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1.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 154: 104756, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activities are important to maintain and promote physical functioning and activities of daily living in people with dementia. Nurses are in a key position to deliver physical activity interventions in nursing homes. However, synthesized strategies for sustainable implementation of physical activity interventions in nursing homes for people with dementia are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at synthesizing the evidence on nurse-led physical activity interventions and at identifying facilitators and barriers to sustainable implementation of physical activity interventions for people with dementia. DESIGN: Systematic review. REVIEW METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search combining database searches (MEDLINE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Web of Science Core Collection; last search: September 27, 2023) and supplementary search methods (citation tracking, web searching, clinical guideline database searching). We considered studies on nurse-led physical activity interventions for people with dementia living in nursing homes for eligibility; published as journal articles and related material in English, French, German language, without restrictions on primary study design and publication year. Independently and in duplicate, we assessed the references' eligibility and the quality of the included studies. We used the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool to appraise quality of included studies. We piloted and double-checked data extractions, and summarized the results narratively and graphically (harvest plot). We prospectively registered our review (PROSPERO CRD42021271833). RESULTS: We identified 24 studies (of which eleven were randomized trials) assessing various interventions that we categorized into physical exercise (n = 8), care-integrated physical activity (n = 6), outdoor or walking activity (n = 5), technology-supported physical exercise (n = 3), and dancing (n = 2). Types of outcomes and length of follow-up varied widely. Effects were inconclusive, except for outdoor or walking activities showing an overall positive impact on physical outcomes. For eight interventions, we identified evidence on implementation barriers (b) and facilitators (f), including staff shortage (b), staff time resources (b), or ease of implementation for staff (f) and adaptability of interventions (f) or refusal to participate of people with dementia (b). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our review provide a comprehensive overview on types, characteristics and effects of nurse-led physical activity interventions for people with dementia in nursing homes. Based on evidence from a range of study designs and sources, we came to the conclusion that all stakeholders involved considered physical activity interventions for people with dementia as useful and relevant. Outcome measures varied widely and a clear conclusion on effectiveness remains open.

2.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 631, 2023 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37803286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 55 million people are currently affected by dementia worldwide and over 144 thousand in Switzerland. In Swiss nursing homes, 47.6% of the residents had a medical diagnosis of dementia in 2014. Due to cognitive impairment, they have difficulties remembering hygiene measures or placing them in the epidemic context. This results in a higher infection risk. There are COVID-19-associated recommendations focused on dementia care management but studies simultaneously surveying and correlating perspectives of health professionals as well as people with dementia across care settings are largely lacking. This study is focused on COVID-19-associated perspectives and needs of health professionals and people with dementia across different care settings. Lessons learned from the pandemic shall be pointed out. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods approach based on an exploratory sequential design. Two qualitative interview rounds (n = 15 participants) and a quantitative online survey (n = 148 participants) with people with dementia, caring relatives, Advanced Practice Nurses and nursing home managers (health professionals) were performed. Data collected was performed in nursing home and home-care settings. The SQRQ checklist was used. RESULTS: Fear and uncertainty were highest at the beginning of the pandemic among the interviewed nursing professionals and nursing home managers. As a positive side effect of the pandemic, increased cohesion in care teams was reported. Some people with dementia experienced the decelerated outside world as pleasant and less challenging to master. Particularly during the first wave, nursing home managers rated political decision-making processes as being too slow, partly non-transparent, inconsistent, and sometimes inappropriate for people with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Although the identified emotional and physical consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are mostly negative for health professionals and people with dementia, research should also investigate potential positive side effects. Furthermore, political decisions should be passed on to care institutions as promptly, transparently, and comprehensibly as possible. The results provide guidance on dementia-focused COVID-19 management interventions incorporating lessons learned and considering the emotional impact of the pandemic in Switzerland and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Demência , Humanos , Suíça/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Motivação , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/terapia , Emoções
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 563, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elder abuse in long-term care is an important public health concern with social, health-related, and economic implications. Staff-to-resident abuse is of particular interest since institutions should protect residents' rights and prevent harm. To provide an up-to date comprehensive overview of staff-to-resident abuse in nursing homes, we performed a scoping review considering types of abuse, their prevalence and associated factors, descriptions, experiences, and preventive interventions. METHODS: We performed a scoping review following the framework provided by Arksey and O'Malley. We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO via Ovid, and Cochrane Library. Additionally, we performed free web searching using Google Scholar and checked relevant reviews. Two reviewers independently selected studies. We narratively synthesised the results. RESULTS: Out of 3876 references retrieved by our search, we included 46 studies in 47 reports. The prevalence rates of abuse varied widely, ranging from 0 to 93% depending on the type of abuse. Associated factors of abuse at the staff, resident, and nursing home level were evaluated inconsistently. Abuse was perceived ambiguous: even though it was considered unacceptable, it was underreported. We found only four studies addressing preventive interventions. Of these, four made recommendations for intervention development. Only one study with an experimental design examined a multi-component intervention including education and mutual support. CONCLUSIONS: The review yielded heterogenous evidence not allowing a concrete conclusion on prevalence and associated factors. However, the results show the significance of the problem and indicate that there are associate factors of abuse that can be influenced by appropriate interventions. These are amongst other staff education, organisational culture, and conditions. Further research should investigate the composition and content of preventive interventions and their potential to reduce abusive behaviours.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Cultura Organizacional , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 326, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caring for people with dementia (PwD) is often challenging for caregiving relatives. Respite care (RC) is a commonly used short-term inpatient service. The provision of RC can serve as a link between home care and institutional care and can help to stabilize the care provided at home. During RC, the everyday functional skills of PwD can be improved or stabilized through systematic mobility training. However, no specific mobility programme exists for this setting. The aim of the DESKK study was to develop and test a mobility training programme for PwD in the RC setting in Germany. METHODS: A quasi-experimental pilot study was conducted in a specialized RC centre for PwD. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed using a mixed methods design. RESULTS: The DESKK mobility programme may be introduced in the RC setting depending on the required time and professional resources. The mobility programme had a high acceptance rate among the staff involved. Ongoing documentation of the mobility exercises were challenging. During their stay (2-4 weeks), the physical function level of the included PwD (n = 20) increased regarding leg strength, gross motor coordination, fine coordination of the fingers and hand strength. CONCLUSIONS: The DESKK mobility programme showed a high acceptance rate by the staff and was usable in daily care routine for the most part. These aspects indicate that the programme has the potential to be successfully implemented in the RC setting. The DESKK concept is described in the form of a practice-friendly website to facilitate its use in clinical practice after its successful evaluation.


Assuntos
Demência , Cuidados Intermitentes , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/terapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Alemanha , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
5.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e025932, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203237

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Specific mobility programmes can delay functional decline in people with dementia (PwD). Family caregivers (FCs) can be relieved from care-related burden by counselling services. Respite care is a short-term inpatient care service (1-8 weeks of stay). Respite care centres (RCCs) can function as support structures for dementia care arrangements through caring-based mobility training of PwD and counselling sessions for their FCs. However, no systematic mobility or counselling programmes exist in this setting in Germany or the rest of the world. The aim of the development and testing of a dementia-specific respite care concept (DESKK) study is the development and testing of an evidence-based mobility and counselling programme for PwD and their FCs that is suitable for the respite care setting. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A pilot-based, quasi-experimental evaluation study will be conducted in a specialised RCC for PwD. To evaluate the acceptance and usability of the development and testing of a DESKK concept, qualitative data will be collected from the RCC staff and FCs via semistandardised interviews. Quantitative data will be collected using instruments to assess effect tendencies of the concept related to mobility (PwD) and burden (FCs). Furthermore, a mixed-methods triangulation approach will be conducted. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol, informed consent and accompanying material given to patients were submitted by the investigator to the Ethical Review Committee of the German Society of Nursing Science. The project was examined and finally approved on 31 January 2017 (Number: 16-27). Prior to obtaining written consent for study participation, information must be given to all of the study participants in verbal and written form. The results of the study will be presented at national and international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. After the concept is finalised, a practice-friendly manual will be developed in which implementation components are described for other RCCs. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03578861.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/terapia , Cuidados Intermitentes/métodos , Cuidados Intermitentes/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Aconselhamento , Alemanha , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa
6.
Int Q Community Health Educ ; 37(3-4): 151-160, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29022833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite its high relevance, scientific evidence often fails to be disseminated into practice. Information websites can be a successful information dissemination tool, but very little is known about the processes involved in the interdisciplinary development of such websites. This article aims to demonstrate the processes, barriers, and facilitators during the development and publication of a practice-friendly information website grounded in scientifically based research findings about dementia care networks obtained by the DemNet-D study. METHOD: The qualitative data of this article are based on a work progress protocol and a recorded interview with the project's science journalist. The interview was transcribed, analyzed, and coded based on structured content analysis. Quantitative data were extracted to display the website usage rate. RESULTS: The results indicate that interdisciplinary teamwork is an essential factor for successful website development. Furthermore, the use of a formalized model can help to organize the development structure. To transform scientific content, a specialized expert in the field is needed. Continuous evaluations and marketing strategies are vital for the success of a website. The final website had a high access rate 1 month after launch. CONCLUSION: Crucial processes, barriers, and facilitators during the development of a practice-related information website about dementia care networks are presented and discussed. These findings can help people who aim to disseminate research findings to other practitioner-associated priority groups as well as public health-related groups.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Demência/terapia , Internet , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Entrevistas como Assunto , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 29(6): 991-1004, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28249632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, regional dementia care networks (DCNs) have been established in Germany to provide timely support for persons with dementia (PwDs) and their families. There is a lack of research in this setting. This study was conducted to describe the burden experienced by informal caregivers over the course of one year when utilizing a DCN and the factors affecting potential changes in caregiver burden during that time. METHODS: The study was part of the DemNet-D project, a multi-center observational study of DCNs in Germany. Standardized questionnaires were administered during face-to-face interviews at baseline and at a one-year follow-up with PwDs and their informal caregivers who used a DCN. Based on qualitative data, four DCN governance types were identified and used in a multivariate analysis of burden categories. RESULTS: A total of 389 PwD-informal caregiver dyads completed the follow-up assessment. At follow-up, the dyads reported significantly lower scores for burden in relation to practical care tasks, conflicts of need, and role conflicts. This change was associated with the PwD-caregiver relationship, the caregiver's gender and health status, and the PwD's socio-economic status. The governance structure of the DCNs was associated with change in one of the four burden categories. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the first indications that different governance structures of DCNs seem to be similarly well suited to support network users and might contribute to reducing caregiver burden. However, further studies set in DCNs examining factors that mediate changes in burden are needed to draw strong conclusions regarding the effectiveness of DCNs. Gender differences and the PwD-caregiver relationship should be considered by DCN stakeholders when developing support structures.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/enfermagem , Adaptação Psicológica , Idoso , Demência/economia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Aging Ment Health ; 21(9): 926-937, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper aimed to describe the burden experienced by informal caregivers supporting a person with dementia (PwD) who lives at home and utilizes a dementia care network (DCN), to investigate the factors that are associated with caregiver burden, and to identify possible differences in caregiver burden among different types of DCNs. METHOD: This study was part of a multi-center, interdisciplinary evaluation of DCNs in Germany (DemNet-D). Cross-sectional data were collected in face-to-face interviews with people with dementia (PwDs) and their caregivers, and 13 DCNs were represented. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess caregiver burden, challenging PwD behaviors, functional competence and caregiver health status. Based on qualitative data, four DCN governance types were used in a multivariate analysis of burden categories. RESULTS: There were 560 PwD-caregiver dyads enrolled in the study. Informal caregivers (n = 536) reported a low-to-moderate burden associated with PwD characteristics (instrumental activities of daily living, challenging behaviors) and caregiver characteristics (gender) as well as the relationship between the caregivers and PwDs. Women felt more burdened but also showed higher levels of personal development. No differences were observed among the different DCN governance types. CONCLUSIONS: DCNs might contribute toward moderate to low caregiver burden. Indicators of positive caregiving aspects can be used by DCNs to advance support structures for informal caregivers drawing upon interventions already established for other community settings. Particular interest should be paid to female and spousal caregivers who might be in in need of greater and/or different kinds of support.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Redes Comunitárias/normas , Demência/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 10: 69, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27777614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In general, most people with dementia living in the community are served by family caregivers at home. A similar situation is found in Germany. One primary goal of dementia care networks is to provide information on support services available to these caregiving relatives of people with dementia via knowledge management. The evaluation of knowledge management tools and processes for dementia care networks is relevant to their performance in successfully achieving information goals. One goal of this paper was the analysis of knowledge evaluation in dementia care networks, including potential barriers and facilitators, across Germany within the DemNet-D study. Additionally, the impact of highly formalized and less formalized knowledge management performed in dementia care networks was analyzed relative to family caregivers' feelings of being informed about dementia support services. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected through interviews with and semi-standardized questionnaires administered to key persons from 13 dementia care networks between 2013 and 2014. Quantitative data were collected using standardized questionnaires. A structured content analysis and a mixed-methods analysis were conducted. RESULTS: The analyses indicated that the development of knowledge goals is important for a systematic knowledge evaluation process. Feedback from family caregivers was found to be beneficial for the target-oriented evaluation of dementia care network services. Surveys and special conferences, such as quality circles, were used in certain networks to solicit this feedback. Limited resources can hinder the development of formalized knowledge evaluation processes. More formalized knowledge management processes in dementia care networks can lead to a higher level of knowledge among family caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: The studied tools, processes and potential barriers related to knowledge evaluation contribute to the development and optimization of knowledge evaluation strategies for use in dementia care networks. Furthermore, the mixed-methods results indicate that highly formalized dementia care networks are especially successful in providing information to family members caring for people with dementia via knowledge management.

10.
Tree Physiol ; 35(11): 1176-91, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26423131

RESUMO

Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways at various ecophysiological stages. We used compound-specific stable isotope analysis to investigate C partitioning of freshly assimilated C into tree compartments (needles, branches and stem) as well as into needle water-soluble organic C (WSOC), non-hydrolysable structural organic C (stOC) and individual chemical compound classes (amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following in situ (13)C pulse labelling 15 days after bud break. The (13)C allocation within the above-ground tree biomass demonstrated needles as a major C sink, accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C 6 h after labelling. In needles, the highest allocation occurred not only into the WSOC pool (44.1% of recovered needle (13)C) but also into stOC (33.9%). Needle growth, however, also caused high (13)C allocation into pathways not involved in the formation of structural compounds: (i) pathways in secondary metabolism, (ii) C-1 metabolism and (iii) amino acid synthesis from photorespiration. These pathways could be identified by a high (13)C enrichment of their key amino acids. In addition, (13)C was strongly allocated into the n-alkyl lipid fraction (0.3% of recovered (13)C), whereby (13)C allocation into cellular and cuticular exceeded that of epicuticular fatty acids. (13)C allocation decreased along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways: the allocation was highest for precursor fatty acids, lower for elongated fatty acids and lowest for the decarbonylated n-alkanes. The combination of (13)C pulse labelling with compound-specific (13)C analysis of key metabolites enabled tracing relevant C allocation pathways under field conditions. Besides the primary metabolism synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex network of pathways consumed the assimilated (13)C and kept most of the assimilated C in the growing needles.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Picea/metabolismo , Carbono/química , Isótopos de Carbono , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/metabolismo , Picea/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 15: 205, 2015 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25998147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia networks in Germany constitute a specialised setting for integrated dementia care and have shown benefits on relevant outcomes, including those of drug treatment. National guidelines recommend treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine) or the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate antagonist (memantine) to reduce cognitive symptoms. However, prescription rates are lower than 30 % in general practises. This study aims to describe antidementia drug treatment and the factors that are associated with the treatment in different dementia networks across Germany. METHODS: We have analysed the socio-demographic, clinical and utilisation data from 560 patients with dementia (PWD), as well as data from their caregivers, in 13 selected dementia networks in Germany. The patients and caregivers were interviewed in their homes or in the network facilities. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with the utilisation of antidementia drug treatment in the various networks. RESULTS: In all of the networks in the study, 52 % of the participants received an antidementia drug treatment. Factors associated with the utilisation of the antidementia drug treatment were: formal diagnosis (OR = 16.81, p < 0.001), association with a physician in the network (OR = 3.69, p < 0.001), higher number of comorbidities (OR = 0.88, p = 0.039), living alone (OR = 0.51, p = 0.032) and higher age (OR = 2.97, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Medical treatment of PWD with antidementia drugs in dementia networks in Germany is more frequent than in primary and nursing home care settings. Our findings also suggest that participants with a formal diagnosis and a physician in the network have increased rates of receiving antidementia drug treatments. These findings suggest that dementia networks focusing on medical treatment should support diagnostic procedures and incorporate physician specialists.


Assuntos
Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Nootrópicos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Donepezila , Dopaminérgicos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Galantamina/administração & dosagem , Alemanha , Humanos , Indanos/administração & dosagem , Entrevistas como Assunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Memantina/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Rivastigmina/administração & dosagem
12.
Radiother Oncol ; 109(3): 469-74, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24238982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: For dynamic tracking of moving tumors, robust intra-fraction verification was required, to assure that tumor motion was properly managed during the course of radiotherapy. A dual-modality verification system, consisting of an on-board orthogonal kV and planar MV imaging device, was validated and applied retrospectively to patient data. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Real-time tumor tracking (RTTT) was managed by applying PAN and TILT angular corrections to the therapeutic beam using a gimbaled linac. In this study, orthogonal X-ray imaging and MV EPID fluoroscopy was acquired simultaneously. The tracking beam position was derived from respectively real-time gimbals log files and the detected field outline on EPID. For both imaging modalities, the moving target was localized by detection of an implanted fiducial. The dual-modality tracking verification was validated against a high-precision optical camera in phantom experiments and applied to clinical tracking data from a liver and two lung cancer patients. RESULTS: Both verification modalities showed a high accuracy (<0.3mm) during validation on phantom. Marker detection on EPID was influenced by low image contrast. For the clinical cases, gimbaled tracking showed a 90th percentile error (E90) of 3.45 (liver), 2.44 (lung A) and 3.40 mm (lung B) based on EPID fluoroscopy and good agreement with XR-log file data by an E90 of 3.13, 1.92 and 3.33 mm, respectively, during beam on. CONCLUSION: Dual-modality verification was successfully implemented, offering the possibility of detailed reporting on RTTT performance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Marcadores Fiduciais , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Aceleradores de Partículas , Imagens de Fantasmas
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