervention proposed by the World Health Organization as an innovative approach to reducing the suffering and disability associated with depression. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a locally adapted version of Step-by-Step with Syrian nationals (trial 1) and Lebanese nationals and other populations residing in Lebanon (trial 2). METHODS: This Step-by-Step trial involves 2 parallel, two-armed, randomized controlled trials comparing the e-intervention Step-by-Step to enhanced care as usual in participants with depressive symptoms and impaired functioning. The randomized controlled trials are designed and powered to detect effectiveness in 2 populations: Syrians in Lebanon (n=568) and other people residing in Lebanon (n=568; Lebanese nationals and other populations resident in Lebanon). The primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and functioning (measured with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0). Secondary outcomes include anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, personalized measures of psychosocial problems, subjective well-being, and economic effectiveness. Participants are mainly recruited through online advertising. Additional outreach methods will be used if required, for example through dissemination of information through partner agencies and organizations. They can access the intervention on a computer, tablet, and mobile phone through a hybrid app. Step-by-Step has 5 sessions, and users are guided by trained nonspecialist "e-helpers" providing phone-based or message-based support for around 15 minutes a week. RESULTS: The trials were funded in 2018. The study protocol was last verified June 20, 2019 (WHO ERC.0002797) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03720769). The trials started recruitment as of December 9, 2019, and all data collection was completed in December 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The Step-by-Step trials will provide evidence about the effectiveness of an e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. If the intervention proves to be effective, this will inform future scale-up of this and similar interventions in Lebanon and in other settings across the world. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03720769; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03720769. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21585.

4.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 55: 102466, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stigma is a barrier for help-seeking, mental health service access, and contributes to the mental health treatment gap. Because the mental health treatment gap is greatest in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective strategies to reduce stigma in these settings. To date, there has been a lack of synthesis of findings from interventions to reduce stigma related to mental disorders within India. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted to provide an overview of the characteristics and effectiveness of stigma reduction interventions studies in India. PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched for literature published up to 30th June 2020. RESULTS: From a total of 1,984 articles identified, only 9 were eligible for final inclusion, published between 1990-2020. No study was found from North, North-East, Central or East India. Most stigma-reduction interventions were multi-level, that is, using a combination of intra-personal, inter-personal and community level strategies to target changes in outcomes of individuals, environments and community groups. Three studies focused on health and stigma-related changes at the organisational/institutional level. No interventions focused on the governmental/structural level. There were only two randomised controlled trials, and two studies focused on all three stigma components of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Most interventions were delivered to community members. None focused on mental health professionals as intervention delivery target. CONCLUSION: There is a need for the development of comprehensive, culturally acceptable evidence-based interventions that act at multiple levels, and involve a mixture of various stigma reducing strategies with multiple target groups.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Índia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Estigma Social
5.
Internet Interv ; 21: 100339, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983906

RESUMO

Background: Internet- and mobile-based mental health interventions have the potential to narrow the treatment gap in ethnic groups. Little evidence exists on the cultural adaptation of such interventions. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions distinguishes between surface and deep structure adaptation. Surface refers to matching materials (e.g., illustrations, language) or methods of treatment delivery to the target population, whereas deep structure adaptation considers cultural concepts of distress (CCD). So far, CCD have only been considered to a limited extent in cultural adaptation of psychological interventions, and there is a lack of well documented adaptation procedures. Aims: With a cross-disciplinary and mixed-method approach, following a new conceptual framework for cultural adaptation of scalable psychological interventions, this study aimed to develop both surface and deep structure adaptations of an internet- and mobile-based intervention called Hap-pas-Hapi for the treatment of psychological distress among Albanian migrants in Switzerland and Germany. Methods: A qualitative ethnopsychological study was conducted to examine the target group's CCD. Focus group discussions, an online survey, and individual key informant interviews were utilised to evaluate the original intervention, adaptation drafts and the final adapted intervention. A reporting system was developed to support the decision-making process and to report all adaptations in a transparent and replicable way. Results: The ongoing involvement of target population key informants provided valuable feedback for the development of a more person-centred intervention, which might enhance treatment acceptance, motivation and adherence. Discussion: This study provides empirical and theory-based considerations and suggestions for future implementation that may foster acceptability and effectiveness of culturally adapted evidence-based interventions.

6.
J Trauma Stress ; 33(5): 643-653, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310307

RESUMO

The concept of psychological trauma implies that people experiencing traumatic stress are wounded, thus relating to the metaphor of a physical injury. Although this notion is widely accepted by clinicians and researchers in mental health, there is evidence of a broad range of metaphorical idioms for extremely aversive experiences or catastrophic events across different cultures. In this ethnopsychological study, we aimed to investigate and contrast culturally shared metaphors for trauma among four distinct cultural groups: two indigenous communities (Pitaguary from Brazil, Adivasis from India) and two rural communities (mountain villagers of Gondo, Switzerland; the Lemko ethnic minority in Poland). The communities in Brazil and in Poland were marked by historical trauma, and the communities in India and Switzerland each suffered from a natural disaster. Semistructured interviews that focused on metaphors shared within each community were conducted with key informants and laypersons (Brazil: N = 14, India: N = 28, Poland, N = 13, Switzerland: N = 9). We conducted separate metaphor analyses, then cross-culturally contrasted the findings from the four samples. Across the four cultural groups, we found similar metaphorical concepts of trauma related to bodily processes, such as shock, burden, and wound.


Assuntos
Trauma Histórico/psicologia , Metáfora , Desastres Naturais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cult Med Psychiatry ; 44(1): 1-34, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209652

RESUMO

Cultural variability regarding concepts of distress for common mental disorders (CMD) has been reported extensively in cultural clinical psychology across the globe. However, little is known about illness narratives in social communities from Southeast Europe. The purpose of this paper is to identify cultural concepts of distress (CCDs) among Albanian-speaking immigrants in Switzerland and to integrate the findings into literature from other parts of the world. Twenty semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted using the Barts Explanatory Model Inventory (BEMI). A set of concepts was described through content analysis and semantic network analysis. The results show complex expressions of distress, which are mainly associated with post-migration living difficulties. Social problems and life-changing events mark the onset of the most common symptoms. Self-management and social support were described as the most important coping behaviors. Participants expressed trust in physical health care but little belief in psychotherapy. There is indication that mental illnesses are stigmatized in this population. It is therefore important to use non-stigmatizing terms in health communication. Moreover, individuals from this community consider suffering to be part of life, and they assume that this suffering must be endured with patience. It is vital to address these beliefs in psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Albânia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Suíça/etnologia
8.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 57(2): 332-345, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795874

RESUMO

The expressions resilience and posttraumatic growth represent metaphorical concepts that are typically found in Euro-American contexts. Metaphors of severe adversity or trauma and the expressions of overcoming it vary across cultures-a lacuna, which has not been given much attention in the literature so far. This study aimed to explore the metaphorical concepts that the Indigenous Pitaguary community in Brazil uses to talk about adaptive and positive responses to severe adversity and to relate them to their socio-cultural context. We carried out 14 semi-structured interviews during field research over a one-month period of fieldwork. The data were explored with systematic metaphor analysis. The core metaphors included images of battle, unity, spirituality, journeys, balance, time, sight, transformation, and development. These metaphors were related to context-specific cultural narratives that underlie the Pitaguary ontological perspective on collectivity, nature, and cosmology. The results suggest that metaphors and cultural narratives can reveal important aspects of a culture's collective mindset. To have a contextualized understanding of expressive nuances is an essential asset to adapt interventions to specific cultures and promote culture-specific healing and recovery processes.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/psicologia , Metáfora , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Brasil/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Magia/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Narração , População Rural , Suíça , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(3): 449-470, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924415

RESUMO

Cross-national epidemiological studies show that prevalence rates of common mental disorders (i.e. depression, anxiety disorders, and PTSD) vary considerably between countries, suggesting cultural differences. In order to gather evidence on how culture relates to the aetiology and phenomenology of mental disorders, finding meaningful empirical instruments for capturing the latent (i.e. non-visible) construct of 'culture' is vital. In this review, we suggest using value orientations for this purpose. We focus on Schwartz's value theory, which includes two levels of values: cultural and personal. We identified nine studies on personal values and four studies on cultural values and their relationship with common mental disorders. This relationship was assessed among very heterogeneous cultural groups; however, no consistent correlational pattern occurred. The most compelling evidence suggests that the relationship between personal values and mental disorders is moderated by the cultural context. Hence, assessing mere correlations between personal value orientations and self-reported symptoms of psychopathology, without taking into account the cultural context, does not yield meaningful results. This theoretical review reveals important research gaps: Most studies aimed to explain how values relate to the aetiology of mental disorders, whereas the question of phenomenology was largely neglected. Moreover, all included studies used Western instruments for assessing mental disorders, which may not capture culturally-specific phenomena of mental distress. Finding systematic relationships between values and mental disorders may contribute to making more informed hypotheses about how psychopathology is expressed under different cultural circumstances, and how to culturally adapt psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Prevalência
10.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 986, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116815

RESUMO

Background: E-mental health is an established mode of delivering treatment for common mental disorders in many high income countries. However, evidence of its effectiveness in lower income countries is lacking. This mixed methods study presents lessons learned and preliminary data on the feasibility of a minimally guided e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. The aim was to pilot test Step-by-Step, a WHO guided e-mental health intervention, and research methods prior to future, controlled testing. Methods: Participants were recruited using social media and advertisements in primary care clinics. Participants completed baseline and post-intervention questionnaires on depression symptoms (primary outcome, PHQ-8), anxiety symptoms, well-being, disability and self-perceived problem severity, and a client satisfaction questionnaire. In addition, seven completers, four drop-outs, 11 study staff, and four clinic managers were interviewed with responses thematically analyzed. Website analytics were used to understand participant behavior when using the website. Results: A total of 129 participants signed up via the Step-by-Step website. Seventy-four participants started session 1 after completing pre-test questionnaires and 26 completed both baseline and post-intervention data. Among those who completed post-assessments, depression symptoms improved (PHQ-8 scores (t=5.62, p < 0.001 two-tailed, df = 25). Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed a significant difference between baseline and post-Step-by-Step scores on all secondary outcome measures. Client satisfaction data was positive. Interview responses suggested that the intervention could be made more appropriate for younger, single people, more motivating, and easier to use. Those who utilized the support element of the intervention were happy with their relationship with the non-specialist support person (e-helper), though some participants would have preferred specialist support. E-helpers would have liked more training on complex cases. Website analytics showed that many users dropped out before intervention start, and that some re-entered screening data having been excluded from the study. Conclusion: Step-by-Step skills and techniques, model of service integration, and its non-specialist support element are acceptable. Though the sample was small and non-controlled and drop-out was high, results suggest that it may be effective in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms and increasing well-being. Lessons learned will inform content revision, the development of an app version of Step-by-Step, and the research methodology of upcoming effectiveness studies.

11.
Med Humanit ; 45(4): 335-345, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954853

RESUMO

The metaphorical concepts resilience and post-traumatic growth (PTG) reflect the contemporary Western understanding of overcoming highly challenging life events. However, it is known that across different cultures, a broad range of metaphorical idioms for describing adaptive responses to severe adversity exists. This study aimed to explore and contrast two distinct cultural groups' culturally shared metaphors for overcoming severe adversities. Fieldwork was conducted in two rural communities: an indigenous Brazilian community that has experienced severe collective adversity and a mountain village in Switzerland that has survived a natural disaster. We carried out separate qualitative metaphor analyses of semistructured interview data from each community. There were some similarities in the metaphorical narratives of the two cultural groups, for example, in metaphors of balance, changed perspective, collective cohesion and life as a journey The main variations were found in metaphors of magical thinking, equilibrium and organic transformation used by the Brazilian group and metaphors of work, order and material transformation used by the Swiss group. Results from this study suggest that the Western-devised concepts of resilience and PTG can be further expanded, which is highlighted by the variety of culturally shared metaphors. Metaphorical idioms for overcoming severe adversity may be determined by the type of trauma as well as by the sociocultural and historical context. Our findings indicate potential approaches to the cultural adaptation of psychological interventions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/psicologia , Metáfora , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Brasil/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Magia/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Suíça , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 47(3): 287-302, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insomnia has become a major public health concern. AIMS: The study examined the efficacy of a web-based unguided self-help programme with automated feedback. The programme was based on cognitive behaviour therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). The investigation particularly focused on factors that contribute to the maintenance of insomnia and tested whether treatment effects were stable over a period of 12 months. METHOD: Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned either to web-based CBT-I or to the waiting-list control group. Included measures assessed insomnia severity, sleep-related cognitions, safety behaviours, depression, anxiety and somatization. In the intervention group, a sleep diary was used to assess sleep continuity parameters, sleep quality and daytime performance. RESULTS: Large between- and within-group effect sizes (d = 1.79, d = 1.59) for insomnia severity were found. The treatment group effect remained stable over the period of 12 months. Further, sleep-related cognitions, safety behaviours, depression and somatization significantly decreased in the treatment group compared with the control group. On all sleep diary parameters, medium to large effects were revealed within the treatment group. Anxiety did not decrease significantly from pre- to post-assessment. For all measures except somatization and anxiety significant within-group effects were found at 12-month follow-up assessment indicating long-lasting effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds evidence to the literature on unguided online interventions for insomnia, and indicates that online CBT-I can have substantial long-term effects on relevant sleep-related outcome parameters. Moreover, the results indicate that sleep-related cognitions and safety behaviour can be successfully altered with an unguided CBT-I intervention.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Retroalimentação , Internet , Autocuidado/métodos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade , Automação , Cognição , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono , Resultado do Tratamento , Listas de Espera , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mhealth ; 4: 34, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225240

RESUMO

The World Health Organization is developing a range of interventions, including technology supported interventions, to help address the mental health treatment gap, particularly in low and middle-income countries. One of these, Step-by-Step, is a guided, technology supported, intervention for depression. It provides psychoeducation and training in behavioural activation through an illustrated narrative with additional therapeutic techniques such as stress management (slow breathing), identifying strengths, positive self-talk, increasing social support and relapse prevention. Step-by-Step has been designed so that it can be adapted for use in settings with different cultural contexts and resource availability and to be meaningful in communities affected by adversity. This paper describes the process of developing Step-by-Step and highlights particular design features aimed at increasing feasibility of implementation in a wide variety of settings.

14.
Internet Interv ; 11: 41-46, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135758

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the working alliance between users and an avatar and users' treatment expectations in an unguided Internet intervention for the treatment of insomnia. Methods: The sample included participants from the treatment condition (N = 29) of a randomised controlled trial. The task and goal subscales of the Working Alliance Inventory Short Revised (WAI-SR) were applied in week three. Five items of the Bern Post-Session Report and one question about the extent to which users had missed a human therapist were administered after each session. Treatment expectations were measured with the Credibility Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used as the primary outcome measure. Results: The mean scores for the WAI-SR task and goal subscales were relatively high (M = 3.24, SD = 0.79; M = 3.16, SD = 0.91, respectively). The mean score of the five Bern Post-Session Report items remained stable over time, but some users increasingly indicated that they missed a real therapist over the course of the intervention, with a strong linear effect (t(87) = 3.16, p < 0.01). ISI chance score was predicted by the mean score of the Bern Post-Session Report (b = -0.3.83, t(21.80) = -2.97, p < 0.01), missing a human therapist (b = -0.0.13, t(20.47) = -2.72, p = 0.01) and the CEQ (b = 0.18, t(19.03) = -2.69, p = 0.01), but not by WAI-SR task and goal subscales. Conclusions: Results indicate that users established a working alliance with the avatar. The affective bond remained stable over time, but towards the end of the intervention some users indicated that they missed having a human therapist. Affective bond and missing a real therapist predicted symptom change.

15.
Violence Against Women ; 24(14): 1639-1657, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332517

RESUMO

This study examined Bolivian women's decisions to stay with or leave their violent partners. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used as the theoretical framework. One hundred thirty-four women were assessed 3 times over 6 months. The TPB constructs were measured at T1 and T2; relationship status was assessed at T3. At T2, attitudes about staying and leaving predicted the intention to leave. Intention to leave at T2 but not at T1 predicted relationship status at T3. These results suggest that the decision to leave was consolidated between T1 and T2, and attitudes toward staying were most relevant to this decision.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bolívia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos/organização & administração
16.
Int J Psychol ; 53(5): 339-348, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27709607

RESUMO

This study examined the circular structure of values in China. The circular structure is a central element of Schwartz value theory and visualises the idea that some values are similar while others conflict with one another. Whereas numerous studies addressed the question whether the circular structure of values can be generalised cross-culturally, results for China are inconclusive. In this paper, we argue that taking a closer look at China provides a challenge to the circular structure and allows for drawing conclusions regarding the limits versus generalizability of Schwartz' theory. For this purpose, we first conduct a re-analysis of Chinese data from a former meta-analysis (Study 1) and second, present results from a large study of 10,652 Chinese college students (Study 2). Results of Study 1 revealed that graphical representation of the circular structure matched theoretical expectations but five out of six samples showed relatively bad fit to the theorised structure. By contrast, data in Study 2 showed a good model fit. As an overall conclusion, the circular structure is well supported in the Chinese context, and small sample sizes in previous studies might have caused the imperfect match to the prototypical circular structure.


Assuntos
Valores Sociais/etnologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Interpers Violence ; 33(8): 1348-1365, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26634629

RESUMO

This study examines the role of cognitive distortion in women's decision to stay with or leave their violent partner in a sample of Bolivian women. Our study is based on a consistency model: Cognitive distortion is assumed to play an important role in maintaining cognitive consistency under threatening conditions. Eighty victims of partner violence aged 18 to 62 years who sought help in a legal institution were longitudinally assessed three times over a time period of 6 months. Measures were taken from previous studies and culturally adapted through qualitative interviews. Nearly half of the participants decreased their intention to leave the violent partner in the time span of 1 month between the first and second interview. Women who had decreased their leaving intention had concurrently increased their cognitive distortion: They blamed their partner less, were more convinced that they could stop the violence themselves, and were more likely to believe that their partner would change. Cognitive distortion was not observed among women who remained stable in their intention to leave. Women whose intention of leaving decreased and who displayed more cognitive distortion after 1 month were more likely to live with the violent partner 6 months later than women whose leaving intention remained stable or increased. Socio-demographic variables were not related to cognitive distortion or stay-leave decisions in this study. We conclude that cognitive distortion plays a role for women's decision to stay, enhancing their risk of re-victimization.


Assuntos
Mulheres Maltratadas/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime , Tomada de Decisões , Parceiros Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão , Bolívia , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 663, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740065

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study is to describe the initial stages of the iterative and user-centered mobile mental health adaptation process of Step-by-Step (SbS), a modularized and originally web-based e-mental health intervention developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Given the great need for improving the responsiveness and accessibility of health systems in host countries, the EU-funded STRENGTHS consortium studies the adaptation, implementation and scaling-up of SbS for Syrian refugees in Germany, Sweden and Egypt. Using early prototyping, usability testing and identification of barriers to implementation, the study demonstrates a user-centered process of contextual adaptation to the needs and expectations of Syrian refugees. Materials and Methods: N = 128 adult Syrian refugees residing in Germany, Sweden and Egypt took part in qualitative assessments. Access, usage, and potential barriers regarding information and communication technologies (ICTs) were assessed in free list interviews. Interactive prototypes of the app were presented in key informant interviews and evaluated on usability, user experience and dissemination strategies. Focus groups were conducted to verify the results. The interview protocols were analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Results: The use of digital technologies was found to be widespread among Syrian refugees. Technical literacy and problems with accessing the internet were common barriers. The majority of the respondents reacted positively to the presented app prototypes, stressing the potential health impact of the intervention (n = 28; 78%), its flexibility and customizability (n = 19; 53%) as well as the easy learnability of the app (n = 12; 33%). Aesthetic components (n = 12; 33%) and the overall length and pace of the intervention sessions (n = 9; 25%) were criticized in regard to their negative impact on user motivation. Acceptability, credibility, and technical requirements were identified as main barriers to implementation. Discussion: The study provided valuable guidance for adapting the app version of SbS and for mobile mental health adaptation in general. The findings underline the value of contextual adaptation with a focus on usability, user experience, and context specific dissemination strategies. Related factors such as access, acceptability and adherence have major implications for scaling-up digital interventions.

19.
Soc Sci Med ; 189: 96-104, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793240

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs, i.e., depression and anxiety) worldwide is substantial, and prevalence rates are higher in high-income than in low- and middle-income countries. This difference might reflect both underlying prevalence rates as well as the measurement model used in cross-national epidemiological studies. Schwartz' cultural values provide a meaningful taxonomy to describe 'culture' and to examine how culture affects both the aetiology and phenomenology of CMDs. OBJECTIVE: The present study examines to what extent Schwartz' cultural values correlate with prevalence rates of CMDs at the country-level. METHOD: Twenty-five countries were included in this study. Countries were included if data on cultural values and lifetime prevalence rates, from either the World Mental Health Surveys or the Global Burden of Disease Study, were available for at least one CMD. Spearman rank correlations were calculated between prevalence rates and cultural values, controlling for gross national income (GNI) per capita. RESULTS: Affective disorders correlated with cultural values, after controlling for GNI. For anxiety disorders, correlations were lower but still offered meaningful insights. Correlations followed the circular structure of values, meaning that the strength of relationship decreased and increased again when moving around the circle: the strongest positive correlations were found with egalitarianism, and the strongest negative correlations with hierarchy and mastery. The autonomy-embeddedness dimension correlated weakly with the prevalence of CMDs. CONCLUSIONS: Diverging prevalence rates between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries are associated with differences in cultural values. Values might not only relate to the aetiology of mental disorders, but most possibly affect the way in which psychological distress is expressed. As an example, in societies with a strong focus on embeddedness, the fear of stigma might be more pronounced. Cultural values offer a middle ground between culturally specific (i.e., emic) and universalist (i.e., etic) research.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Saúde Global/etnologia , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
JMIR Ment Health ; 3(3): e44, 2016 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27670598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cultural adaptation of mental health care interventions is key, particularly when there is little or no therapist interaction. There is little published information on the methods of adaptation of bibliotherapy and e-mental health interventions. OBJECTIVE: To systematically search for evidence of the effectiveness of minimally guided interventions for the treatment of common mental disorders among culturally diverse people with common mental disorders; to analyze the extent and effects of cultural adaptation of minimally guided interventions for the treatment of common mental disorders. METHODS: We searched Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO for randomized controlled trials that tested the efficacy of minimally guided or self-help interventions for depression or anxiety among culturally diverse populations. We calculated pooled standardized mean differences using a random-effects model. In addition, we administered a questionnaire to the authors of primary studies to assess the cultural adaptation methods used in the included primary studies. We entered this information into a meta-regression to investigate effects of the extent of adaptation on intervention efficacy. RESULTS: We included eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of the 4911 potentially eligible records identified by the search: four on e-mental health and four on bibliotherapy. The extent of cultural adaptation varied across the studies, with language translation and use of metaphors being the most frequently applied elements of adaptation. The pooled standardized mean difference for primary outcome measures of depression and anxiety was -0.81 (95% CI -0.10 to -0.62). Higher cultural adaptation scores were significantly associated with greater effect sizes (P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the results of previous systematic reviews on the cultural adaptation of face-to-face interventions: the extent of cultural adaptation has an effect on intervention efficacy. More research is warranted to explore how cultural adaptation may contribute to improve the acceptability and effectiveness of minimally guided psychological interventions for common mental disorders.

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