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1.
ACS Energy Lett ; 8(10): 4186-4192, 2023 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37854048

RESUMO

The efficiency of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells has exceeded the previous record for III-V-based dual-junction solar cells. This shows the high potential of perovskite solar cells in multi-junction applications. Perovskite/perovskite/silicon triple-junction solar cells are now the next step to achieve efficient and low-cost multi-junction solar cells with an efficiency potential even higher than that for dual-junction solar cells. Here we present a perovskite/perovskite/silicon triple-junction solar cell with an open circuit voltage of >2.8 V, which is the record value reported for this structure so far. This is achieved through employing a gas quenching method for deposition of the top perovskite layer as well as optimization of interlayers between perovskite subcells. Moreover, for the measurement of our triple-junction solar cells, precise measurement procedures are implemented to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the reported values.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(44): 49777-49785, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089680

RESUMO

Titanium oxide (TiOx) has recently emerged as an electron-selective passivating contact for solar cell and semiconductor device applications. The mechanism behind this function has been attributed to the lower energy barrier for electrons than holes at the TiOx/semiconductor interface. Here we report an antithetic function of TiOx nanolayers (∼5 nm), which were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on either planar or textured crystalline silicon (Si) without a buffer layer, acting as efficient hole-selective contacts with excellent surface passivation. We demonstrate the proof-of-concept solar cells with power conversion efficiencies above 20% with both n- and p-Si absorbers. We show that the elemental composition in the TiOx/Si interfacial layers (TiOxSiy:H and SiOx:H), which can be manipulated by the ALD process and the post-treatments such as exposure to atomic hydrogen and supply of oxygen during annealing, is a key in the efficient hole extraction and surface passivation. This new hole-selective passivating contact opens opportunities for replacing the widely used heterocontacts and dielectric-passivation layers in various device applications.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(49): 45796-45804, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774645

RESUMO

Perovskite silicon tandem solar cells have the potential to overcome the efficiency limit of single-junction solar cells. For both monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem devices, a semi-transparent perovskite top solar cell, including a transparent contact, is required. Usually, this contact consists of a metal oxide buffer layer and a sputtered transparent conductive oxide. In this work, semi-transparent perovskite solar cells in the regular n-i-p structure are presented with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) directly sputtered on the hole conducting material Spiro-OMeTAD. ITO process parameters such as sputter power, temperature, and pressure in the chamber are systematically varied. While a low temperature of 50 °C is crucial for good device performance, a low sputter power has only a slight effect, and an increased chamber pressure has no influence on device performance. For the 5 × 5 mm2 perovskite cell with a planar front side, a 105 nm thick ITO layer with a sheet resistance of 44 Ω sq-1 allowing for the omission of grid fingers and a MgF2 antireflection coating are used to improve transmission into the solar cells. The best device achieved an efficiency of 14.8%, which would result in 24.2% in a four-terminal tandem configuration.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(1): 722-729, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511836

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells have become a game changer in the field of photovoltaics by reaching power conversion efficiencies beyond 23%. To achieve even higher efficiencies, it is necessary to increase the understanding of crystallization, grain formation, and layer ripening. In this study, by a systematic variation of methylammonium iodide (MAI) concentrations, we changed the stoichiometry and thereupon the crystal growth conditions in MAPbI3 perovskite solar cells, prepared by a two-step hybrid evaporation-spin-coating deposition method. Utilizing X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence, and current-voltage ( J- V) characterization, we found that a relatively lower concentration of MAI, or in other words higher content of remnant and unconverted PbI2, correlates with smaller and stronger interconnected grains, as well as with an improved optoelectronic performance of the solar cells and mitigation of hysteresis. The possible explanations are grain and interface passivation by the excess PbI2 and a positive contribution of the grain boundaries to current extraction.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(36): 30567-30574, 2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834429

RESUMO

The most efficient organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) contain the conventional n-i-p mesoscopic device architecture using a semiconducting TiO2 scaffold combined with a compact TiO2 blocking layer for selective electron transport. These devices achieve high power conversion efficiencies (15-22%) but mainly require high-temperature sintering (>450 °C), which is not possible for temperature-sensitive substrates. Thus far, comparably little effort has been spent on alternative low-temperature (<150 °C) routes to realize high-efficiency TiO2-based PSCs; instead, other device architectures have been promoted for low-temperature processing. In this paper the compatibility of the conventional mesoscopic TiO2 device architecture with low-temperature processing is presented for the first time with the combination of electron beam evaporation for the compact TiO2 and UV treatment for the mesoporous TiO2 layer. Vacuum evaporation is introduced as an excellent deposition technique of uniform compact TiO2 layers, adapting smoothly to the rough fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate surface. Effective removal of organic binders by UV light is shown for the mesoporous scaffold. Entirely low-temperature-processed PSCs with TiO2 scaffold reach encouraging stabilized efficiencies of up to 18.2%. This process fulfills all requirements for monolithic tandem devices with high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells as the bottom cell.

6.
Opt Express ; 22 Suppl 1: A111-9, 2014 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24921987

RESUMO

Enhanced absorption of near infrared light in silicon solar cells is important for achieving high conversion efficiencies while reducing the solar cell's thickness. Hexagonal gratings on the rear side of solar cells can achieve such absorption enhancement. Our wave optical simulations show photocurrent density gains of up to 3 mA/cm2 for solar cells with a thickness of 40 µm and a planar front side. Hexagonal sphere gratings have been fabricated and optical measurements confirm the predicted absorption enhancement. The measured absorption enhancement corresponds to a photocurrent density gain of 1.04 mA/cm2 for planar wafers with a thickness of 250 µm and 1.49 mA/cm2 for 100 µm.

7.
Opt Express ; 21(9): 10606-11, 2013 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23669916

RESUMO

The procedure used in our previous publication [Opt. Express 20, 271, (2012)] to calculate how coupling to a spherical gold nanoparticle changes the upconversion luminescence of Er(3+) ions contained several errors. The errors are corrected here.


Assuntos
Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Ouro , Luz , Modelos Químicos , Espalhamento de Radiação
9.
Opt Express ; 20 Suppl 2: A157-67, 2012 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22418664

RESUMO

Luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) are used in photovoltaic applications to concentrate direct and diffuse sunlight without tracking. We employed 2D FDTD simulations to investigate the concept of a photonic LSC (PLSC), where the luminescent material is embedded in a photonic crystal to mitigate the primary losses in LSCs: the escape cone and reabsorption. We obtain suppressed emission inside the photonic band gap, which can be utilized to reduce reabsorption. Furthermore, the efficiency of light guiding is strongly enhanced in a broad spectral range, reaching up to 99.7%. Our optimization of design parameters suggests emitting layers of sub-wavelength thickness.

10.
Opt Express ; 20(1): 271-82, 2012 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22274350

RESUMO

We investigate plasmon resonances in gold nanoparticles to enhance the quantum yield of upconverting materials. For this purpose, we use a rate equation model that describes the upconversion of trivalent erbium based upconverters. Changes of the optical field acting on the upconverter and the changes to the transition probabilities of the upconverter in the proximity of a gold nanoparticle are calculated using Mie theory and exact electrodynamic theory respectively. With this data, the influence on the luminescence of the upconverter is determined using the rate equation model. The results show that upconversion luminescence can be increased in the proximity of a spherical gold nanoparticle due to the change in the optical field and the modification of the transition rates.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Nanopartículas/química , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Luz , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Espalhamento de Radiação
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