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1.
Water Res ; 218: 118517, 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512538

RESUMO

Sidestream partial nitritation and deammonification (pN/A) of high-strength ammonia wastewater is a well-established technology. Its expansion to the mainstream is, however mainly impeded by poor retention of anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB), insufficient repression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and difficult control of soluble chemical oxygen demand and nitrite levels. At the municipal wastewater treatment plant in Strass (Austria) the microbial consortium was exhaustively monitored at full-scale over one and a half year with regular transfer of sidestream DEMON® biomass and further retention and enrichment of granular anammox biomass via hydrocyclone operation. Routine process parameters were surveyed and the response and evolution of the microbiota was followed by molecular tools, ex-situ activity tests and further, AnAOB quantification through particle tracking and heme measurement. After eight months of operation, the first anaerobic, simultaneous depletion of ammonia and nitrite was observed ex-situ, together with a direction to higher nitrite generation (68% of total NOx-N) as compared to nitrate under aerobic conditions. Our dissolved oxygen (DO) scheme allowed for transient anoxic conditions and had a strong influence on nitrite levels and the NOB community, where Nitrobacter eventually dominated Nitrospira. The establishment of a minor but stable AnAOB biomass was accompanied by the rise of Chloroflexi and distinct emergence of Chlorobi, a trend not seen in the sidestream system. Interestingly, the most pronounced switch in the microbial community and noticeable NOB repression occurred during unfavorable conditions, i.e. the cold winter season and high organic load. Further abatement of NOB was achieved through bioaugmentation of aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) from the sidestream-DEMON® tank. Performance of the sidestream pN/A was not impaired by this operational scheme and the average volumetric nitrogen removal rate of the mainstream even doubled in the second half of the monitoring campaign. We conclude that a combination of both, regular sidestream-DEMON® biomass transfer and granular SRT increase via hydrocyclone operation was crucial for AnAOB establishment within the mainstream.


Assuntos
Amônia , Nitritos , Bactérias , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias/análise
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2542, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953174

RESUMO

Lateral heterojunctions of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold promise for applications in nanotechnology, yet their charge transport and most of the spectroscopic properties have not been investigated. Here, we synthesize a monolayer of multiple aligned heterojunctions consisting of quasi-metallic and wide-bandgap GNRs, and report characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, Raman spectroscopy, and charge transport. Comprehensive transport measurements as a function of bias and gate voltages, channel length, and temperature reveal that charge transport is dictated by tunneling through the potential barriers formed by wide-bandgap GNR segments. The current-voltage characteristics are in agreement with calculations of tunneling conductance through asymmetric barriers. We fabricate a GNR heterojunctions based sensor and demonstrate greatly improved sensitivity to adsorbates compared to graphene based sensors. This is achieved via modulation of the GNR heterojunction tunneling barriers by adsorbates.

3.
Water Environ Res ; 92(11): 1983-1989, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358850

RESUMO

Biosorption of organics is investigated at two sites in order to optimize operation and infrastructure for carbon removal and redirection in upstream, high-rate processes. Sufficient process temperature and stable mixed liquor solids concentration were established as the key impact parameters for the process performance. Improved COD removal was achieved by either substantially enhanced aeration (elevated metabolic state) or by enhanced flocculation capability (dosed chemicals). Separation and thickening of organics are typically operated as continuous-flow processes. The optimization of performance parameters led to a new A-stage process named alternating activated adsorption. The AAA process is presented as a novel configuration linking biosorption and thickening capabilities in an alternating scheme without mechanical equipment. The performance data from its first trial indicate benefits from process dynamics including high organics capture rates and thickening capabilities reaching solid concentrations higher than 40 g(TSS)/L. COD removal could be increased further by adding biologically generated polymer, that is waste sludge from B-stage. © 2020 Water Environment Federation PRACTITIONERS POINTS: Enhanced preliminary treatment helps to increase capacity and energy efficiency. Low RAS rates, SRT control, aeration, high temperatures, and metal dosing are key performance parameters for removal rates and energy efficiency. The Triple-A process offers new possibilities for A-stage in terms of performance increase and flexibility showing similar or better results compared with conventional A-stage. Adding B-sludge improved COD and nutrient removal rates. High preliminary removal rates of COD and N foster sidestream processes.


Assuntos
Carbono , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Reatores Biológicos , Floculação , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1340, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165617

RESUMO

We show that Cs intercalated bilayer graphene acts as a substrate for the growth of a strained Cs film hosting quantum well states with high electronic quality. The Cs film grows in an fcc phase with a substantially reduced lattice constant of 4.9 Å corresponding to a compressive strain of 11% compared to bulk Cs. We investigate its electronic structure using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and show the coexistence of massless Dirac and massive Schrödinger charge carriers in two dimensions. Analysis of the electronic self-energy of the massive charge carriers reveals the crystallographic direction in which a two-dimensional Fermi gas is realized. Our work introduces the growth of strained metal quantum wells on intercalated Dirac matter.

5.
ACS Nano ; 14(1): 1055-1069, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825586

RESUMO

A flat energy dispersion of electrons at the Fermi level of a material leads to instabilities in the electronic system and can drive phase transitions. Here we show that the flat band in graphene can be achieved by sandwiching a graphene monolayer by two cesium (Cs) layers. We investigate the flat band by a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiment and the calculations. Our work highlights that charge transfer, zone folding of graphene bands, and the covalent bonding between C and Cs atoms are the origin of the flat energy band formation. Analysis of the Stoner criterion for the flat band suggests the presence of a ferromagnetic instability. The presented approach is an alternative route for obtaining flat band materials to twisting bilayer graphene which yields thermodynamically stable flat band materials in large areas.

6.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10210-10220, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442021

RESUMO

For quasi-freestanding 2H-TaS2 in monolayer thickness grown by in situ molecular beam epitaxy on graphene on Ir(111), we find unambiguous evidence for a charge density wave close to a 3 × 3 periodicity. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we determine the magnitude of the partial charge density wave gap. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, complemented by scanning tunneling spectroscopy for the unoccupied states, makes a tight-binding fit for the band structure of the TaS2 monolayer possible. As hybridization with substrate bands is absent, the fit yields a precise value for the doping of the TaS2 layer. Additional Li doping shifts the charge density wave to a 2 × 2 periodicity. Unexpectedly, the bilayer of TaS2 also displays a disordered 2 × 2 charge density wave. Calculations of the phonon dispersions based on a combination of density-functional theory, density-functional perturbation theory, and many-body perturbation theory enable us to provide phase diagrams for the TaS2 charge density wave as functions of doping, hybridization, and interlayer potentials, and offer insight into how they affect lattice dynamics and stability. Our theoretical considerations are consistent with the experimental work presented and shed light on previous experimental and theoretical investigations of related systems.

7.
Nano Lett ; 18(9): 6045-6056, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157652

RESUMO

We employ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) Raman spectroscopy in tandem with angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) to investigate the doping-dependent Raman spectrum of epitaxial graphene on Ir(111). The evolution of Raman spectra from pristine to heavily Cs doped graphene up to a carrier concentration of 4.4 × 1014 cm-2 is investigated. At this doping, graphene is at the onset of the Lifshitz transition and renormalization effects reduce the electronic bandwidth. The optical transition at the saddle point in the Brillouin zone then becomes experimentally accessible by ultraviolet (UV) light excitation, which achieves resonance Raman conditions in close vicinity to the van Hove singularity in the joint density of states. The position of the Raman G band of fully doped graphene/Ir(111) shifts down by ∼60 cm-1. The G band asymmetry of Cs doped epitaxial graphene assumes an unusual strong Fano asymmetry opposite to that of the G band of doped graphene on insulators. Our calculations can fully explain these observations by substrate dependent quantum interference effects in the scattering pathways for vibrational and electronic Raman scattering.

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